Cover Image
īnchide aceast? carteSupplies and Food Aid - Field Handbook (UNHCR, 1989, 296 p.)
Afi?eaz? documentul(introduction...)
Afi?eaz? documentulList of Abbreviations
Deschide acest folder ?i examineaz? con?inutulINTRODUCTION
Deschide acest folder ?i examineaz? con?inutulCHAPTER 1 - IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDS
Deschide acest folder ?i examineaz? con?inutulCHAPTER 2 - PROVISION OF FOOD AID
Deschide acest folder ?i examineaz? con?inutulCHAPTER 3 - PURCHASING AND DONATIONS
Deschide acest folder ?i examineaz? con?inutulCHAPTER 4 - RECEIPT OF SHIPMENTS
Deschide acest folder ?i examineaz? con?inutulCHAPTER 5 - FIELD LOGISTICS OPERATIONS
Deschide acest folder ?i examineaz? con?inutulCHAPTER 6 - VEHICLES
Deschide acest folder ?i examineaz? con?inutulCHAPTER 7 - STORAGE AND WAREHOUSING
Deschide acest folder ?i examineaz? con?inutulCHAPTER 8 - DISTRIBUTION AND END-USE
Deschide acest folder ?i examineaz? con?inutulANNEXES TO THE FIELD HANDBOOK
Afi?eaz? documentulCONVERSION TABLES
Afi?eaz? documentulBIBLIOGRAPHY
Afi?eaz? documentulINDEX


United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Serves as Chapter X of the UNHCR Manual

Geneva, June 1989

List of Abbreviations


Contribution Advice Form




Corn-soya-milk (blended food)


Dried skim milk


European Community


Fund Raising Service - UNHCR




Inter-Agency Procurement Services Unit - UNDP


International Committee of the Red Cross


International Emergency Food Reserve - WFP


Internal Transport, Storage and Handling








Letter of Instruction




Management Information Systems Services - UNHCR


Miscellaneous Obligation Document


Metric Ton


Programme Management Services - UNHCR


Supplies and Food Aid Service - UNHCR


Technical Support Service - UNHCR


United Nations


United Nations Development Programme


United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees


United Nations Children's Fund


UNICEF Procurement and Assembly Centre (Copenhagen)


United States Dollar


World Food Programme


World Health Organization

1. Purpose of the Field Handbook

1.1 The purpose of this Handbook is to help UNHCR officials and implementing partners in the field to manage the supply of food, health and other material assistance for refugees and other persons of concern to the High Commissioner.*

* A refugee is «any person who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear or for reasons of other than personal convenience, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence, is unable or, owing to such fear or for reasons other than personal convenience, is unwilling to return to it.» (Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Chapter II.) Persons of concern to UNHCR are those defined as refugees under the Statute, as well as persons whom UNHCR may be called upon to assist, pursuant to resolutions adopted by the UN General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).

1.2 Donors provide UNHCR with the resources necessary to protect and assist refugees. We must strive to use these resources to achieve the best possible results, to maintain and enhance our credibility with both those we are trying to help and those who are providing the means. Material assistance is an integral and significant component of all UNHCR programmes. Programme supplies and food aid provide immediate relief and promote interim self-reliance while refugees await durable solutions, and alleviate the economic burden on many countries where refugees are located.

1.3 The majority of UNHCR field personnel have limited expertise in purchasing, logistics or commodity management. Many UNHCR staff find themselves in isolated situations where both technical knowledge and local facilities to handle supplies and food aid are lacking. Often, we are called upon to exercise initiatives in finding workable solutions for which we must answer later in the organizational context of our accountability to UNHCR. This Handbook sets out planning, control, monitoring and reporting standards and practices to guide all UNHCR supply operations in the field, and to make local improvements.

2. Organization of the Field Handbook

2.1 The contents of the Handbook are divided into eight chapters, each listed in the Table of Contents and covering a major topic concerning supplies and food aid as it pertains to field operations. The first five chapters systematically develop the provision and management of material assistance from initial identification of need to receipt, control, inland transportation and storage of supplies and food aid in the field. Chapter 6 deals with all aspects of vehicle acquisition, control and maintenance, while Chapter 7 provides specific information concerning warehouse management and storekeeping practices. Chapter 8 gives an overview of distribution requirements for refugee programmes, to control and report on end-use. Each chapter incorporates charts which summarize or augment the information in the text. A listing of the chapter contents precedes each chapter.

2.2 Supplementary information which has been specifically referenced in the text is attached as an Annex. All Annexes to the text are collected at the back of the Handbook for easy reference. The Annexes are listed in the Table of Contents and are immediately preceded by their own detailed listing.

2.3 Suggested forms which field offices may use or adapt locally (as referenced in the text) are presented in their own Forms Annex. Conversion Tables have also been included for the convenience of field personnel, as well as a short Bibliography of other useful and relevant publications. A list of the abbreviations used in the text follows the Table of Contents.

2.4 To permit users to easily refer to specific information in the Handbook, an alphabetical keyword Index may be found in the final section of this publication.

3. Global Application

3.1 The standards and guidelines described in these pages are intended to have worldwide application in UNHCR. They are based on past UNHCR experience, existing management requirements, established international practices and sound technical advice. The knowledge and experience of many UNHCR staff, both at Headquarters and in the field, were used to compile this Handbook. Our implementing partners, contracted agents, consultants, other UN organizations and international humanitarian institutions have also contributed.

3.2 In gathering the information, it was evident that many factors influence the Standards attainable at the local level. The variety of UNHCR's implementing procedures, partners and options affect our ability to impose standards. Circumstances in the host country may also limit our efforts to fulfil our objectives effectively - economic and social development status, political stability, security conditions, or the availability of local facilities and trained field workers.


3.3 Regardless of local arrangements and conditions, however, UNHCR officials in the field are expected to implement procedures which reflect the management requirements outlined here for each stage of the supply process. The fact that material assistance and food aid are turned over to implementing partners does not diminish UNHCR's responsibility to account for their ultimate use. Cooperation and close liaison between UNHCR officials and implementing partners, through regular meetings and visits to storage facilities, distribution centres and refugee sites, will allow UNHCR personnel to monitor conditions, obtain first-hand information and take remedial action.

3.4 Monitoring measures whether programme goals are actually being achieved, and identifies the reasons for any problems. Where we cannot control and report directly, we must ensure the accountability of our implementing partners by making every effort to improve their awareness of the standards, to monitor their work, and to obtain prescribed reports.

3.5 Know your country, the ports, the transportation and storage system, local suppliers and implementing partners - their capabilities and limitations.

4. Relations with the Host Government and Implementing Partners

4.1 Better collaboration in decisionmaking among the parties involved in refugee operations benefits both the field personnel and the refugees. Insofar as the supplies and food aid component is concerned, close cooperation provides a «united front» to maximize programme effectiveness, minimize potential losses and deal with problems such as commodity diversions, misuse of property and outside pressure tactics. Regular contact between officials of the host government, UNHCR, WFP and others involved promotes better planning, and more accurate and timely information for scheduling transport and establishing storage requirements.

4.2 Consider providing a regional forum for exchanging information on purchasing, logistics and supply management. Bring together all the concerned parties, including officials from UNHCR Headquarters, to discuss the overall supply process, related responsibilities, and specific local operational issues. Depending on the agenda, these meetings may also involve forwarding agents, local transport companies, insurance agents, surveyors, port and customs officials, fleet and workshop managers and warehouse managers.

4.3 Share the information in this Field Handbook. UNHCR field personnel are encouraged to provide copies or excerpts, as appropriate, to all those involved in any aspect of the supply process. There is always room for improvement.

5. UNHCR Guide to Supplies and Food Aid

5.1 The Guide to Supplies and Food Aid provides an overview of the supplies and food aid function within UNHCR, detailing organizational considerations and responsibilities, applicable rules and policies, controls and standard practices.

5.2 This Field Handbook has been designed to supplement the information in the Guide, for the particular benefit of UNHCR personnel and our implementing partners in the field. Except where necessary for purposes of continuity, information contained in the Guide is not repeated here. You are advised, therefore, to refer to the Guide to Supplies and Food Aid to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the responsibilities, policies and standards applicable to the supplies and food aid function.

5.3 The Guide to Supplies and Food Aid was first distributed in early 1988 to all organizational units and geographic desks at Headquarters, and all regional and branch offices in the field. For additional copies, please contact the Supplies and Food Aid Service at Headquarters.


1.1.1 The objective of the supplies and food aid function in UNHCR is to meet the food, health and other material needs of refugees and other persons of concern to the High Commissioner. In achieving this objective, the following basic principles and conditions apply:

- Goods and services supplied should be of the requisite type and quality, available within the time required and at the lowest possible cost.

- Simplicity and economy should be exercised in all sourcing and delivery operations, consistent with equitable practices which can withstand the test of public scrutiny.

- All UNHCR personnel concerned with supplies and food aid should support and promote competitive bidding on an international basis. Sources of supply should have a wide geographical distribution, with emphasis on increasing acquisitions from developing countries and under-utilized major donor countries.

1.1.2 The first step in the supply process is to identify, quantify and specify the needs of the refugees for material assistance and food aid. This important responsibility rests with UNHCR Field Programme Officers. Errors or omissions in the needs identification phase can have major repercussions later in the implementation phase of any project. Consider the potential costs and impact on the refugees if:

(a) the goods arrive too soon or too late;
(b) the quantities supplied are too few or too many; or
(c) the materials or their packaging are inappropriate for local conditions or their intended end-use.

1.1.3 UNHCR Field Programme Officers must anticipate programme requirements and how best to meet these needs within the local context, while adhering to UNHCR's policies and practices. The UNHCR Guide to Supplies and Food Aid, available from SFAS, provides a comprehensive overview of UNHCR's programme supply policies, assigned organizational responsibilities, controls and standard practices. UNHCR should avoid providing refugees with better food and living standards than the local population. Assess material assistance requirements at the earliest opportunity when formulating project plans. Then request specific needs with sufficient advance notice to permit timely acquisition, receipt and use.

1.1.4 When establishing detailed requirements, ensure that:

(a) all materials and quantities necessary to achieve the defined objectives of each project have been identified;

(b) item specifications are stated in sufficient detail to ensure that the goods supplied will be suitable for their intended purpose;

(c) packaging and labelling are appropriate for local handling, identification and use;

(d) requested delivery schedules can be realistically achieved, so that goods arrive when and where they are needed; and

(e) accurate costs are established to avoid delays caused when budgets must be amended.

1.1.5 Requests for material assistance and food aid must be fully documented and justified. Clearly stated, accurate, complete and timely communications between the parties involved will expedite the supply process. It is not enough for the originator to understand the message; the true test is whether the recipient will also understand and have sufficient information on which to act.

Chart 1.A: Objective of the Supplies and Food Aid Function

To meet the food, health and other material needs of refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR.


Chart 1.B: Refugee Assistance - Needs Identification

1. What do the refugees need in the form of material assistance and food aid?

· Define needs clearly, in consultation with concerned parties and technically competent experts. Item specifications must provide an exact description of the goods, to eliminate any misunderstandings for the Purchasing Officer or the supplier.

· For clarification, include intended use of the supplies.

2. In what quantities, when and where?

· Request quantities which are sufficient to meet needs, without excess. Too little may adversely affect the beneficiaries or the achievement of project objectives; too much will have to be stored and/or disposed of.

· Consider realistic lead-times when requesting supplies, providing time for sourcing, manufacture and delivery, especially when the needs are technical in nature, large quantities are required, or the destination is remote from the source of supply.

· Determine place of delivery, depending upon the source, shipping mode and local arrangements for storage, release and distribution. Specify the final destination where the UNHCR field office originating the request will take delivery.

· Identify inspection requirements, at source and on delivery, when quality assurance is imperative.

3. What constraints may apply?

· Base lead-time on the nature of the goods requested, the location of the selected source of supply, and the modalities of delivery, in consideration of both international and local or inland transportation.

· Specify packaging which is appropriate for local handling and distribution.

· Prescribe labelling to clearly identify the contents, their intended destination and any special handling requirements (e.g., refrigeration).

· Consider requirements for installation, training, servicing and maintenance, particularly when requesting equipment or construction materials.

4. What are the associated costs?

· Use current unit prices or standard costs to calculate the cost of the goods themselves.

· Budget for the related costs of freight, insurance, inspection and handling, as appropriate.

· Confirm that sufficient funds are available within the timeframe to meet the supply and delivery costs.

5. What sources of supply are available?

· Consider possible supply options that can meet the requirements of type, quantity, quality, timing of delivery and cost - local or international donations, local or regional purchasing by UNHCR or our implementing partners, international purchasing by SFAS at Headquarters.

· Verify that authority has been granted in an appropriate letter of instruction, project agreement or other implementing instrument.


1.2.1 Identify the material assistance needs of the refugees:

(a) annually, as part of the programme planning cycle for ongoing refugee situations; or

(b) as part of the assessment of needs, for situations requiring an emergency or special response.

1.2.2 For sectoral activities, UNHCR Field Programme Officers and implementing partners should jointly assess needs. Also, consult with technically competent experts when appropriate. TSS at Headquarters provides expert advice on technical aspects of project planning and implementation. TSS staff may organize and participate in technical field missions, to undertake feasibility studies, surveys, training or project reviews. Where in-house expertise is not available, TSS can also assist in identifying external consulting specialists when the necessary qualifications and terms of reference are provided to them.

1.2.3 Based on planned projects, priorities and the available allocation of funds, establish a list of supply requirements. Decide on the timing of delivery to meet programme implementation needs and the method of acquisition - in-kind donations, local, regional or international purchasing. Sectoral needs should already be outlined in the relevant implementing agreement; what is needed now is a detailed definition of the specifications and delivery schedules for the supplies.

1.2.4 Implementing partners sometimes identify and quantify material assistance needs for the refugees. UNHCR Field Programme Officers must review, verify and, if necessary, negotiate their requests to ensure that:

(a) the nature of the goods and the quantities requested are justified;

(b) the item specifications clearly define the required goods;

(c) unit costs reflect current prices, with provision in the overall cost for freight, insurance, inspection and handling, as necessary; and

(d) the allocated budget, timing of delivery and proposed source of supply are acceptable.

1.2.5 When more than one organization is providing assistance to a particular refugee group, coordination in planning and implementation is essential to avoid duplication of effort, and to maximize the use of all funds spent. Within a UNHCR field office, coordination can easily be accomplished in consultations between Field Programme Officers and our implementing partners. Do not neglect the input of other organizations and agencies, however, who may be operating independently of UNHCR in dealing with the beneficiaries.

1.2.6 Close liaison and good working relationships will enhance the achievement of overall programme objectives in the most cost-effective manner. National, regional and local meetings should be held regularly to share information, to report progress and to remedy any difficulties being encountered. UNHCR field office personnel and officials from involved government ministries and administrations, UNHCR's implementing partners and other concerned international aid organizations should attend these meetings.

Annual Project Submissions

1.2.7 Details of material assistance needs are included in project submissions for the upcoming planning year, and new or revised submissions for the current year. These plans are prepared in the field, reviewed by a committee at Headquarters, and approved by the High Commissioner during the current year. Prior to presentation to the formal session of the Executive Committee in October, project submissions are updated in September to incorporate any changes in the interim, and expanded to include any Headquarters administrative components.

1.2.8 The project description and budget are reviewed to ensure that they accurately reflect the specific objectives and types of assistance which can be financed within the limits of proposed appropriations to be approved by the Executive Committee. On receipt of Executive Committee approval of overall annual and country programme allocations, PMS finalizes and distributes implementing instruments which are based on the final project submissions.

1.2.9 Each project submission includes a purchasing plan listing the items required for project implementation. This information details the quantity and specifications for each item, the unit cost, the total C&F (cost and freight) cost, the timing of delivery (latest date of receipt for effective implementation) and the final destination (project site). The purchasing plan provides SFAS at Headquarters with information on the types and quantities of goods for which they can expect purchase requests. In addition, expected delivery dates permit an estimate of when the purchasing process should start, taking into consideration realistic lead-times for meeting delivery deadlines.

1.2.10 For each project, funding requirements must be planned on a quarterly basis. Particularly during the first quarter of the year, available funds are limited because only a portion of the donor funding expected for the year is actually on hand in UNHCR. Consider these limitations when specifying purchasing and supply requirements.

Chart 1.C: Identify Material Assistance in Every Project Plan

For each refugee situation and project, specify supply items within the prescribed budget sector and activity during the planning phase. To illustrate:

Example 1:

Charcoal (item) is a cooking fuel (activity) sometimes purchased for the domestic needs/household support sector.

Example 2:

Cement (item) is a construction material (activity) which may be required to build latrines in the sanitation sector.

Emergency Response

1.2.11 When formulating a planned response during the assessment phase of a refugee emergency, identify and quantify the need for supplies and food aid. In defining these requirements, timing and availability may be crucial. Determine the supply potential of the local market and consult with SFAS at Headquarters to establish the sources and most expeditious methods for obtaining and delivering emergency supplies.


1.3.1 When requesting the provision of supplies and food aid, include detailed specifications, as exact as possible, for each item, to allow the Purchasing Officer and the supplier to understand the request clearly. This is no place for second-guessing. The lack of accurate specifications may result in delays if the Purchasing Officer must seek clarification from the Field Programme Officer who initiated the request. If the requirement is not clear, the wrong item may be purchased, time and money will be wasted, and project objectives will be jeopardized.

1.3.2 Standard specifications are available for many refugee supply needs. Whenever possible, specifications and items requested should be «generic» rather than «product-specific», to permit competitive bidding. In certain instances, however, where particular equipment or a proprietary product has already proven itself locally, and installation, maintenance and service are also available, a request for a particular make may be justified. The local availability of certain supplies may be governed by state-controlled monopolies or enterprises, justifying the identification of a single source. Substantiate such circumstances on your purchase request.

1.3.3 Seek advice on specifications and related costs before submitting a purchase request, from SFAS Purchasing Officers at Headquarters, the Purchasing Liaison Officer in Nairobi, the Regional Logistics Officer in Djibouti or Local Purchasing or Logistics Officers. Local agents or representatives of international suppliers may also be consulted. These sources can also provide information on regional transport, forwarding agents, inspection agents, insurance and warehousing. When technical specifications are needed, consult local sectoral experts or the specialists in TSS at Headquarters.

Chart 1.D: Sources of Standard Specifications for UNHCR Supplies and Food Aid

· Previous Purchase Orders and supplier quotations provide specifications for items which have been supplied in the past.

· UNHCR Specifications Catalogue

Issued periodically by SFAS, this catalogue includes a list of items which are not specified in other widely distributed catalogues. The list provides brief specifications, current ex-works prices and approximate lead-times for food items, building materials, agricultural seeds, communications equipment, soap, cloth, kitchen sets, blankets, tents, tarpaulins, medicines and medical equipment, and fuel.

· UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies

Provides standard specifications for a number of items that may be required on short notice.

· UNIPAC Catalogue

Published periodically by UNICEF/UNIPAC in Copenhagen and available from SFAS, this catalogue contains specifications on a wide range of items, including medical equipment, teaching aids and various tools. When referring to item specifications in this catalogue for international purchasing, quote the item number and the year of the catalogue accurately.

· IAPSU Field Motor Vehicle Standards Catalogue

Published semi-annually by the UNDP Inter-Agency Procurement Services Unit in Geneva and available from SFAS, this catalogue lists most vehicles recommended for project and official use.

· IAPSU Heavy Vehicles-Trucks Catalogue

Also available from SFAS, this catalogue lists specifications for trucks and truck chassis manufactured by a number of suppliers worldwide.

Telecommunications Equipment

1.3.4 At Headquarters, specifications and procedures for the purchase of telecommunications equipment have been standardized. The Telecommunications Manager is responsible for identifying suitable radio and ancillary equipment on the basis of approved criteria. Requests to purchase radio equipment should be directed to the Telecommunications Manager, who advises the field office concerning over-all UNHCR planning and standardization requirements, and then submits technical specifications to SFAS for procurement.

1.3.5 Before requesting Headquarters to purchase radio equipment, UNHCR field offices must ensure that the host government will authorize the operation of radio station(s), and verify that there are no restrictions on the use of UN/UNHCR frequencies. Useful information on the planning and development of radio and tele-printer communications is included in the UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies. Field communications to improve logistics operations and security are discussed elsewhere in this Handbook.

1.3.6 All equipment consignments are shipped air freight, arranged by the supplier or by the SFAS Shipping and Insurance Officer, depending on cost and expediency. Installation experts, training services and service manuals are also available through SFAS or the Telecommunications Manager.

1.3.7 The field office should contact the Telecommunications Manager at Headquarters for advice on major repairs of radio equipment which cannot be effected locally. Sending the equipment to the manufacturer for repair is not usually economical, but may be necessary if no other alternative can be found.

Other Equipment

1.3.8 Many types of equipment are necessary for field operations. Examples are microcomputers and printers, pumps, generators, agricultural machinery, or construction and road building equipment. Sectoral specialists in the field should prepare detailed technical specifications to ensure that the equipment supplied is appropriate for its intended use. TSS may be consulted to assist with the definition of requirements for projects involving health care, nutrition, engineering, town planning, shelter, water development, sanitation and agriculture, or outside consultants may be contracted for this purpose.

1.3.9 All equipment of a technical nature should be inspected and, if possible, tested before shipping. Suppliers may also provide assistance to commission, install and maintain equipment in the field or to train operators and maintenance personnel. Make sure that equipment requested can be supported locally by skilled operators, reliable power and/or fuel supplies, spare parts and service, to ensure its on-going effective use.

1.3.10 Requests for computer hardware or software are routed to MISS at Headquarters, who review its intended use, to determine compatibility with existing UNHCR equipment and current or planned UNHCR computer systems requirements. All hardware and software purchases are usually delivered first to MISS at Headquarters, for inspection and testing prior to shipment to the field for installation.

1.3.11 When servicing or spare parts for equipment are not available locally, request assistance from Headquarters. Specify the manufacturer, make, model, serial number and year of manufacture of the equipment, and identify the problem or spare parts required. Refer to the equipment manual. Equipment may have to be returned to the manufacturer or sent to the nearest service depot. When repairs can be made locally, Headquarters may pouch spare parts, dispatch them by courier service, or send them by air freight.

Vehicles, Spare Parts, Fuels and Lubricants

1.3.12 The identification and specification of needs for project and official vehicles is described more fully in Chapter 6, Vehicles. Requirements and costs are based on the models, options and prices listed in the current IAPSU Field Motor Vehicle Standards Catalogue and the IAPSU Heavy Vehicles-Trucks Catalogue. SFAS at Headquarters purchases most vehicles directly from the manufacturer. The earliest possible identification of need and advance planning are essential to select and schedule the delivery of vehicles for field operations. The lead-time, from submission of a purchase request to SFAS until delivery at destination, is normally 3 to 4 months.

1.3.13 Field requirements for spare parts which are not available locally present special problems. When identified, they are usually needed immediately to repair a vehicle which is out-of-service as a result. Usually, 10 per cent of the list price of a new vehicle (20 per cent in remote areas) is allocated for the manufacturer to supply fast-moving spare parts for vehicle maintenance purposes. Request additional spare parts using a Motor Vehicle Spare Parts Requisition (see Form SFAS/FH-6 in the Forms Annex). List the vehicle make, model, year, engine and chassis numbers, and the parts required. Manufacturers' spare parts catalogues and workshop service manuals are available from SFAS at Headquarters. Allocate sufficient funds to permit crated spare parts to be shipped air freight. Once the parts are received, ensure adequate controls are in place to safeguard them for their intended use.

1.3.14 Supplies of vehicle fuel and lubricants may also have to be imported. Calculate requirements on a periodic basis (quarterly, annually) for budgeting and ordering purposes. Refer to Chapter 5, Field Logistics Operations, and Chapter 6, Vehicles, for information on preparing these estimates. Fuel may be delivered in bulk, or in 200-litre drums if proper bulk storage and mobile tankers are not available. Ensure that monitoring procedures are instituted to issue and control the utilization of fuel and lubricants.

Medicines and Medical Supplies

1.3.15 The UNHCR Essential Drug Policy, issued by TSS at Headquarters, governs requests for drugs and medical supplies. This policy prescribes the best standards of health care for refugees, in consideration of their varied circumstances, the training and experience of health care workers, and the differing requirements imposed by host governments and other organizations. Determine local requirements and the appropriateness of certain drugs, in consultation with sectoral specialists in the field, doctors and pharmacists associated with our implementing partners, the government health ministry and other specialized UN agencies.

1.3.16 Use standard kits where appropriate, and request supplementary supplies of needed items not included in the kit, or where the quantity of a particular item is not sufficient. For medications, use generic names rather than product or manufacturers' names. Planned inventories for ongoing needs should include a working stock to meet drug needs between deliveries, and a safety or reserve stock to protect against total stock depletion which may result from delayed deliveries or unexpectedly high demand. An effective drug management system must be in place to prevent stock surpluses or shortages, and to avoid costly losses caused by spoilage, expiration or theft.

1.3.17 Before ordering vaccines or antibiotics, cold chain facilities must be available to handle and transport these consignments, which are normally shipped by air. A reliable power source is essential to maintain cold room temperatures and to operate refrigerators and freezers. Cold boxes, vaccine carriers, thermometers, monitoring forms and trained personnel are also needed. Additional information and technical specifications are available from TSS at Headquarters.

1.3.18 All requests for medicines and medical supplies are routed to SFAS at Headquarters, except for local purchases which may be required to comply with the host government's medical policy and guidelines. Details of each order, including local purchases and potential donations, are confirmed with TSS before proceeding.

1.3.19 Medical suppliers are selected from those licensed by the government, preferably located in countries participating in the WHO Certification Scheme. All drug supplies should be consistent with the specifications in the current British, European or American pharmacopoeia. A Certificate of Analysis must accompany each item supplied and shipped, to certify that it conforms with the specifications regarding drug formulation, dosage, unit size and quantity, and, where appropriate, has a minimum two-year shelf life from time of delivery.

1.3.20 Separate inspections are conducted prior to shipment and prior to distribution to verify conformity with specifications, labelling, package size, dosage, quantities, time validity, batch numbers and each Certificate of Analysis. All medicines must meet quality requirements for safety, effectiveness and acceptability.

1.3.21 Except in emergencies, large international medical consignments are packed in cargo containers and shipped by sea. Smaller consignments are crated and travel either by sea or by air. Monitor transportation and storage of consignments in the field to ensure that proper conditions prevail.

Pesticides and Chemicals

1.3.22 Identify requirements for pesticides, fertilizers and other chemicals in consultation with sectoral specialists who are knowledgeable about their use and application. Requests for chemicals are subject to TSS approval, to confirm their acceptability on the basis of proven effectiveness for their intended use, both locally and internationally, with minimal environmental risk or potentially harmful side effects.

1.3.23 Special tools, equipment or training may be needed to administer the chemical treatment or to protect those handling the substances. Check any local practices, protocols or restrictions for transporting and receiving consignments of hazardous chemicals before initiating a purchase. Note all relevant information in your request. Ensure that proper precautions are instituted to store, use and dispose of these chemicals.

Administrative Supplies

1.3.24 UNHCR field offices are usually allocated a minimal budget to make local expenditures for administrative supplies. Forward all other requests to the Budget and Management Section at Headquarters, who will obtain supplies in Geneva or authorize the field office to make a local or regional purchase. Submit orders for office supplies semi-annually.

1.3.25 Most printing, letterheaded stationery, UN forms, business cards, consumable office supplies (e.g., pencils, paperclips) and small equipment (e.g., calculators, staples) are obtained from the Purchase, Transportation and Internal Service Section at the Palais des Nations in Geneva. The Budget and Management Section may also make direct purchases or request SFAS to purchase items such as office equipment, administrative vehicles, spare parts or large orders of paper. Except for SFAS purchases, the Budget and Management Section makes its own shipping arrangements for administrative consignments.

Emergency Needs

1.3.26 A major part of an effective emergency response is the prompt delivery of appropriate supplies. These requirements may include tents, blankets, cooking sets, medical supplies and foodstuffs. Assess emergency needs and the availability of appropriate local supplies in consultation with local experts, suppliers, government representatives and other international agencies present. Consider all possible options to meet immediate needs:

(a) local supplies and potential purchases;

(b) local in-kind donations;

(c) borrowed stocks from the government or other aid organizations (which must subsequently be replaced);

(d) in-kind donations resulting from an FRS special appeal and possibly air-lifted as near as possible to the emergency site;

(e) international purchases shipped by air; or

(f) redirection of less urgent international shipments in process of delivery to other projects or destinations.

1.3.27 Coordinate all requirements and responses with the geographic desk at Headquarters. Headquarters personnel concerned can accelerate the purchasing and shipping processes to give an emergency situation first priority. Complete, accurate communications are imperative to expedite emergency relief. Regardless of the urgency of the need, obtain all proper authorizations and approvals before proceeding. Then follow procedures and keep records.

Chart 1.E: Responding to Emergency Needs

Anticipating all the circumstances which may be encountered in a refugee emergency, or which options may best fulfil the needs, is not easy. To illustrate how the international purchasing and shipping processes can be accelerated in emergency situations, however, the following scenario is normally applied:

UNHCR Field Office:

1. Telex the geographic desk at Headquarters, giving full specifications of the emergency supplies, quantities, packing and labelling details, and preferred routing of the shipment, with any supplementary information such as local conditions which may impede delivery.

Geographic Desk:

2. Obtain proper authorization and budget allocation (cost estimates provided by the SFAS Purchasing Officer). Prepare and forward a Purchase Authorization to SFAS.

SFAS Purchasing Officer:

3. Issue Quotation Requests by telex to known suppliers, especially those who may have stocks on hand, with an abbreviated reply time, perhaps even the same day.

4. Consult with the SFAS Shipping and Insurance Officer and the geographic desk, to determine shipping modalities.

5. On receipt from the suppliers, tabulate and compare the quotations promptly. If a proposed purchase exceeds US $40,000, prepare a memorandum recommending the selected supplier to the Committee on Contracts. The Secretary to the Committee or the Purchasing Officer hand-carries the recommendation to the individual Committee members who note their decision on the memorandum. Supplier selection can usually be accomplished in one day.

6. With proper approval and authority, issue Purchase Orders by telex for all the goods which comprise the emergency supplies.

SFAS Shipping and Insurance Officer:

7. Coordinate and assemble consignments and deliveries from several suppliers at a central departure point for consolidation and rapid shipment to the emergency field location. Appoint a superintendence company at the consolidation point to verify that all items, quantities and shipping documents are on hand, properly packed and labelled. For air shipments, the shipping documents travel with the consignments.

Geographic Desk:

8. Keep the field office informed throughout the purchasing and shipping process, providing details of orders placed, planned deliveries and scheduled arrivals in the field.

UNHCR Field Office:

9. Make all local arrangements to meet and clear the shipment, and to transport it to the operational site for storage and distribution to the refugees.

Packing of Consignments

1.4.1 Proper packing of supplies and food aid provides units which can be conveniently handled and protects the contents until they reach the beneficiaries. Adequate packaging helps to maintain product quality and reduces loss or damage to the contents while in transit or in storage. The suitability of each unit and the ease of opening and dispensing the contents may also enhance their acceptability for distribution in the refugee programme. All of these considerations, however, must often be weighed against packing costs and available supplier standards, to determine a suitable compromise.

1.4.2 From its experience with supplies and past shipments, SPAS has gathered and developed international standards for export packaging. Assess packing requirements for shipments of refugee goods using these international standards which are summarized in Annex I, and the considerations for particular types of cargo outlined below.

1.4.3 For most refugee programmes, shipments of commodities such as fuel, wheat, maize and other cereals are transported in drums or sacks for ease of handling. Extra sacks or drums should accompany the shipment to reclaim the contents of damaged units which have been punctured, torn in transit, or show evidence that they are leaking.

1.4.4 Some packaging has monetary value or alternate uses once it is empty. Jute sacks may be used as a floor covering or in the construction of temporary shelters. Fuel drums may be used as water containers or communal cooking pots. Consider their potential resale value or secondary uses when specifying packaging requirements.

1.4.5 Bulk shipments usually refer to commodities which are shipped in bulk (no packaging) in tankers or bulk carriers. Fuel and edible oil should be shipped in drums unless suitable bulk handling and storage equipment is readily available. Bulk foodstuffs may be bagged during discharge at their destination, either manually or using automated bagging equipment. Manual bagging operations may delay the discharge of the cargo and are time-consuming, inefficient, result in cargo losses and provide bags of only approximate weight. Sacks may have to be purchased or supplied locally. Automated bagging equipment should be available in the port. If not, a mobile bagging plant can be leased through SFAS to off-load bulk cargo. It is the size of two containers, can be assembled easily, and has a capacity of 400 to 500 MT per day. The lease includes the on-site technical personnel to oversee and maintain the efficiency of the discharge operation.

1.4.6 Cargo containers are sometimes used to ship goods which are particularly valuable or vulnerable and, therefore, warrant extra protection against pilferage or damage. Containers are large, standardized receptacles which are specially designed for repeated use. They are fabricated from light, strong aluminum alloys. Their standard sizes fit securely into cells created on a container vessel, flatbed trailer truck or rail wagon. Consider local off-loading and transport facilities and needs before requesting container service for your international purchases.

1.4.7 Pallets are small, portable, wooden platforms on which all types of small or lightweight packages are stacked for shipping. Pallets are constructed in dimensions which are suitable for mechanical handling using forklifts or cranes. To prevent shifting and provide added protection, palletized goods such as cartons, bags or small (100-litre) oil drums, are often shrink-wrapped with plastic sheeting and strapped with metal or polyester bands. UNHCR field offices may request that pallets accompany consignments to their destination, where they may be used to improve storage practices or be broken up to provide wood for other uses.

1.4.8 For international purchases, SFAS uses established standards for export packaging. Include packing instructions in your purchase request only if local conditions require special arrangements, national standards in the host country differ from international standards, or a cost-effective alternate use of the packaging is planned.

1.4.9 For local or regional purchases, include detailed instructions in contracts with suppliers for durable packaging. Packing must be suitable to preserve the quality and integrity of the contents for the length of time until the goods are distributed, for the conditions which will prevail during that time, and to facilitate distribution and end-use. See Annex I for international packaging standards.

Chart 1.F: Packaging Considerations

1. Nature of the goods and standard suppliers' packing available.

2. Durability and size/weight of packages in anticipation of planned transportation modalities, equipment, operators and labourers: reliability, capacity, handling methods. Port facilities and capacity to handle cargo containers. Warehousing facilities and handling equipment at various transit and storage locations in the host country.

3. Adequacy of packing to withstand high temperatures, rain, high humidity, condensation, mould, dust and seawater spray which may be encountered in transit or in storage at destination.

4. Dimensions and weight of each unit which will be suitable for release to implementing partners or distribution to the refugees immediately on receipt.

5. Assumption that shipments will receive rough handling and will be loaded and unloaded numerous times before they reach their final destination.

Chart 1.G: Use of Cargo Containers for Shipments by Sea



Extra protection against pilferage and damage.

Added expenses for container lease/purchase, and handling charges for stuffing, de-stuffing.

Reduced cargo insurance premiums.

Difficulties in inspecting contents without de-stuffing.

Reduction in packing time, cost of packing materials, and gross weight for goods which can be packed in cardboard cartons and containerized for shipping.

Necessity for fast de-stuffing to avoid container detention charges after expiration of the rental "free time", usually 10 to 14 days.

Savings on cargo handling charges for "door-to-door" shipments.

High freight rates for containers shipped to ports with little or no return container cargo.

Use of purchased second-hand containers which can be placed where needed when empty, as lockable, secure storage, offices or for a multitude of other purposes.

Unwillingness of many shipping lines to permit their containers to leave the port, exposing goods during the most vulnerable part of their journey, from the port to an inland destination.

High cost of inland transport if containers must be returned to the port empty.

Lack of container handling equipment outside major ports.

To take a cargo container down from a truck at an operational site:

- De-stuff the container.
- Tie the container to a tree or other solid object.
- Have the trucks move away slowly.
- Ensure the truck's rear lights are not damaged.
- Once the container is on the ground, refill and lock it.

Labelling and Shipping Marks

1.4.10 Labelling each package for identification and instruction ensures correct delivery and use. Each packaged unit in a consignment, especially those intended for direct distribution to the refugees, should be labelled to identify the contents and provide instructions for use. Written instructions printed on each package or accompanying the consignment should be in a language understood by the intended beneficiaries. Items such as medicines or foodstuffs requiring preparation or cooking can be requested with pictorial labels which the refugees can understand. Labels may also be affixed to inner or outer packing to comply with donor requirements or to provide warnings concerning hazardous contents. Larger cartons, bags or packages which comprise the shipment must be labelled individually with shipping marks.

1.4.11 Shipping marks identify the consignee, the destination of the shipment, and the project. Shipping marks:

(a) identify the goods to carriers and to all those engaged in handling the shipment while in transit to its final destination; and

(b) ensure correct delivery and identification by recipients.

1.4.12 Shipping marks are stencilled in bold, dark letters which are proportional to the size of the package. Packages shipped on pallets must be marked individually so they can still be identified if the pallet straps should break. Similarly, each package shipped in a cargo container must be marked, to ensure its continued identification from the point where the container is de-stuffed.

1.4.13 Specify labelling requirements and shipping marks in each international purchase request. Include instructions for labelling in contracts with suppliers for local or regional purchases.

Chart 1.H: UNHCR Shipping Marks

For example:

· Identification of the consignee:


· Address:


· Port of discharge:


· Final destination:


· Project symbol:


· Purchase Order number:

DR/00405 PO/00275

· Package number:

1/35, 2/35 or 3/35, etc.

Additional information and signs may be added where required by law for dangerous cargo, and to ensure that fragile goods are handled with greater care. When considered essential or to identify UNHCR donors, markings such as "SALE PROHIBITED", "GIFT OF.....", etc., may be marked on another side of the package.

BO Khartoum has established a system of identifying purchases by a local requisition number, e.g., SPR6. Other field offices may introduce a similar system. These marks should be added, after the marks for the final point of destination, e.g., "FOR SHOWAK - SPR6".

The Bill of Lading or air, rail or truck waybill should show the same markings as those on the packages.


1.5.1 Inspection of consignments at various stages in the supply process assures quality and quantity control of the goods provided. UNHCR cannot rely totally on suppliers, carriers and agents to deliver goods whose quality and quantity are adequate, with a minimum of loss, damage or spoilage. Although all UNHCR shipments over US $1,000 are insured and claims can be made to offset losses or damage, this alternative is of little comfort when the goods received fail to meet stated quality or quantity requirements. To minimize problems encountered on delivery, consider the need for inspection services for every purchase request, for international, local or regional purchases.

1.5.2 Some governments in developing countries require all imports to be inspected to protect the consignee from exploitation in invoicing and other forms of purchasing fraud. In general, this requirement does not apply to material assistance for refugees financed by UNHCR using external funding. If local authorities do require an Inspection Certificate, however, indicate these needs in your purchase request.

1.5.3 Various types of inspection services are available during manufacture, on loading, on discharge or on delivery. A summary of these services is included in Annex II. For international purchases, SFAS examines inspection requirements for each order placed. All food consignments are inspected, normally both on loading and on discharge. Technical equipment and other goods manufactured to stated UNHCR specifications (such as tents) are inspected prior to shipment to verify conformance with specifications and suitability for their intended use. For local or regional purchases, ensure that reliable inspection services are available, and inspection requirements are stipulated.

1.5.4 SFAS has established contracts with inspection agents covering every country or region. Beginning in 1988, costs for both insurance and inspection of supplies purchased by SFAS, the Purchasing Liaison Officer in Nairobi or the Regional Logistics Officer in Djibouti under assistance projects financed from the General Programme are paid from a separately administered project. No financial provision is necessary for inspection of these purchases. Goods purchased from Trust Funds or Special Programmes, and in-kind donations which require inspection through UNHCR, continue to require the provision for costs of inspection in the relevant project budget. Estimated costs for inspection services are approximately one per cent of the total C&F (cost and freight) value of the consignment.

Chart 1.I: Conditions for Inspection Services

1. Purchasing Officers stipulate inspection requirements in the Purchase Order placed with the supplier.

2. Inspection requirements are repeated in the contract with the inspection company, which also includes an estimate of the time necessary to carry out the inspection(s) and the related fees.

3. Inspections must be conducted by specialized personnel offering full guarantees of competence, ethics and security. Techniques and equipment used must be adequate for the operation, and match or exceed prevailing professional standards.

4. All inspections are done in accordance with recognized international standards. Inspection reports should refer to the international standards which have been applied.

5. Inspection Certificates may be issued only with a clean report of findings. No reservations are permitted unless UNHCR has given prior approval in writing for contractual deviations.

6. All information related to inspection services is confidential and may not be given to third parties without written authorization from UNHCR.

7. In the event of non-conformity with UNHCR specifications, the supplier must correct the deviation and present the goods for re-inspection. Inspectors' invoices for re-inspection, submitted to UNHCR, are deducted from amounts owed to the supplier.


1.6.1 Why does it take so long? Lead-time is the time which elapses between the submission of a specific request for supplies and the time of arrival of the goods at their final destination.

1.6.2 Estimating realistic lead-times is an important aspect of programme and project planning. The achievement of objectives and the welfare of the refugees are directly related to the timely arrival of needed supplies. To fulfil this requirement, supply requests must be submitted early enough to provide sufficient lead-time to meet delivery and distribution schedules. Originating field offices must know what steps are involved in fulfilling their requests and how long it takes to complete the overall supply process.

1.6.3 The time required to complete each step in the supply process varies with the size and complexity of the request and the sourcing option selected. For international purchases, SFAS has instituted a 30-day guideline, from the receipt of a fully documented Purchase Authorization to the placement of the order with a supplier, with emergency requirements being met in a much shorter timeframe. Suitable potential suppliers must be given enough time to bid. The usual time is one week, but this may be extended for special or more technical needs or shortened for emergencies.

1.6.4 For purchases exceeding US $70,000, a submission to the UNHCR Committee on Contracts and their approval of the preferred supplier are necessary before placing the order. The Committee meets once a week. In emergencies, submissions may be circulated to the Committee members for their approval, usually within one day.

1.6.5 Estimate sufficient time for suppliers to produce and deliver the goods. This step of the supply process is the most time-consuming and the most difficult to control. Goods may be available ex stock, but normally UNHCR must allow up to three months for the supplier to schedule, manufacture and assemble the order. Sample testing and quality assurance inspections take additional time.

1.6.6 Also consider loading, transportation and discharge. For international shipments by sea, the average time required is 3 to 5 weeks, depending on the vessel's itinerary and the distance to the port of discharge. For air shipments, the time should be reduced to less than one week, depending on carriers, schedules and the priority assigned to the cargo. Timing for the delivery of local or regional purchases is influenced by the mode of transport selected and the distance from source to destination.

1.6.7 The UNHCR consignee field office must establish procedures to minimize the time required for receiving, clearing and transporting consignments to their final destination. Port congestion or delays in the routing of documents, handling and clearance of consignments, or scheduling of inland transport can adversely affect these operations.

1.6.8 Some potential delays can be avoided - by specifying needs clearly, selecting reliable suppliers and following established procedures. Other delays are unpredictable, such as transportation breakdowns or shipping documents which have gone astray.

1.6.9 Estimate the lead-time for initiating supply requests by taking each step of the process into consideration. Allow at least 20 per cent extra time for unforseen events or delays. The UNHCR Specifications Catalogue, issued by SFAS, provides estimated lead-times for standard items, based on receipt of a request for reasonable quantities at Headquarters.

Chart 1.J: Assessment of Lead-time


International Purchase

Local/Regional Purchase

Potential Delays


1. Identification of needs and submission of request to geographic desk at Headquarters.

UNHCR field office

UNHCR field office

Routing and processing of request - sub-office/Branch Office can cause delay.

Must be controlled at the field office level.

2. Confirmation of funding and Issue of LOI or Purchase Authorization (PA).

Geographic desk

Geographic desk

Insufficient or unallocated funds require budget amendment.

3. Issue of Quotation Requests, receipt and evaluation of bids and placement of the Purchase Order.

SFAS (30 days from receipt of fully documented PA, faster for emergency purchases)

UNHCR field office

Inadequate specifications or technical detail may require clarification.

Supplier must be given sufficient time to bid. Technical bids usually take longer.

May be placed through the Regional Purchasing Liaison Officer in Nairobi. Submission to the Committee on Contracts may be necessary, which normally meets once a week.

4. Production, packing, inspection, transport to UNHCR point of delivery.

Supplier (in accordance with contract terms)

Supplier (in accordance with contract terms)

Production times can be as long as three months. Transportation delays are unpredictable.

Delivery times should be specified in the contract. On occasion, goods are available ex stock. Phased delivery can be requested for large quantities.

5. Port clearance and receiving.

UNHCR field office or designated agent

UNHCR field office or designated agent (receiving only)

Incomplete or inadequate shipping documents, port congestion, or delays in handling or clearance may occur.

Local/regional purchases should be delivered to UNHCR or a designated agent at the supply control point nearest their final destination.

6. Transport to final destination.

UNHCR field office or designated agent

UNHCR field office or designated agent

Inland transportation may be inadequate or untimely.


1.7.1 Common terms, like C&F and FOB, are used to standardize trade practices in purchasing contracts by defining the moment and place where the ownership and liability of the goods purchased are transferred from the supplier to the buyer. Known as the Incoterms, each is explained in Annex III.

1.7.2 Most UNHCR international purchases and donations are made on a C&F (cost and freight) basis. This means that the supplier or donor is responsible for providing transportation to the named destination, usually the nearest port of entry or point to which international shipping arrangements can be made reliably. UNHCR may select the mode of transport - air, sea or land (truck or rail) - to be used by the supplier or donor.

1.7.3 Some international purchases are supplied FOB (free on board) at a named location in Europe (e.g., Geneva). Local purchases can also be made FOB in the host country. UNHCR takes delivery immediately and must arrange any transportation to the final destination, warehouse or operational site. At Headquarters, the SPAS Shipping and Insurance Officer negotiates transport for international FOB shipments. The Field Programme Officer responsible for logistics in the local UNHCR office should make similar transportation arrangements for locally supplied FOB goods.

1.7.4 UNHCR field offices should try to negotiate internal transport with local suppliers. Avoid buying Ex-Works or FOB when the goods are received at the supplier's warehouse. Problems of coordinating transport requirements can be significantly reduced if suppliers provide the goods Free at Destination, delivering them to a named location as close to the operational site as possible. In this case, UNHCR pays only for the quantities actually delivered, leaving the supplier responsible for the cost of transport, insurance, and loss or damage to the consignment. These costs will be reflected in the unit price of the supplies, but all of the arrangements and any follow-up are left to the supplier.

1.7.5 Transport by sea is used for large international shipments when delivery is not urgent. It is less expensive than any other means of carriage, but a precise arrival date at the port of discharge is difficult to determine, even for scheduled liner services.

1.7.6 Most UNHCR shipments by sea are carried on «liner out terms», which means that the cargo is carried under contract with a shipping company which provides a regularly scheduled service to the port of destination. The vessel is responsible for putting the cargo on the quay at the destination, but the consignee must receive the cargo as fast as it is delivered. Requesting sea transport on liner out terms minimizes the risk of additional charges for detention of the vessel, because the shipping company makes its own arrangements with the port authority to discharge its cargo, to permit the vessel to keep closely to its pre-planned schedule. Port handling and storage fees, however, accrue to the account of the consignee.

1.7.7 Alternatively, large shipments may be transported under a contract of affreightment called a «charter party». Usually an entire vessel is chartered for a voyage to carry a particular consignment from a named port of loading to a named port of destination. These arrangements are complex, the contractual conditions can vary considerably, and agreements should be negotiated only through a broker. Charter parties are rarely used in UNHCR, but may be encountered in the field if donors make such arrangements, or when UNHCR field offices are involved in the receipt of large WFP food consignments. A copy of the charter party must be available. Seek expert advice to interpret the terms of the contract.

1.7.8 Examine the alternatives for shipping an international consignment to a final land-locked destination. If the named C&F destination is inland, the supplier must arrange transshipment at the port of entry. Savings in both time and cost can be significant if UNHCR receives the goods at the port of entry and arranges to transship the consignment locally. You will need to confirm insurance coverage to the final destination, however, and a designated UNHCR agent must be present in the port to deal with the port clearance and transshipment. For example, some shipments destined for inland destinations in Ethiopia and northern Somalia are currently routed through Djibouti, with the assistance of the Regional Logistics Officer located there. Similarly, through-shipments for Uganda and Sudan received in Mombasa are being handled by the Purchasing Liaison Officer in Nairobi.

1.7.9 Air freight is the fastest and most reliable shipping option, but it is also the most expensive. Shipments are sent by air only when the consignment is small, the goods are extremely valuable, urgently needed, or when transport by other means is not possible. International consignments are routed to the international airport nearest the consignee field office.

1.7.10 Land transportation is limited to shipments where routes and transport units are available between the source of supply and the destination. Trucks sometimes transport goods from Europe to the Middle East, and in the field move goods from the port of discharge to a final land-locked destination. International shipments seldom travel by rail because most rail networks between the source and the destination of the goods are inadequate. Some countries have excellent internal rail networks, however, and rail transport is recommended. Rail transport is economical for moving larger consignments, especially where the distance to the destination exceeds 500 km.

Chart 1.K: Criteria for Selecting Mode of Transport for International Shipments

· Urgency of the shipment.

· Size of the shipment: weight and volume.

· Origin of the goods: supplier's location.

· Normal transportation routes and scheduled services between the point of origin and the destination.

· Ports of entry, receiving facilities and transportation infrastructure at the destination.

· Relative costs and budgetary limitations.

1.8 Associated Costs

1.8.1 Identify the costs of meeting supply requirements realistically, for the purposes of budgeting and purchase authorization or for the valuation of in-kind donations. Establish current market prices for each item requested using catalogues, pricing lists, or in consultation with Purchasing Officers or local suppliers.

1.8.2 Base requested quantities and budgetary calculations on beneficiary population figures known to the field office at the time that plans are formulated. Excessive quantities are costly, in terms of acquisition, transport and storage requirements. Inadequate quantities create distribution problems and may also adversely affect the achievement of programme objectives.

1.8.3 Costs must include freight charges to the named destination where UNHCR will take delivery of the goods. To arrive at a cost and sea freight price, add 10 to 15 per cent to the current ex-works price. Assess air freight costs on a case-by-case basis. The minimum cost is usually about 25 per cent of the ex-works price, but may be as high as 100 per cent for heavy or bulky consignments.

1.8.4 Allocate funds to pay for shipping insurance and inspection services, except for international purchases from General Programmes where these costs are covered by a separately administered project in SFAS.

1.8.5 Check prices of goods which are available from local suppliers, such as bicycles, cooking pots, grinding mills or construction materials. Exercise caution in recommending local purchases, however, even when prices are competitive. Goods may not be available in sufficient quantities or they may be of substandard quality. Avoid competing with the general public or other international agencies for limited local quantities, which may monopolize the supply and result in substantial price increases for all consumers.

1.8.6 State costs in the proposed currency of expenditure. International purchases are usually allocated in US dollars. Budget for local purchases in local currency. Anticipate fluctuations or variations in currency exchange rates because, once established, budgets are sometimes difficult to amend. Currency fluctuations may result in changes in the quantity or number of items purchased when funding is insufficient and cannot be increased. Do not budget for price inflation, however, as this may affect quoted or market prices if the amount becomes known.

1.8.7 SFAS allows a 10 per cent budget variation for individual items listed for one project on a Purchase Authorization, provided the total allocation is not over-spent. When stated requirements exceed these limits, purchasing action is delayed, pending approval of a budgetary revision or change in stated quantity or item requirements.


1.9.1 In UNHCR, Field Programme Officers normally initiate requests for supplies and food aid, to meet planned project objectives within established budgets. Anticipate lead-times for receipt of requested supplies when submitting requests and propose reasonable delivery deadlines. Consider available sourcing options - in-kind donations, international, regional or local purchase - and justify your recommended source of supply as appropriate to meet refugee needs, in terms of quality and quantity, in the most economical way.

1.9.2 For each item requested, provide complete detailed specifications and shipping instructions. Specify requirements for packing, labelling and inspection services where relevant. Allocate funds for the requested items, based on the current unit price and quantity required, and include all related costs of freight, insurance and inspection, as necessary.

1.9.3 Route requests to the geographic desk at Headquarters for approval and action through SFAS or a regional or local Purchasing Officer. Field requests must be coordinated and controlled at the field office level, to keep track of what has been ordered, by whom, from where, and for what purpose. Log each request approved and maintain control records until the supplies have been received, distributed for their intended purpose, and reported.

Chart 1.L: Requests for Supplies and Food Aid

Each request must fully identify the material assistance listed:

· Project Symbol:

Show the project symbol against which budget the costs to obtain and deliver the goods will be charged. If this symbol is not available, provide a description of the intended purpose of the goods, sufficient for those responsible to insert the project symbol later.

· Item Specifications:

Identify each item and provide detailed specifications which will permit the Purchasing Officer and the supplier to clearly understand your requirement. Include catalogue references and complete descriptions where appropriate. Indicate the intended purpose or planned use of the items. Consult with sectoral specialists and technical experts as necessary.

· Quantity:

Based on its planned use or the established number of beneficiaries, state the number of each item required.

· Delivery Date:

Indicate when the goods are needed and where. Be realistic, taking into consideration the lead-time for supply processing, manufacturers' production and delivery to final destination, including both international shipping and inland or local transport. If the existing project agreement will expire before delivery, indicate that a project extension is planned.

· Recommended Source:

In consideration of international, regional or local market availability, international donor commitments, funding, timing and final destination, recommend local, regional or international purchase, or donation in-kind. If potential suppliers are known, name the actual companies suggested, their location/address and the basis for their pre-selection.

· Shipping Instructions:

Clearly identify the consignee for the shipment, with full mail and street address, telephone and telex numbers (avoid giving P.O. Box numbers). Indicate the routing of the shipment, the port of discharge, final destination and mode(s) of transport. A request for shipment by air must be justified.

· Costs:

Based on current unit costs and the quantity requested, establish budget allocations for each item, total freight and any other services necessary (e.g., insurance, inspection). State amounts in US dollars or local currency, as appropriate. Ensure that an adequate budget has been established or that the geographic desk at Headquarters is aware that these needs require a special allocation - CAF, MOD or LOI.

· Other Information:

Provide additional details about local conditions or the nature of the goods which require special packaging or labelling instructions, inspection services, shipping or insurance arrangements.


2.1.1 The objective of the food aid sector of refugee assistance programmes is to maintain satisfactory nutritional levels through the provision of food to refugees where it is needed, at the right time, in adequate quantities, and in the right commodity mix, avoiding waste through loss, spoilage or misuse.

2.1.2 Refugee food needs are divided into three main categories:

(a) Basic Food - refers to essential foodstuffs generally supplied by WFP, including staples (cereals), sources of energy (edible oil, fats), and sources of protein (pulses, canned fish or meat, DSM).

(b) Complementary Food - means other food commodities, possibly available locally, which are added to the Basic Food ration to meet dietary requirements. These commodities should conform to the traditional food habits of the refugees, and may include dried or fresh vegetables, fruit, fish, meat, sugar, salt and other spices, coffee and tea.

(c) Supplementary Food - refers to the additional food requirements of vulnerable groups with nutritional deficiencies. Distributed through intensive feeding programmes organized at feeding or health centres, these rations are usually a mixture of Basic and Complementary Food commodities with specially enriched ingredients, such as cereal blends or fortified milk products. Therapeutic feeding programmes rely on the availability of supplementary foods for the treatment of severe malnutrition, as well as medicines to correct vitamin deficiencies.

2.1.3 Standard rations for ongoing refugee situations currently provide minimum nutritional standards of 1,900 Kcal energy and 50 gm protein per person per day. The development of population-specific standards by TSS at Headquarters will elaborate on different ration scales according to circumstances, including digressive scales as an emergency evolves into a more stable situation.

2.1.4 Food aid for refugees comes through a number of channels. WFP provides about 70 per cent of basic food aid requirements, and their role in this key programme sector has been increasing recently. Multilateral and bilateral donations through UNHCR, and direct bilateral contributions account for most of the remainder. Some special food commodities are purchased from approved annual project budgets.

Chart 2.A: Organizational Liaison for Food Aid Planning, Monitoring and Reporting


2.2 UNHCR Responsibilities for Food Aid

2.2.1 As part of our mandate to provide international protection and assistance to refugees, UNHCR has primary responsibility for food aid planning, submission of requirements to donors and delivery to the refugees. Coordination and cooperation between all the parties involved, at Headquarters and in the field, is essential to plan needs, identify sources of supply, schedule consignments, and oversee delivery, storage and distribution.

2.2.2 The effectiveness of food aid is compromised when shipments are too large, too small or not timely, are unloaded at the wrong port or take a round-about route, or are inappropriate, unacceptable or of limited nutritional value for the beneficiaries. Food can also deteriorate, or be damaged or stolen, due to insufficient protection between the port of loading and the distribution site in the field. Remedial measures are often expensive solutions. Losses can be minimized if all UNHCR personnel concerned, with the assistance of our donors, and implementing partners, exercise adequate foresight and planning, due care and attention to details.

2.2.3 Each geographic desk in the Regional Bureaux at Headquarters is the focal point for food aid for the geographic area for which it is responsible. The geographic desk must ensure that each field office is provided, in a timely manner, with all the necessary information to plan, monitor and control the availability and delivery of food aid within their area of operations.

2.2.4 UNHCR field offices perform a key role in the food aid management system. Field offices begin the process by assessing refugee needs, in consultation with the local WFP field office. Technical assistance is also available from TSS. SFAS can provide cost estimates, specifications and standards related to procurement, and information about transportation, insurance, inspection, handling, storage and distribution of food. Field offices must ensure the effective completion of the supply process by receiving, controlling and reporting on food aid in their refugee programme, in cooperation with officials from WFP, our implementing partners and the host government.

2.2.5 SFAS coordinates food aid and food deliveries to UNHCR programmes worldwide. Two Food Aid Coordination Officers and a Professional Assistant work in close collaboration with the geographic desks, WFP in Rome, the EC in Brussels and, through FRS, other major donors and suppliers, to consolidate the UNHCR global food plan, coordinate the timely supply of food aid, and track food shipments through to their final destinations. Together with nutrition and health specialists from TSS at Headquarters or in the field, they also assist UNHCR field offices to identify food aid requirements in terms of composition of the food basket, quantities, related costs, funding and supply sources, and delivery schedules. A computerized Food Tracking System is used for food aid programming and monitoring.

2.2.6 FRS solicits food aid contributions, in kind and in cash, directly to UNHCR or channelled through WFP, to help meet the requirements identified in the approved global food aid plan. FRS maintains close relations with UNHCR's donors from initial commitment of assistance to final distribution to the refugees. FRS follows through to report to donors on the suitability and usefulness of their donations, in appreciation of their assistance and continuing support.


2.3.1 Assess refugee needs for food aid, whenever possible, on a calendar year basis and in accordance with the UNHCR programming cycle. Consult with nutritional experts, health, agricultural, marketing and logistical personnel from the host government, our implementing partners and the local WFP field office, as appropriate. For large-scale operations, or newly emerging situations, joint field assessment or review missions may be undertaken, involving staff from UNHCR Headquarters and WFP in Rome.

2.3.2 To increase the credibility of appeals for donor assistance to refugees, use accurate data to serve as a basis for determining food commodities and quantities. Governments hosting refugees in their countries retain responsibility for determining the numbers of refugees. UNHCR and WFP field personnel must endeavour, however, to assess the volume of assistance required with the highest degree of accuracy possible. For ongoing situations, review previous distribution records and nutritional surveillance reports to obtain data on use, adequacy and deficiencies to plan food aid needs more effectively.

2.3.3 Consider local harvests and seasonal availability of food commodities. Determine if quotas for local consumption or export exist, as these quotas may affect availability. Local purchases from export quotas in convertible currency may avoid the need to import internationally acquired foodstuffs.

Chart 2.B: Considerations in Assessing Food Aid Requirements

1. Nutritional status of the refugees and identification of vulnerable groups. Quantify the particular groups within the refugee population considered to be vulnerable: children, pregnant and lactating women, the sick, the elderly, new arrivals or the culturally/socially Isolated. Medical and nutritional specialists can help to Identify the extent of malnutrition, anaemia and other health conditions affected by or resulting from dietary deficiencies.

2. Food habits, preferences and taboos. Determine the traditional food habits of the refugee population, the items usually consumed, and how they are prepared. What taboos are practised that would make certain commodities or food distribution methods unacceptable? What are the dietary staples and other familiar foodstuffs which can provide a nutritionally balanced diet for the refugees?

3. Number, location and description of the refugees. Assess these factors to establish the overall quantities of food aid to be provided, the destination(s), and the related delivery and storage requirements. A demographic breakdown of the population is essential for determining energy requirements, expressed as the percentage under 5 years, 5 to 14, 15 to 45, over 45, and male and female. When planning, also anticipate refugee Influx and departure rates to provide adequate, but not excessive, food stocks.

4. Alternative sources of supplies. Assess the adequacy of local or national agricultural production, harvests and market supplies to meet food aid needs. International sources include WFP, UNHCR donors, purchases and other international organizations. Immediate needs can be met by local purchase, local donations or borrowed stocks (for later replacement) or air-lifting international supplies. Longer-term needs can come from national or external sources, and refugees may be encouraged to become more self-sufficient by participating in agricultural activities, food-for-work projects, or finding local employment if permitted.

5. Food preparation requirements: kitchen utensils, water and cooking fuel. Determine these needs carefully because a lack of these items can adversely affect refugee food consumption and nutritional status. Failure to provide fuel often results in the destruction of local vegetation, causing lasting environmental damage and friction with the local population. Also consider providing fuel-efficient stoves or, possibly, communal cooking facilities.

6. Definition of requirements. Specify the ration levels, total quantities, commodities, possible sources of supply and scheduling for planned food aid distributions to the general population and for the special feeding programmes required by vulnerable groups. The timeframe for distribution and location of the beneficiaries must be considered, as these factors will affect sourcing and delivery modalities. Remember to include forecast balances of food stocks on hand. Depending on urgency, short-term solutions may be necessary to meet immediate needs until longer-term solutions and supply provisions can be implemented.

7. Organizational responsibilities and logistics. Coordinate refugee feeding programmes, to establish and delegate related responsibilities to ensure that defined objectives are achieved, including the important aspects of sourcing, receiving, transporting, storing and distributing food aid, and nutritional surveillance. Involve the refugee community itself in planning and organizing food aid operations.

Chart 2.C: Nutritional Characteristics of Common Food Aid Commodities*

* Adapted from the UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies and UNICEF Assisting in Emergencies.

Food Type

Approximate Energy/100g

Approximate Protein/100 g

Vitamins and Minerals


1. Cereals (wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, oats, etc.)

350 Kcal

8 to 12 g

Vitamin B and iron. Milling reduces vitamins - the whiter the flour, the greater the loss of vitamins.

Cereals are the main source of both energy and protein in most diets. Grinding facili- are essential if whole grains are distributed.

2. Legumes/pulses (beans, peas, lentils, soya, groundnuts, etc.)

350 Kcal/500 to 700 Kcal. Provides energy in a compact form but is relatively expensive and requires careful storage

20 to 25 g
Some beans can be up to 40% protein by weight, e.g., soya

B complex vitamins. Most contain significant quantities of iron and calcium.

Legumes are particularly beneficial when eaten with cereals, as the proteins complement each other. Fast cooking pulses (e.g., lentils, split peas) and most recent crops are preferable to avoid need for prolonged cooking.

3. Fats and oils

900 Kcal


Rich sources of concentrated calories, enhance the absorption of Vitamin A.

The most concentrated energy source, these are used to increase energy intake without increasing bulk of diet. Also improve palatability and help in food preparation. Acceptability testing is necessary for edible oil.

4. Fish, dried

300 Kcal

63 g

Rich source of calcium and iron. Also contains B vitamins.

A concentrated source of protein for those who like it, acceptability trials are essential before use.

5. Meat, milk and dairy products. DSM**, eggs, etc.

150 to 550 Kcal, depending on fat content

10 to 20 g, except for liquid milk, 3 to 6 g

Good source of B vitamins. Milk and eggs provide significant amount of calcium.

Body uses these foods more readily than proteins of vegetable origin. Are usually consumed in very small quantities in normal times, but provision can improve the quality and palatability of the diet. DSM distribution is only acceptable to nomadic populations.

6. Whole tubers and roots (yams, taro, cassava, potatoes, etc.)

75 to 110 Kcal
In flour form, 300 to 350 Kcal

Very low in protein

Variable, but generally low.

Bulk and low protein usually make them unsuitable for refugee food rations.

7. Vegetables and fruits

Low in energy

Low in protein

Important source of vitamins and minerals, with variable quantities of B and C vitamins. Dark green leaves or yellow/red pigmentation usually indicate Vitamin A compounds.

Refugees should be encouraged to grow their own, in ongoing situations. May also be available in the local market.

8. Sugar

400 Kcal



Sugar is a good energy source, but contains little nutritional value. Improves palatability of diet, but is difficult to store and absorbs moisture easily.

** Provision of DSM to refugees is discouraged because of Its potential health hazards if not properly mixed and administered. Separate guidelines on DSM are forthcoming from TSS.

Calculation of Food Needs

2.3.4 Include the calculation of food needs in the food sector of the project submission which covers overall assistance for a specific refugee caseload. The planning figures for food aid must show the total quantity by commodity for each beneficiary group and the associated costs, based on:

(a) the number of beneficiaries for each category of food - Basic, Complementary or Supplementary;

(b) the standard daily per capita ration for each commodity; and

(c) the planning period. This is usually one year, except in an emerging situation where an initial response might involve a shorter timeframe and higher ration levels.

2.3.5 Use the local price of each commodity as the unit cost for planned local purchases. For foodstuffs to be acquired internationally, use the current WFP average food price list. Copies of the WFP price list, updated periodically, are available from SFAS at Headquarters.

Chart 2.D: Calculation of Food Needs - An Example

1. Number of beneficiaries:

Basic Food:

25,000 in the northern region and
10,000 refugees in the east

Complementary Food:

as above

Supplementary Food:

800 in the northern region and
250 in the east

2. Standard daily per capita ration:

Basic Food:


500 g

Edible oil

30 g

Complementary Food:


20 g

Supplementary Food:

Cereal blend

100 g


20 g

Edible oil

10 g

3. Time period for planned needs:

1 year, or 365 days


Total quantity of each commodity:


Northern Region

Eastern Region

Total Requirement


500 g x 25,000 x 365 = 4,562.5 MT

500 g x 10,000 x 365 = 1,825 MT

6,387.5 MT

Edible Oil

30 g x 25,000 x 365 = 273.75 MT

30 g x 10,000 x 365 = 109.5 MT

383.25 MT


20 g x 25,000 x 365 = 182.5 MT

20 g x 10,000 x 365 =73 MT

255.5 MT

Cereal Blend

100 g x 800 x 365 = 29.2 MT

100 g x 250 x 365 = 9.1 MT

38.3 MT


20 g x 800 x 365 = 5.8 MT

20 g x 250 x 365 = 1.8 MT

7.6 MT

Edible Oil

10 g x 800 x 365 = 2.9 MT

10 g x 250 x 365 = 0.9 MT

3.8 MT

Estimated cost* of commodities:


6,387.5 MT x US $140

= US $


Edible Oil

(383.25 MT + 3.8 MT) x US $1,100



255.5 MT x US $320


Cereal Blend

38.3 MT x US $300



7.6 MT x US $320


TOTAL Cost for Food Aid Commodities

= US $


* Approximate 1987 WFP commodity prices per MT, used here to determine value.


2.4.1 Food aid planning for ongoing refugee programmes begins early in the current year. The total planned programme requirements for the upcoming planning year are formulated and forwarded to Headquarters in April. Summarize the key findings in food plan submissions by identifying the food needs for each project/refugee group -composition of the food ration, commodities, quantities, known or potential sources, related costs and delivery scheduling. Specify forecasted stock levels on hand at the end of the current year, netted against planned commodity requirements. Include an explanation of any local conditions which may affect food aid scheduling or delivery, such as climatic/seasonal conditions which would necessitate earlier provision of food and storage of buffer stocks.

2.4.2 The Food Aid Coordination Officers in SFAS at Headquarters consolidate food aid submissions to prepare the UNHCR global food plan for the upcoming planning year, defining refugee food requirements by country/region, commodity, quantity and planned delivery. Global requirements are then broken down by known and potential sources of food aid - in-country stocks, WFP. EC and donor countries' cash contributions for UNHCR/WFP purchases of food, in-kind contributions and known bilateral aid. As a last resort, the costs to purchase needed food not met by in-kind or earmarked cash contributions are included in project budgets.

2.4.3 SFAS assists the geographic desks at Headquarters to determine sources of planned food aid for their programmes, in collaboration with FRS, PMS and WFP. Much of the Basic Food for refugee programmes comes from WFP. For the remaining Basic Food needs, FRS seeks specific contributions in cash or in kind. Only in exceptional circumstances can these Basic Food commodities be acquired under project budgets. During the annual programme review, sources of Complementary and Supplementary Food are considered. Depending on the types, quantities and availability of the commodities involved, these needs may be met by WFP, the EC or other donors, or funds may be allocated under project budgets.

2.4.4 As part of the UNHCR programme and planning cycle, update food aid submissions in September. Include any revised information about increases or decreases in the forecasted number of refugees, significant changes in their location or changes in their degree of self-sufficiency. Also, update projected foodstock balances that will be on hand at the end of the year, including shipments in transit or undelivered pledges. Provide data on transport and storage capacity, locations and related costs.

Internal Transport, Storage and Handling (ITSH)

2.4.5 Budget the total estimated costs of internal transport, storage and handling of food aid under the Transport/Logistics Sector of the project budget. See Chapter 5, Field Logistics Operations, to establish transportation, storage and handling needs. The budget and accounting systems must identify ITSH costs related to the provision of food aid and paid by UNHCR, as these costs may be fully or partially recoverable from donors and WFP.

2.4.6 WFP delivers food aid up to the port of discharge, expecting the government or UNHCR to arrange and pay for receiving, storing and transporting each consignment to its final destination. Where WFP provides food aid to refugees situated in Least Developed Countries*, and subject to the availability of WFP donor funding, UNHCR may claim up to 50 per cent of the ITSH costs incurred.

* Least Developed Countries (LDCs), as approved by the UN General Assembly, qualify for special subsidies and consideration from all UN agencies.

2.4.7 UNHCR field offices located in Least Developed Countries must compile ITSH cost data related to WFP food aid for refugees. On an annual basis, submit verified invoices and claims for these ITSH costs to the local WFP field office. After being approved locally, the claims are forwarded to WFP Headquarters where donors are requested to make cash contributions to reimburse up to 50 per cent of these costs. Where there is no local WFP field office, send documented ITSH claims to the geographic desk at Headquarters. These claims are submitted through SFAS to WFP in Rome.

2.4.8 Where the EC provides food aid in cash or in kind, they will reimburse UNHCR for the total related ITSH costs (within prescribed limits), when UNHCR presents a documented claim and the relevant distribution reports. Other donors have made similar commitments. UNHCR field offices must collect ITSH cost data and distribution reports from EC and other food donations. Submit these claims annually to the geographic desk at Headquarters. SFAS forwards documented ITSH claims to the EC and other donors for reimbursement.

Implementing Instruments

2.4.9 Approved food aid needs appear in the annexes attached to implementing instruments which cover overall assistance to a particular refugee caseload, regardless of the planned source. Where the source of food aid is other than purchases from funds made available under the project budget, the source will be indicated in place of the commodity value.

2.4.10 Complementary and Supplementary Food may be included in the budget annexed to the relevant implementing instrument. Should FRS subsequently obtain a contribution to meet any of these requirements, the equivalent value of the budget item will be reduced accordingly as the contribution must be recorded separately as non-cash or extra-budgetary income.


2.5.1 The global food plan, prepared by SPAS at Headquarters, forms the basis on which food commitments are negotiated and obtained. Continuous feedback to SFAS from the geographic desk, field offices and FRS is essential to record exact types, quantities and costs of acceptable commodities, WFP and donor commitments, planned local, regional or international purchases, and planned and actual timing of food deliveries.

2.5.2 Refugee food aid needs are supplied and funded from the following sources:

(a) WFP contributions in kind, resulting from agreements between WFP and the host government. UNHCR may facilitate the request, approval and distribution of these food supplies to the refugees. They are included in the UNHCR global food plan, but the value of the food is not accounted for under UNHCR assistance programmes.

(b) EC and other donors' contributions in kind or cash, to be channelled through WFP or to be recorded under UNHCR programmes.

(c) Purchases from project budgets, in exceptional cases when no other possibility exists.

2.5.3 Approximately two-thirds of the annual food aid requirements for refugees come from WFP. In recognition of WFP's mandate for the mobilization and logistics of international food aid, cooperation between UNHCR and WFP, though traditionally close, is increasing. Organizational and procedural changes in WFP are being made to improve flexibility in meeting refugee requirements, in terms of commodities and quantities supplied, speed of delivery and countries served. UNHCR must retain certain capabilities, however, to appeal for refugee needs to donors, to make food aid purchases and to deliver food aid to refugee sites. UNHCR must be able to respond quickly to general requests for assistance and to continue to exercise its own humanitarian initiative.

2.5.4 Another major source of food aid for UNHCR programmes is the EC. FRS negotiates with the EC on the types of commodities, quantities and recipient countries in consideration of the needs identified in the global food plan. The flexibility of the EC's pledges permits UNHCR to draw amounts from the global tonnage quotas for listed recipient countries as they are required. Changes in allocations are allowed within the EC's overall commitment. The EC is also prepared to make donations on a case-by-case basis for refugee emergencies. Efforts are currently underway to channel some or all of the EC contributions for refugees through WFP, while retaining the special flexibility which UNHCR and the EC have shared in the past in meeting the needs of the refugees.

2.5.5 FRS approaches other potential donors to contribute to UNHCR's global food aid needs, and to fill the gaps in the food plan which will not be met through the commitments of WFP and the EC. Donors are encouraged to contribute in kind or in cash, with a minimum of conditions attached to their contribution. In-kind contributions may be channelled through WFP. Cash to purchase food commodities is essential in situations where local food preferences or regulations make local purchasing necessary, commodity quantities are insufficient to warrant international shipments, emergencies require it, or economic conditions impose it.

2.5.6 Assess each proposed donation carefully. Some donor countries tie their cash contributions to purchases in their own country, region or zone. Such conditions may be too restrictive to competitive bidding, or may limit procurement to a single supplier. Exercise caution in accepting in-kind donations of proprietary products from manufacturers who may be motivated, in part, by the potential to establish future market demand for their product.

2.5.7 All donations of food aid, in kind or in cash, must be reported to and accepted by FRS in Geneva before the donor arranges to deliver their contribution to the intended refugee group. Forward information concerning donations initiated in the recipient country to Headquarters. FRS, in consultation with the geographic desk and SFAS, confirms the suitability of the donation for its intended purpose, as well as the timing and terms of its delivery. Donations determined to be unacceptable are politely declined.

2.5.8 The UNHCR Guide to In-Kind Contributions in Emergency Situations provides useful information on UNHCR policy for in-kind contributions. This publication includes a list of recommended emergency donations, along with a list of unacceptable items, instructions for packing, labelling, quality control, shipping, documentation, customs clearance and insurance, and procedures for communications between donors and UNHCR.

Contribution Advice Forms (CAFs)

2.5.9 FRS records the details of each contribution to UNHCR on a CAF (see Annex IV for an example). Valuation of in-kind contributions, including associated shipping costs, is made at realistic market prices. FRS distributes copies of the CAF to all officers concerned, both at Headquarters and in the field. Related field office responsibilities and instructions are communicated in implementing instruments prepared at Headquarters.

2.5.10 SFAS coordinates detailed information on in-kind contributions concerning quantities, packaging, timeframe, costs and modalities of delivery, point of handover to UNHCR, insurance and inspection arrangements, and reporting requirements. Donors are encouraged to provide consignments on a C&F (cost and freight) basis, with insurance coverage under the UNHCR Worldwide Open Cover Marine Cargo insurance policy, provided the cost of insurance premiums can be recovered from the donor. Alternatively, donors may provide in-kind contributions free, unloaded at port of discharge, as is the case with EC donations. SFAS also makes international purchases from cash contributions according to the donors' conditions and defined project requirements.

2.5.11 To maintain UNHCR's credibility with its donors, every effort must be made to fulfil the terms of the donor agreement within the established timeframe. Particularly for cash contributions, donors may cancel funds not disbursed during their fiscal or budget year, or require unspent balances to be reimbursed at the end of a specified period.

2.5.12 If the UNHCR consignee is unable to use a donation, for whatever reason, inform the geographic desk at Headquarters immediately. Indicate what new factors have led to refusal of a donation previously accepted, and propose a solution to redirect or dispose of the goods if they have already been shipped or received. FRS must obtain the donor's approval for the recommended redirection or disposal action, for their sale or exchange, and the, use of any funds generated. Do not proceed without confirmation from Headquarters. On completion, submit to Headquarters a report concerning the disposition for forwarding to the donor.

2.6 Food Aid Channelled Through WFP

2.6.1 WFP food aid for refugees is provided to the government of the host country following a formal request from the government to WFP. UNHCR's role is primarily as a facilitator, advising on the suitability of various food commodities for refugees and identifying the required assistance levels. UNHCR and WFP officials in the field should also help governments to formulate their requests to WFP in Rome for emergency and longerterm assistance for refugees.

2.6.2 Most of WFP's refugee assistance comes from the International Emergency Food Reserve (IEFR), through which donors channel their multilateral emergency food aid. WFP donors' meetings are held annually where donors are requested to announce food pledges and the period of availability. WFP has also created a special category of food aid, called Directed Refugee Contributions (DRCs), to channel donor contributions which were made directly to UNHCR in the past.

2.6.3 WFP in Rome gives priority to the shipment of food for refugees and informs the SFAS Food Aid Coordination Officer at Headquarters of WFP food assistance for each emergency operation (EMOP) as it is approved. SFAS reciprocates by reporting regularly to WFP on all food aid contributions being channelled through UNHCR.

2.6.4 SFAS maintains contact with all focal points for refugee food aid at WFP in Rome, to know what food shipments are in process, the commodities and quantities involved, destinations and delivery schedules. The consignee for WFP food aid is normally the host government. Pertinent details are communicated to UNHCR field offices through the geographic desk. Information on WFP food shipments is necessary to coordinate the total food programme in the area of operations and to liaise with local WFP officials, the host government and implementing partners.

2.6.5 WFP food shipments are handed over to the consignee government at the port of discharge. Unless stated otherwise in the WFP/government Letter of Understanding, the government is responsible for discharging WFP food aid promptly from the carrier, customs clearance, adequate storage, inland transportation and distribution, as well as related expenses, taxes and duties. Deliveries are also subject to inspection by WFP or its appointed agents. At the field office level, when WFP notifies UNHCR concerning refugee food shipments en route, confirm that appropriate arrangements have been made with the government and implementing partners for prompt clearance and inland transportation to operational sites.

2.6.6 Where the government is unable to pay all or part of the inland transportation costs, UNHCR may pay these costs. UNHCR will be reimbursed up to 50 per cent if a WFP ITSH subsidy is subsequently approved. UNHCR must request this reimbursement, providing full supporting evidence of the delivery of the WFP food aid to the point of final destination. Therefore, record all local UNHCR transportation costs for WFP food aid.

2.6.7 With large quantities of basic foodstuffs on hand locally or in transit. WFP is often willing to allow UNHCR to borrow or exchange commodities needed immediately by the refugees. Borrowed in-country WFP stocks may be replaced when the next consignment arrives. Make such arrangements carefully, however, to avoid possible added ITSH costs if WFP requests the imported goods to be transported to the point of pick-up of the borrowed food supplies. WFP may also agree to exchange imported commodities against locally available food products. Exchange ratios must be carefully established in accordance with the respective values of the exchanged goods, and not simply on a straight ton-for-ton basis.


2.7.1 For donations in kind, on receipt of the CAF and the donor agreement, SFAS establishes contact with the donor to coordinate and monitor the delivery of the food. Depending on the delivery terms of the donor agreement. SPAS may have to arrange for inspection services, insurance coverage or onward transportation at the port of discharge, in consultation with the UNHCR consignee field office. Instructions are provided to the donor, supplier or his agent which specify the necessary shipping documents and their required distribution to the consignee field office and UNHCR Headquarters. Copies of all communications are relayed to the consignee field office for information.

2.7.2 On receipt of the shipping documents for an in-kind contribution, SFAS prepares a memorandum to the consignee, referencing the applicable CAF, detailing the receiving and distribution reports required by Headquarters, and attaching one copy of all shipping documents and the UNHCR Distribution Report to be completed. These documents are sent to the consignee by the fastest means, usually by courier.

2.7.3 The UNHCR consignee field office is responsible for receiving and clearing the shipment, and reporting on its condition to SFAS at Headquarters promptly. See Chapter 4, Receipt of Shipments. Obtain a Takeover Certificate when the consignment is turned over to the implementing partner responsible for the refugee assistance project. See Chapter 8. Distribution and End-Use. Comply with the distribution reporting requirements stipulated in the CAF. A checklist to assist you in monitoring and reporting donor contributions is included in Annex V.

EC Food Donations

2.7.4 All EC food donations to UNHCR are provided «ex quay». UNHCR is not involved in the supply process, except as the consignee. The EC supplier must arrange, at his own expense, to transport the goods to the named destination, bearing all risks to the goods until they are unloaded, and all costs, including wharfage and unloading at the port of destination and any detention or demurrage charges. Where goods are supplied in cargo containers, they are delivered «free at terminal», and UNHCR is responsible only for destuffing the containers. UNHCR must also pay any costs or charges relating to customs formalities on importation of EC donations.

2.7.5 The supplier provides his own transport insurance coverage. Responsibility for filing insurance claims on EC shipments rests with him, and not UNHCR. Insurance coverage ceases when:

(a) the goods enter a UNHCR-rented warehouse in the port area; or

(b) the goods are placed, at UNHCR's initiative, on a vehicle or wagon for removal from the port area; or

(c) if neither of the above apply, 30 days after the date of completion of the discharge.

2.7.6 For each shipment, the EC appoints an inspection company, at its own expense, to check on loading that the quantity, quality and packaging comply with the provisions of the EC/supplier agreement. Inspection agents conduct the same checks at the port of discharge. When the inspections are completed, the company issues a certificate of conformity. SFAS, the supplier and the inspection company keep the UNHCR consignee field office informed on the progress of the shipment.

2.7.7 The UNHCR consignee field office takes delivery in the port of discharge or other named destination, having received the following documents:

(a) certificate of conformity;

(b) certificate of origin of the goods;

(c) commercial invoice, establishing the value of the goods and their transfer to UNHCR free of charge;

(d) gift certificate (if required);

(e) delivery note; and

(f) copy of the transport insurance certificate.

2.7.8 Provide an EC Taking-Over Certificate (see Annex VI) to the supplier, with a copy to SFAS at Headquarters, only for those goods and quantities received in good order.

2.8 Food Purchases

2.8.1 To meet the global food needs of refugees, UNHCR must purchase some quantities of food to augment supplies available from WFP and the contributions in-kind received from donors. Food purchases may be funded from earmarked cash donations received by FRS and recorded on a CAF or, in certain exceptional cases, as sectoral assistance from project budgets. Two kinds of purchases may be authorized:

(a) local or regional purchases by a UNHCR field office, when required food is known to be available in sufficient quantities and at a competitive cost, and the purchase may benefit the local economy; or

(b) international purchases by SPAS at Headquarters. From time to time, SFAS may seek purchasing assistance from WFP, when WFP can help UNHCR expeditiously and purchase at a lower cost.

2.8.2 Occasionally, donors may agree to supply commodities which UNHCR sells in the host country to provide funds to buy local surpluses of other products for refugees. This is most effective in countries which lack hard currencies to buy international foodstuffs in demand among the local population. As an example, the UNHCR field office in one African country obtained a donation of wheat flour. With the agreement of the donor, this consignment was sold in the host country and the proceeds were used to purchase local sorghum, preferred by the refugees.

2.8.3 Each UNHCR food purchase must comply with all purchasing, shipping, insurance and reporting requirements, including:

(a) specifications of the commodity, quantity, packing and labelling;

(b) preparation of a Quotation Request and competitive bidding;

(c) selection of the supplier and placement of the order;

(d) insurance and shipment;

(e) ensuring that the goods delivered meet the terms of the purchase agreement with respect to quantity, quality, price and delivery, and that a quality inspection is carried out immediately upon receipt;

(f) reporting receipt and condition of food purchases, and filing insurance claims as necessary; and

(g) distribution reporting, as specified in the LOI or the CAF.

2.8.4 All UNHCR food consignments are subject to an independent professional inspection of their quality and packaging, with a thorough laboratory analysis if there is any cause for suspicion that food is contaminated and unfit for human consumption. Contracts for food supplies stipulate that payment is subject to satisfactory inspection of the quality, quantity and packaging of the goods for the conditions of transit and storage.

2.8.5 Provide copies of all relevant documentation to the SFAS Food Aid Coordination Officer at Headquarters, for monitoring and tracking purposes.

2.9 Emergency Food Aid

2.9.1 When an immediate response is required, the focal point for UNHCR emergency food aid is in the UNHCR field office, in close consultation with the geographic desk at Headquarters and other personnel assigned to coordinate the emergency. Conduct an assessment of food needs for the refugee emergency with the assistance of local nutritional and health experts and WFP officials. Request additional resource personnel from Headquarters, as necessary. Consider the following options to meet emergency food needs:

- Borrow food supplies on hand, from the government, WFP or other international organizations, to be replaced as soon as possible by WFP or UNHCR.

- Purchase food locally, an excellent option if sufficient and sound foodstocks are available. Avoid causing significant local price increases, however. Do not buy supplies intended for and needed by the local population, and do not compete for supplies with other aid organizations. Beware of buying commodities which have already been donated free of charge under other aid programmes in the host country.

- Request an airlift of international supplies to meet immediate short-term needs.

- Request re-direction of international shipments en route to other destinations.

2.9.2 Determine the extent of WFP's capability to assist with the emergency. Involve local WFP officials in assessing, screening and registering the refugees. If SFAS at Headquarters and the local WFP office indicate that WFP in Rome can help to meet emergency food needs, cooperate with local WFP officials to help the host government establish an emergency food aid request and agreement with WFP.

2.9.3 In an emergency, normal management processes and organizational requirements can be accelerated on a priority basis, but they cannot be ignored. FRS and SFAS at Headquarters approach the normal sources of refugee food aid - WFP, the EC and other donors - to meet the emergency needs expeditiously, sometimes by a special appeal. The systematic planning and coordination of global food aid in SFAS permits a degree of flexibility which can allow for sudden changes in refugee situations. Assessing what food aid is in the delivery pipeline and what food stocks are on hand at various refugee locations can result in a decision to re-route food shipments to the refugee emergency.


Update of Chapter 3, February 1997

Since the publication of Chapter 10 - The Supplies and Food Aid Field Handbook in June 1996, UNHCR procurement procedures and policies have undergone a number of developments. The Supply and Transport Section plans to reissue the document in 1998 following the finalisation of the new purchasing structure that is emerging from Delphi. In the meantime, we wish to highlight the following major changes in Chapter 3 that are applicable to procurement by all Field Offices.

· Please read Supply and Transport Section (STS) for Supply and Food Aid Service

· Chart 3.C (Page 51) is revised to differentiate between purchasing procedures at Headquarters and the Field.

· Paragraph 3.3.3 (Page 52) should now read, "Purchases by Field Offices under US$5,000 and by STS under US$20,000 do not require formal Quotation Requests. Purchasing Officers are expected......."

· Paragraph 3.3.7 (Page 53) should now read, "All purchases of more than US$5,000 by Field Offices and US$20,000 or more by STS are subject to the issue of a formal written Quotation Request to selected suppliers, asking them to submitted sealed quotations within a specified time frame. See Annex VIII...."

· Paragraph 3.3.11 (Page 55) should now read, "For purchases by Field Offices under US$50,000, the Purchasing Focal Point may place the order based on the documented selection. Procurement of goods and services by Field Offices of US$50,000 or more and up to US$100,000, must be approved by a Purchasing Committee. The authority and responsibilities of the Purchasing Committee are defined in Paragraph 7 of Section 4.7 of Chapter 4 of the UNHCR Manual. STS staff may place orders up to the level of their delegated authority on their own authority. Above this limit, the Purchase Order must be co-signed by a senior STS officer before it is issued to the supplier. For purchases of US$100,000 or more a submission to the local or Headquarters Committee on Contracts, as applicable, for their approval is required. The authority and responsibilities of the Local Committee on Contracts is defined in Paragraph 8 of Section 4.7 and the Headquarters, Committee on Contracts in Annex 8.5."

· Paragraph 3.3.12 (Page 55) should now read. "The UNHCR Committee on Contracts reviews general contracting policy and approves all UNHCR purchases and contracts exceeding US$100,000 per single order or series of related orders. Related orders are defined in UNHCR as all contracts entered into with one supplier within the previous period of 90 days which, in total, amount to US$100,000 or more, excluding, however, contracts that have been the subject of the Committee's previous approval. Related orders must be notified to the Committee as per the instructions contained in memorandum OPS 8.7 dated 1 March 1996 attached."

· In the event of other contradictions between Chapter 10 and Chapter 4 on procurement issues, Chapter 4 takes precedence.


3.1.1 Donors are UNHCR's primary source of all programme supplies and food aid for refugees. Donors provide contributions in kind and in cash to UNHCR to meet the needs of refugees located in many parts of the world. A large portion of donor contributions for food aid are channelled through WFP. Annual donor cash commitments fund UNHCR's General Programmes. Donors provide additional funding and in-kind contributions for UNHCR's special appeals for refugee emergencies. Donors may also choose to earmark their contributions for particular refugee programmes. All UNHCR personnel, at Headquarters and in the field, must recognize our dependency on these donors. Use the resources they provide to protect and assist the refugees in the most effective and efficient manner, and be accountable to our donors for the results achieved.

3.1.2 A major part of refugee food aid comes from WFP and in-kind contributions to UNHCR. Some food aid and most other material assistance for refugees must be purchased from available cash resources:

(a) SFAS at Headquarters - makes international purchases which are transported to the countries hosting the refugees who need assistance, in response to requests for programme supplies from UNHCR field offices which have been reviewed and authorized by the geographic desk. SFAS is assisted by the Purchasing Liaison Officer in Nairobi and the Regional Logistics Officer in Djibouti, who make international purchases from suppliers located in East Africa.

(b) UNHCR field offices - make local or regional purchases in the host country or neighbouring countries with funds authorized and allocated by the geographic desk at Headquarters.

(c) Implementing partners - make purchases from their own funds and UNHCR-sponsored and approved project budgets.

3.1.3 Whether you are involved directly in identifying and acquiring material assistance for refugees or only monitor the supply process, ensure compliance with the purchasing policies, standards and practices outlined in this Handbook to minimize costs, maximize quality and assure prompt, safe and reliable delivery to the beneficiaries whose needs must be met.

Chart 3.A: UNHCR Sources of Supplies and Food Aid for Refugees



3.2.1 In UNHCR, purchasing authority means the authority to enter into a legally binding agreement with a supplier for the provision of goods or services to UNHCR. Normally, these arrangements are in the form of a written Purchase Order or contract, which includes all the terms and conditions relating to the supply of goods or services to UNHCR and the payment to be made by UNHCR to the supplier.

3.2.2 Purchasing authority may be exercised only by those officers in UNHCR to whom this authority has been delegated. SFAS staff at Headquarters and designated UNHCR officials in the field have been assigned purchasing responsibilities, to enable them to act speedily to obtain what is needed, while conforming with the principles of getting the best value for money spent, in a timely, fair and open manner. These purchasing responsibilities are subject to the following restrictions and limitations:

- No purchase may be initiated without first receiving authorization from the geographic desk or other UNHCR official who certifies that the necessary funds to purchase the specified goods or services have been allocated and are available to pay the supplier.

- Within established US-dollar limitations, all purchasing procedures are followed, including competitive pricing or bidding, selection of the most suitable supplier, and approval by the Committee on Contracts where necessary.

3.2.3 Except where locally administered budgets have been provided or where implementing partners make purchases from their allocated project funds, all UNHCR purchases must be authorized through the geographic desk at Headquarters:

(a) International purchases - The geographic desk issues a Purchase Authorization (see Annex VII) to SFAS for programme supplies or informs the Budget and Management Section concerning requests for administrative supplies.

(b) Local or regional purchases - The geographic desk issues an LOI which includes authorization and the necessary budget for the UNHCR field office to make a local or regional purchase.

3.2.4 The purchasing authority signifies that the necessary funds have been allocated to pay for the requested supplies. The Purchasing Officer subsequently charges the related costs of the purchase to the specified project, budget, sector and line item.

Chart 3.B: Checklist for Obtaining Purchase Authorization

1. Are the needs identified essential to fulfil UNHCR's mandate for assisting refugees?

2. Can the needs potentially be met by donations in kind?

3. Have full specifications for the goods to be purchased been documented, including technical and quantitative details, packing, labelling and shipping requirements? Is local servicing and technical support available for proposed equipment and vehicle purchases?

4. Are the goods available locally at comparable quality and price, or should they be purchased internationally?

5. Are sufficient funds available in the budget to which the purchase will be charged?

6. Has proper approval to purchase been delegated in an LOI, MOD or other document?

7. Has all information been provided:

- to the focal point for purchasing in the field office?
- to the geographic desk at Headquarters?

Chart 3.C: UNHCR Purchasing Limitations and Procedures at Headquarters and in the Field


International Purchases Through STS

Regional/Local Purchases


STS Purchasing Officers, Assistants and Clerks*

Chief of STS, Senior Purchasing Officers and Heads of Units

UNHCR Representative, Regional Procurement Officer and Designated Purchasing focal Point

Less than US$2,500

· Funds available
· Compare prices from at least 3 catalogues or informal offers
· Best offer selected

Over US$2,500 up to US$5,000

· Funds available
· Formal Quotation Request not required
· At least 3 written offers received
· Best offer selected
· Written record of selection criteria

Under US$4,000

· Funds available
· Compare 3 prices from at least 3 catalogues or informal offers
· Best offer selected

US$4,000 up to US$20,000

· Funds available
· Formal Quotation Request not required
· At least 3 written offers received
· Best offer selected
· Written record of selection criteria

Over US$5,000 up to US$50,000

· Funds available
· Formal Quotation Request required
· At least three written offers received
· Offers tabulated and compared
· Written record of selection criteria

US$20,000 up to US$100,000

· Funds available
· Formal Quotation Request required
· At least three competitive written offers received
· Offers tabulated and compared
· Written record of selection criteria

For purchases above the authority level of the responsible buyer:
· Verify documented selection
· Approve Bid Tabulation
· Co-sign Purchase Order before issue to supplier

Over 50,000 up to US$100,000

· Funds available
· Formal Quotation Request required
· At least three competitive written offers received Offers tabulated and compared
· Purchasing Committee to consider offers and approve purchase.
· Written record of selection criteria

US$100,000 or more

· Funds available
· Formal Quotation Request required
· At least 4 competitive written offers received
· Offers tabulated and compared
· Written recommendation to Committee on Contracts justifying selected offer made in conjunction with Desk or PCS where appropriate.
· Approval of Committee on Contracts obtained.

· Review and sign recommendation to the Committee on Contracts.
· Approve Purchase Order to supplier as approved by the Committee on Contracts.

The procedure in the field is the same as for international purchases through STS.

* STS staff may make purchases up to the level of their delegated authority.

Revised: 2/97


3.3.1 Once the geographic desk provides purchasing authority, the SFAS Purchasing Officers at Headquarters, the Purchasing Liaison Officer in Nairobi, the Regional Logistics Officer in Djibouti or a designated Purchasing Officer in a UNHCR field office may initiate the purchasing process.

3.3.2 Before proceeding, confirm that the requirement is clearly defined in terms of specifications, timeframe for delivery, consignee, destination and allocated budget. Depending on the US-dollar limitations for a particular requirement for material assistance, follow the appropriate procedures outlined below to select a suitable supplier, place the order and follow through to delivery to the consignee and payment to the supplier.

3.3.3 Purchases under US $20,000 do not require formal Quotation Requests. Purchasing Officers are expected, however, to comply with established UNHCR purchasing principles and whenever possible, negotiate with suppliers to obtain the best price available for the goods to be purchased. Written Purchase Orders or supply contracts are necessary for all purchases, and all deliveries and payments must be documented.

Chart 3.D: Purchasing Checklist

1. Are the details of the goods required and the funds allocated sufficient to place an order with a supplier?

2. Has the purchase been properly authorized?

3. Does the value of the goods require quotations or competitive bids from suppliers?

4. For purchases over US $20,000, has a formal Quotation Request, providing a full description of the goods to be supplied, been issued to at least three potential suppliers and bids received by the stated closing date and time?

5. Have the suppliers' quotations been tabulated and compared?

6. Does the selected supplier appear to provide the best value for money spent?

7. For orders over US $35,000, but under US $70,000, has another UNHCR officer reviewed the supplier comparison for agreement with the selection:

- the geographic desk at Headquarters, for local or regional purchases?
- the Head of SFAS or the Senior Purchasing Officer, for international purchases?

8. For orders over US $70,000, has a submission been prepared for and approved by the UNHCR Committee on Contracts?

9. Has a Purchase Order, including full details of the goods to be supplied, been issued to the supplier and acknowledged as accepted, in writing?

10. Have copies of the Purchase Order been sent to all UNHCR officers concerned?

11. Have other suppliers who bid, but were unsuccessful, been notified that the contract has been awarded?

12. Should the goods be inspected? If yes, has an inspection company been contracted?

Selection of Suitable Suppliers

3.3.4 Maintain detailed information files on potential UNHCR suppliers, so that those who are selected to quote on particular requirements are known, insofar as possible, to be able to do so competitively.

3.3.5 SFAS at Headquarters operates an automated inventory of approved international suppliers of items commonly required by UNHCR. Each Purchasing Officer in the field should have a list, with supporting information files, of approved local or regional suppliers who can meet UNHCR's purchasing needs. Identify potential suppliers from local telephone books, trade directories, the local Chamber of Commerce, the government ministry responsible for commercial affairs, or by referral from other international organizations.

3.3.6 To assure the effective operation of an open, competitive purchasing system, deal with all suppliers fairly and equally. When issuing Quotation Requests, normally select four to eight potential suppliers, depending on the estimated value of the order. For large or technically complex orders, a prequalification process may be advisable, to direct the Quotation Request to a list of selected suppliers known to have the necessary capabilities to deliver to UNHCR's specifications.

Chart 3.E: Supplier Information Files

1. Full legal name of supplier, mailing address, street address, telephone, telex and facsimile numbers.

2. Historical and business data: business ownership, when founded, manufacturing facilities, number of employees, and name of parent, subsidiary or affiliated companies.

3. Financial data: annual sales volume for the past several years, recent financial statements and bank reference.

4. Management data: names of senior executives, corporate memberships in trade or professional associations, and industrial certifications.

5. Supply information: management and quality assurance techniques involved in supplying goods or services. Details of the goods or services supplied, timing of delivery, warranties, packing and shipping capabilities, normal payment terms, after-sales service facilities.

6. Corporate brochures: product information and other descriptive literature.

7. References: current and recent major clients, goods or services supplied, and value of the orders.

8. Comments on past performance: performance information about previous contracts with UNHCR.

Quotation Requests

3.3.7 All purchases exceeding US $20,000 are subject to the issue of a written Quotation Request to selected suppliers, asking them to submit sealed quotations within a specified timeframe. See Annex VIII for an illustrative example.

3.3.8 Give a copy of the Quotation Request to an independent third party who will receive all quotations submitted. At Headquarters, the Secretary to the Committee on Contracts verifies that all potential suppliers have complied with the bidding procedures and that quotations being considered were received before the closing date and time. Late quotations are not accepted.

Chart 3.F: Content Requirements for Quotation Requests

1. Provide complete, accurate information, intended to have the same Impact on all prospective suppliers, to obtain information from the supplier which will be needed for comparison in the bid tabulation phase. Avoid giving supplementary information to one supplier after the Quotation Request is issued, without sharing that information with all the potential bidders.

2. Identify UNHCR as the originator, giving full particulars of where and by when (date and time of bid closing) the offer must be submitted. Normally, at least one week is permitted to respond, but this time should be extended for more technical requirements, and can be considerably shorter for special or emergency purchases.

3. Identify the individual supplier, showing the full legal name and mailing address, and other details such as the telex number and the name of the contact person. Individual bidders are not usually told which other suppliers have been asked to bid, a practice intended to avoid possible collusion which would adversely affect the competitive process.

4. Provide full specifications of the requirement, including minimum quality standards, where appropriate, which can be verified by inspection. Samples of smaller items to be purchased in quantity and descriptive literature may also be requested for evaluation purposes.

5. Specify shipping requirements, requesting the supplier to quote C&F (cost and freight) to a named destination or, less frequently, FOB (free on board), Ex-Works or any other shipping terms. Also, include packing and labelling requirements, mode of transport (sea, air, land), distribution of shipping documents and shipping notification, and the destination where the supplier is expected to deliver the goods.

6. State the timeframe for the proposed order, from issue of the contract to final delivery at destination, and the period during which the supplier's quotation should remain valid pending placement of the order (usually at least 30 days).

7. Outline any other UNHCR requirements, such as independent inspection prior to loading. Consider requesting performance bonds or the use of holdbacks to assure contract performance.

8. Request the supplier to quote total value, currency for payment and payment terms, usually identifying the cost of the goods or services and any freight or other charges separately. UNHCR's normal payment terms may be included for information.

Tabulation of Bids

3.3.9 After the closing date and time stipulated in the Quotation Request, assess each quotation received to identify any secondary factors or conditions, such as payment terms or delivery timing, which disqualify the bid and may be renegotiated to qualify it.

3.3.10 Compare each acceptable quotation using the Tabulation of Bids form and Continuation Sheet (see Annex IX), to minimize the supporting narrative. List the bidders on the comparison table and analyze each supplier's compliance with the specifications, delivery and pricing data. Also, consider special factors which may apply, such as the operating costs of a piece of equipment or the local availability of after-sales service. Based on your analysis, note the recommended supplier at the bottom of the form and provide the reasons for your selection.

3.3.11 For purchases under US $35,000 the Purchasing Officer may place the order based on the documented selection. For purchases under US $70,000 the Purchasing Officer must seek the agreement of another Purchasing Officer in SFAS for international purchases, or the Head of Desk for local or regional purchases. For purchases in excess of US $70.000 a submission to the Committee on Contracts for their approval is required.

Submissions to the Committee on Contracts

3.3.12 The UNHCR Committee on Contracts reviews general contracting policy and approves all UNHCR purchases and contracts exceeding US $70,000 per single order or series of related orders. A series of purchases from the same supplier or related major purchases from different suppliers which, in the aggregate, exceed US $70,000 should be presented to the Committee for their consideration and agreement.

3.3.13 The responsible Purchasing Officer prepares submissions to the Committee on Contracts. The recommended supplier is normally the one who submitted the lowest quotation which meets the required specifications and timeframe for delivery. The Head of Desk or Chief of the support service concerned cosigns the covering memorandum.

3.3.14 Regular submissions to the Committee at Headquarters must reach the Secretary to the Committee at least 24 hours prior to their weekly meeting, normally scheduled for Friday morning. Concerned Headquarters staff from SPAS, the geographic desk, or FRS in the case of purchases from earmarked cash contributions, attend the meeting. They may provide additional clarification at the request of Committee members and also learn of the Committee's decision immediately. The Secretary records the decisions of the Committee in the minutes of each meeting, and signed copies are forwarded to all concerned UNHCR personnel.

3.3.15 In emergency situations, the Secretary may circulate a submission to the Committee members immediately. The members record their individual decision on the submission. Committee approval for a fully documented emergency submission can usually be obtained the same day. The collective decision is confirmed at the Committee's next formal meeting.

3.3.16 In the field, the UNHCR Representative may consider establishing a Local Committee on Contracts, particularly in the early stages of a major operation when required goods are known to be available locally or regionally. Seek authority from Headquarters to establish this Committee. A period of validity and any upper limits on the value of contracts which can be awarded are normally stipulated, and other conditions may apply. Additional information is provided in Part II of the UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies.

Chart 3.G: Submissions to the Committee on Contracts

1. Include the following information in the covering memorandum:

- Project symbol and title.

- CAF or MOD number, if applicable.

- References to other relevant correspondence and authorizations.

- Brief summary of the need, to explain the purchasing action.

- List of the items or services for which the Purchase Order will be issued.

- Recommended supplier(s), items and quantities to be provided.

- Delivery terms.

- Costs of the goods/services, freight, insurance and inspection, as appropriate, and total costs.

- Justification for selecting the recommended supplier.

- Certification that sufficient funds are available to cover the proposed expenditure.

2. When requesting emergency procedures, give the reason in the first paragraph.

3. Attachments:

- Tabulation of Bids.

- Any other details or documents to support the recommendation for supplier selection.

Purchase Orders and Supplier Contracts

3.3.17 After all the necessary steps for supplier selection have been completed and approvals obtained, the authorized officer issues a Purchase Order (see Annex X) or contract for the goods or services quoted. Include all terms and conditions which apply to the purchase, consistent with the selected quotation. The Purchase Order is signed on behalf of UNHCR and forwarded to the supplier for signature. One fully executed copy is returned to the Purchasing Officer to establish the legal contractual obligations between UNHCR and the supplier.

3.3.18 Forward copies of the Purchase Order to the geographic desk, the consignee, other concerned parties and, for purchases from cash donations, to FRS at Headquarters. Retain the original, signed copy for the Purchasing File.

3.3.19 As a sign of courtesy and to maintain goodwill, notify unsuccessful bidders for the same supply requirement that the Purchase Order has been issued. An example of a Letter of Regret is shown in Annex XI. If enquiries are received from unsuccessful bidders, the Purchasing Officer may tell them the country or origin of the winning bid, the approximate difference in price as a percentage, and the reasons their bid was technically or commercially unacceptable.

3.3.20 Informal contact with UNHCR suppliers is discouraged. All conversations should be documented in a note to file. Any amendments to a written agreement with a supplier must be issued in writing, showing full details of the original agreement and the amended terms. To avoid any confusion about who told what to whom and when, suppliers must deal exclusively with Purchasing Officers; other UNHCR personnel should never contact suppliers directly concerning their purchasing requirements or UNHCR contractual arrangements.

Chart 3.H: Contents of a Purchasing File

Place copies of all documentation related to each purchasing action on a Purchasing File:

1. Basic Documents

· Purchase Authorization, relevant LOI or other project authority to proceed.
· Supporting documentation or any amendments.

2. Quotation Request*

· Copy of Quotation Request sent to suppliers.
· Suppliers' bids (unsuccessful).
· Regret letters.

3. Successful Bidder/Committee on Contracts

· Bid of successful supplier.
· Tabulation of Bids.
· Submission to the Committee on Contracts (if applicable).

4. Purchase Order*

· Original copy of the Purchase Order, signed by the supplier and UNHCR.

* If more than one, please subdivide.

5. Inspection (if applicable)

· Inspection contract.
· Inspection Certificate.

6. Shipping and Insurance

· All information regarding shipping and insurance, including telexes.
· One complete set of shipping documents.
· Insurance Certificate.

7. Payments

· Suppliers/inspection invoices.
· Payment requests and supporting documentation.

8. Receiving/Distribution Reports

· Receiving report from consignee.
· Distribution report (donations).
· Related correspondence and documentation.

9. Insurance Claim (if any)

· Copies of all claims documentation, including Protest Letter, survey report, etc.

10. General

· Other documents related to the particular purchase which cannot be placed in the file under one of the specified headings above.

Inspection of Consignments

3.3.21 Where inspection of the goods being supplied has been deemed appropriate and the inspection is indicated in the Purchase Order or contract issued to the supplier, select an inspection company to perform the quality and quantity assurances required. Follow standard UNHCR purchasing procedures to do so. Provide complete instructions concerning each consignment to the inspection company. See Chapter 1, Identification of Needs.

3.3.22 Inspections may be conducted during manufacture, prior to the shipment of a consignment, and/or on delivery. Notify the inspection company and the supplier when the timing for the prescribed inspection is known. On completion, the inspector issues an Inspection Certificate and releases the consignment, or he rejects goods which do not meet stated specifications. Inadequate, damaged or rejected goods must be the subject of further negotiation with the supplier.

3.4 Shipping and Insurance

3.4.1 For C&F purchases, shipping instructions are included in the Purchase Order or supplier's contract. If goods are accepted FOB or ex-works, separate shipping instructions are necessary, to the forwarding agent, transport company, implementing partner or consignee who will be responsible for picking up and delivering the consignment.

3.4.2 For international purchases, the supplier must notify SFAS at Headquarters by telex when the goods are ready for shipment, and again when the consignment is loaded and has departed from the point of origin. This information is relayed to the UNHCR consignee field office. Shipping instructions to the supplier also specify requirements for shipping documents and their distribution. SFAS normally arranges insurance for international purchases under the UNHCR Worldwide Open Cover Marine Cargo insurance policy.

3.4.3 For local or regional purchases, the supplier should be responsible, whenever possible, for delivering the consignment to the final destination ware house or storage area. This may be termed «Free delivered warehouse ... (final destination)». The cost of the goods includes delivery and the liability rests with the supplier until the goods are turned over to the consignee at the destination. With these delivery terms, UNHCR or the consignee does not have to arrange transportation or related shipping insurance for the consignment. Only the goods actually delivered in acceptable condition are paid for, thereby providing the maximum protection against loss or damage to the buyer.

3.4.4 Various other arrangements can be made to move and protect the goods between the supplier's premises and their final destination where the beneficiaries are located. If ownership remains with the supplier until delivery, he also retains the risk and the liability to replace any lost or damaged goods. When ownership is passed to UNHCR or other consignee, so also is the risk. The liability of contracted carriers is limited, and should not be relied on for restitution in the event of loss or damage. Insure goods transported at UNHCR's risk under the UNHCR Worldwide Open Cover Marine Cargo insurance policy, arranged through SFAS at Headquarters. If the risk has been transferred to an implementing partner, ensure that they have adequate insurance protection against loss or damage. Verify that the project agreement or budget makes provision to cover the cost of such insurance.

3.4.5 The Purchasing Officer must confirm that all documentation has been provided, insurance coverage is in place, and the consignee has been notified and is prepared to receive the consignment.

3.4.6 The consignee must make all local arrangements for clearing, inspecting, receiving, transporting, storing and distributing the consignment. See Chapter 4, Receipt of Shipments.

3.5 Payments to Suppliers

3.5.1 The Purchasing Officer establishes the payment terms in the Purchase Order or supplier's contract. Normal UNHCR terms for international purchases are payment by cheque or bank transfer within 30 days following receipt of the invoice and shipping documents in order. For purchases from countries with foreign exchange or banking restrictions, payments to suppliers can be made by letter of credit. For local or regional purchases, payments should be made by cheque in local currency, payable to the supplier and drawn against a local bank account, in accordance with standard field office practice and delegated authority. Any other payment terms require the approval of the geographic desk and SFAS at Headquarters.

3.5.2 On large orders with phased delivery, interim or progress payments against the contract may be authorized under the terms of the supplier agreement. Advance payments, however, are usually not allowed.

3.5.3 Examine the invoice, the shipping/delivery documentation and the terms of the Purchase Order. Any discrepancy must be investigated and explained in writing. Provided the amount of the Purchase Order is not exceeded, initiate payment. If the invoice amount exceeds the amount on the Purchase Order, determine the reason. If the overexpenditure is justified, request an amendment of the purchasing authorization and establish that sufficient funds to cover the additional amount are allocated before making the payment. If the overexpenditure cannot be justified, negotiate with the supplier to reduce the amount of the invoice to an agreed sum. If there are any credit notes or amounts receivable from the supplier because of previous orders, offset these amounts against the current payment.

3.6 International Purchases

3.6.1 Acting on a Purchase Authorization (see Annex VII) issued by the geographic desk, SPAS at Headquarters makes international purchases on behalf of UNHCR field offices. SFAS confirms shipping and insurance arrangements up to the named destination, and follows through with suppliers and consignees to verify delivery of every international consignment.

3.6.2 Copies of all relevant documentation and information are forwarded to the UNHCR consignee field office to indicate progress on the acquisition of requested material assistance for the refugees. In addition to information telexes, SFAS provides copies of each Purchase Authorization registered to initiate purchasing action, the Purchase Order placed with the supplier, and a Shipping/Insurance Advice and Receiving Report with a complete set of shipping documents.

3.6.3 SFAS also produces several monthly status reports from data on their automated Purchasing System. These are sent to each geographic desk and UNHCR consignee field office that have outstanding purchase requests or shipments:

(a) Purchase Authorization Status Report - lists all Purchase Authorizations received during the month, and includes details on the issue of related Quotation Requests and Purchase Orders.

(b) Purchase Order Status Report - provides information on Purchase Orders placed, the name of the supplier, the value of the order and the proposed delivery timeframe and shipping mode.

(c) Shipping Status Report - lists all shipments for the month for which shipping documents were received and processed, and shows actual departure and estimated arrival dates, transport details and destination.

3.6.4 Use these reports to confirm that the geographic desk and SFAS have actioned purchase requests submitted, and to follow up on outstanding requests, planned deliveries, receiving reports and insurance claims.


3.7.1 If funds are available through a donation or within a given budget, and proper purchasing authority has been given by Headquarters to proceed, goods may be purchased locally or regionally. Local purchases are made from suppliers in the host country where the UNHCR field office is situated. Regional purchases are actually international purchases initiated by a UNHCR field office, usually from suppliers located in nearby countries. The Purchasing Liaison Officer in Nairobi and the Regional Logistics Officer in Djibouti can assist field offices in making regional purchases in East Africa.

3.7.2 Examine the market potential and capabilities before deciding to purchase locally, regionally or internationally. Consult SFAS at Headquarters for information on comparative quality, prices and timing of delivery for internationally available goods to make your assessment. To stimulate the local economy, UN organizations are encouraged to make local purchases if goods are available and prices do not exceed the international C&F values by more than 10 to 15 per cent.

3.7.3 Avoid paying local taxes on purchases which, if purchased regionally or internationally, would be tax exempt. Try to extend UNHCR's tax exempt status to local purchases, or arrange for tax rebates from the government. Purchases from regional manufacturers or suppliers are usually supplied duty and tax free to UNHCR. Examine bilateral or regional trade conventions which may provide more advantageous terms.

3.7.4 When making local or regional purchases, field offices must follow UNHCR's prescribed purchasing practices to ensure an open, competitive process for selecting local suppliers and to obtain the best value for money.

3.7.5 Long delays between the submission of a purchase request and placement of a Purchase Order should be avoided. Particularly when requesting authority to make a local or regional purchase, the field office may discover that:

(a) proposed suppliers are out of stock or out of business by the time the order is placed; or

(b) currency exchange fluctuations have adversely affected the quantity of goods which can be purchased from the established budget.

Chart 3.I: Local or Regional Purchasing



Speed and flexibility of delivery, if goods are available ex-stock or manufactured locally.

Unacceptable demand on available stocks, causing scarcity and price increases for local citizens.

Acceptability of local goods by the refugee population.

Potential competition between international organizations to purchase the same goods.

Reduction of shipping costs, if goods are available in or near the area where the refugees are located.

Possibly poorer quality of locally supplied goods.

Benefits and incentives to the local economy, particularly in areas affected by a large refugee influx.

Prices uncompetitive with international C&F prices.

Positive impact on the country's balance of payments, when payments for local goods are made in foreign currency.

Possibility of having to pay local taxes hidden in purchase price.

Inconsistency of local commercial practices with international purchasing standards, particularly competitive tendering and confidentiality.

Unwillingness or inability of suppliers to fulfil their contractual obligations.


3.8.1 Through project agreements, UNHCR may delegate authority and provide funds to implementing partners to make purchases in support of refugee projects. The sums involved can be substantial. UNHCR officials in the field should facilitate and monitor these purchasing activities. The procedures and controls applied should provide an open, competitive and accountable process to obtain supplies which meet project requirements at the lowest available cost.

3.8.2 Where several implementing partners are involved in related refugee projects requiring quantities of similar supplies, UNHCR field offices can coordinate local or regional purchasing action. In Costa Rica, the UNHCR Regional Office in San Jos has been instrumental in forming a Purchasing Committee made up of officials from each implementing agency having responsibilities for refugees in various programme sectors and regions. The Committee consolidates the annual supply requirement of the agencies, oversees the tendering process and selects suitable local suppliers to meet the combined needs.

3.8.3 The Purchasing Committee, comprising one official from each agency and UNHCR, identifies total quantities and specifications for each item, prepares a list of qualified suppliers and formulates Quotation Requests, which are issued to potential bidders. The Committee then reviews the bids submitted in terms of quality of goods, prices and compliance with other terms in the Quotation Request, selecting suppliers and deciding on follow-up action. They may consider further negotiations with selected suppliers for additional discounts or re-tendering for items where response was inadequate.

3.8.4 The savings achieved can be significant, but the UNHCR effort to facilitate the process is time consuming. Where the potential for such procedures exists. UNHCR field offices should seek advice from SFAS at Headquarters. Consultants with relevant commercial and purchasing experience may be available to facilitate the periodic consolidated purchasing process.

Chart 3.J: Purchasing Procedures of Implementing Partners

Documented purchasing procedures should include a suitable division of responsibility and delegated authority for:

· Planning and budgeting for annual supply requirements.

· Identification of needs, development of specifications and approval to take purchasing action.

· Criteria for deciding to purchase locally or internationally.

· Lists of qualified suppliers.

· Budgetary and financial controls.

· Issue of Quotation Requests and receipt of sealed bids.

· Evaluation of suppliers' bids, supplier selection and placement of an authorized written Purchase Order, specifying type, quantity, quality of goods, packing and inspection, if necessary, delivery and insurance instructions, shipping documents and payment terms.

· Confirmation of receipt and, in the event of non-performance, loss or damage, requirements for follow-up action or insurance claims.

· Supplier payment methodology, authorizations and documentation requirements.

Chart 3.K: Benefits of Consolidated Purchasing

· Purchasing procedures are streamlined, reducing duplication of effort and unnecessary inter-agency competition for goods in the same marketplace.

· A consistent quality of goods is provided for all refugee assistance projects in the region.

· Generally accepted financial rules and bidding practices for competitive purchasing are applied.

· Quantity purchases result in better unit prices from suppliers.

· If UNHCR makes purchases on behalf of our implementing partners, potential added savings may result from local tax exemptions.

3.9 Donations in Kind and Cash

3.9.1 Annual cash donations are allocated to specific refugee programmes which have been approved by the Executive Committee. Most other donations, whether in kind or cash, have conditions attached to them, and the value of the donation is applied against the project budget to which it is pledged. If an approved budget already provides sufficient funds for needed items of material assistance, other than food, seek authority to purchase the goods, rather than considering the possibility of a donation. Asking FRS to negotiate with donors for a specific in-kind contribution can involve a disproportionate amount of time. Earmarked donations are considered primarily for Complementary or Supplementary Foods or special appeals, to fill gaps when donations can be provided expeditiously, or to supply previously undetermined needs.

3.9.2 Donations in cash for UNHCR's programmes are always welcome. Once applied to a project budget, cash may be used to make local, regional or international purchases of supplies and food aid. The only restriction for earmarked cash donations is that UNHCR field personnel must comply with the terms and reporting requirements stipulated in the donor agreement, the CAF and the project agreement.

3.9.3 Some offers of in-kind donations are timely and essential to the achievement of UNHCR's programme objectives. They may be for something you actually need and have planned. Some offers will be seen immediately to be outside the requirements of the refugee programme or inappropriate for the proposed refugee population. Others will be tempting - items for which there might be a need in the future. If you want them, why are they not planned needs already? If they were forgotten, include them now. Consider local handling and storage capacity for such gifts.

3.9.4 In accepting in-kind donations, confirm that the planned delivery date coincides with timing needs for effective programme operations. Also, examine the value of the donation and related costs carefully, especially if its value will be netted against the established programme budget. Goods supplied by donors, including freight and other costs, may be much more expensive than similar goods which meet minimum acceptable standards and are purchased from regular UNHCR sources.

4.1 Local Facilities, Capabilities and Requirements

4.1.1 In many refugee programmes, large quantities of supplies and food aid are donated or purchased internationally. They arrive from outside the host country, transported by ships, airplanes or overland by trucks or trains. Receiving and handling these shipments in a timely manner needs good coordination and careful attention to documentation requirements and port clearance procedures:

(a) to meet government import regulations;
(b) to take delivery from the transporter; and
(c) to notify Headquarters that the goods have been received, and their condition on receipt.

4.1.2 UNHCR international purchases and donations are normally made C&F (cost and freight), and shipped by sea to a named seaport in the host country. UNHCR arranges shipping insurance. If shipping insurance is provided by a donor or supplier, the shipment terms are CIF (cost, insurance and freight). For landlocked countries and regions, the named destination may be inland, in which case a Notify Party may be requested to provide assistance at the initial port of entry for in-transit shipments.

4.1.3 Air shipments are usually delivered to the international airport nearest the UNHCR consignee field office, while international shipments by rail or road arrive at a customs depot or bonded warehouse, from which the consignee can take delivery.

4.1.4 For all shipments, the consignee requires certain information and documentation promptly, to take action to expedite the receipt, clearance and final distribution of the shipment. For international shipments, SFAS at Headquarters has instituted procedures to ensure that this information is forthcoming for international purchases. For local or regional purchases, the UNHCR field office must ensure that similar arrangements are made with designated Purchasing Officers or suppliers.

4.1.5 Requirements for receiving locally supplied goods are usually less complex, as suppliers fulfil their contractual obligations by delivering the consignment to the location stated in the purchasing agreement, and there are no importation complications.

4.1.6 Monitor receiving arrangements and handling facilities regularly to identify any potential problems as soon as they are evident. Once an international shipment is on its way, it is usually difficult (and costly) to change the delivery instructions or to discover that receiving and handling facilities are inadequate or inoperative. Common problems in the ports of developing countries include:

(a) port congestion, which can be aggravated by the simultaneous arrival of large shipments or by delays resulting from improper shipping documentation;

(b) a shortage of equipment, labour, transport or storage in the port;

(c) unsuitable packaging of the shipment for available handling facilities; or

(d) a lack of extra sacks, drums or cartons to repack spilled or damaged goods.

4.1.7 Maintain contacts with government and port authorities who can give UNHCR shipments priority for discharging, handling and clearance. Know the capabilities of local receiving and forwarding agents and implementing partners to assist in consignment receiving and distribution operations. Assign responsibilities and define procedures for receipt, clearance, transport, storage and reporting of consignments in the context of local UNHCR field operating conditions.

4.1.8 Form SFAS/FH-1 (see Forms Annex) is a suggested checklist for the receipt and clearance of international shipments. Use this checklist, or an appropriately modified version, to ensure that action to receive, clear and distribute each consignment is timely and adequate. Maintain a Shipment Expected/Arrivals Board, to track shipments in the delivery period.

4.1.9 Keep SFAS at Headquarters informed on the arrival of each shipment. Notify them, by telex, on:

(a) receipt of the shipping documents from the supplier;
(b) receipt of the shipping documents from SFAS;
(c) arrival of the vessel/carrier;
(d) completion of discharge; and
(e) completion of customs clearance and removal from the port.


4.2.1 International suppliers must notify SFAS at Headquarters in advance of a shipment and within three days of the actual date of departure. For shipments by sea, on departure from the port of loading, the supplier immediately sends one complete set of original shipping documents to the consignee by the fastest possible means. If a Notify Party has been identified, SFAS also instructs the supplier to send another complete set of documents to the Notify Party, to facilitate the delivery of in-transit shipments.

4.2.2 SFAS relays shipping information promptly by telex to the UNHCR consignee field office, and any Notify Party. See Annex XII for an example of a shipping advice telex. On receipt, check with the carrier's agent or the receiving agent to confirm the time of arrival and initiate local arrangements to receive and deliver the consignment to its final destination.

4.2.3 SFAS receives two sets of shipping documents which are verified to be in order. They are also used to arrange shipping insurance. SFAS then forwards a Shipping/Insurance Advice and Receiving Report (see Annex XIII for an example), with one complete set of shipping documents attached, to the UNHCR consignee field office. Instructions for distribution reporting for donations are included, if appropriate.

4.2.4 In certain instances, some or all of the shipping documents may travel with the consignment because of timing considerations or standard industry practices. UNHCR consignees must track these shipments themselves, based on the information provided in the SFAS shipping notification telex:

(a) air shipments, where a complete set of shipping documents is attached to Package Number One of the consignment, including the air waybills;

(b) land shipments by road (truck) or rail, where the carrier presents the waybill on delivery of the consignment. Other shipping documents for customs clearance are forwarded to the consignee directly from the supplier; or

(c) shipments by sea of short duration, where the shipping documents accompany the cargo in the captain's bag.

4.2.5 Verify local requirements for international shipping documents and advise SFAS accordingly. SPAS must know your needs well in advance, particularly when special certificates or conditions apply, in order to advise the supplier to provide correct documentation.

4.2.6 SFAS makes every effort to supply shipping documents without delay to the UNHCR consignee field office and any Notify Party. These documents are important. They require the same care as other valuable documents, such as cheque books or refugee registration forms. They identify the shipment, its contents, and, in the case of a Bill of Lading, represent title to the goods. Never file shipping documents on receipt, unless they are copies and action on an original set has been taken:

- Process the documents to exempt the shipment from duty and taxes.

- Route them to the designated receiving agent who will present them to the captain or carrier's agent to take possession of the consignment.

- Verify the availability of port facilities, handling equipment and labourers.

- Schedule transport, storage and turnover of the consignment to the implementing partner at the final destination.

4.2.7 Once duty-free entry of the consignment is authorized, for shipments by sea the UNHCR consignee field office must endorse the Bill of Lading in favour of the designated receiving agent «... for clearance», or as appropriate. Rush all documents to the receiving agent who will handle arrangements in the port to release the shipment, with specific instructions on related port activities and reporting requirements. Annex XIV illustrates a covering memorandum which may be used for this purpose. The contents of the memorandum will vary according to local document routing and port clearance practices.

Chart 4.A: Shipping Advice - Telex Information

· Project and Purchase Order reference numbers.

· Bill of Lading, truck, rail or air waybill number.

· Exact quantity and description of the goods.

· Name of the vessel/carrier, trucking company or airline/flight number.

· Actual time of departure (ATD).

· Expected time of arrival (ETA) at the named port of discharge, and at final destination if contracted.

· Insurance details (from supplier if CIF, or SFAS if C&F).

Chart 4.B: International Shipping Documents for UNHCR Consignments

* Original Bill of Lading, Air Waybill, Truck or Rail Waybill

* Commercial Invoice

* Packing List

Certificate of Origin

Phytosanitary Certificate (for food)

Inspection Certificate or Certificate of Analysis (if applicable)

Insurance Certificate (if CIF)

Gift Certificate (if applicable)

Any other documents requested by UNHCR consignee or Headquarters, e.g., Radiation Certificate, Veterinary Certificate.

* Essential documents for all international shipments.

Chart 4.C: Importance of International Shipping Documents

1. To identify the shipment and its contents.

2. To obtain customs exemption certificate.

3. To plan requirements for handling, transport, storage and delivery of the consignment to the final destination.

4. To receive the goods from the carrier or its agent.

5. To confirm goods received against goods shipped and goods ordered.

6. To report receipt to SFAS at Headquarters.

7. To make insurance claims should loss or damage occur.

8. To exchange for a Letter of Guarantee, if this was issued before the shipping documents were received.


4.3.1 International purchases or donations enter the host country through a seaport, an international airport or a land customs depot. Countries control the flow of their imports and generate revenue through customs inspections, duties and taxes. Government customs agents will not release imported goods until all duties are paid or a customs exemption certificate is provided. If clearance action is not taken promptly, goods may be held in the port or placed in a «bonded» warehouse, accruing storage charges. Bonded warehouses located outside of the immediate port area are often used to alleviate port congestion and to protect consignments from pilferage.

4.3.2 UNHCR-supplied programme materials and food aid for the refugees are normally exempt from customs duties. UNHCR can also facilitate the duty-free clearance of supplies arriving on behalf of our implementing partners, but must exercise caution by agreeing to clear only appropriate shipments suitable for direct use in refugee programme operations. Goods imported by implementing agencies, such as office equipment, vehicles or personal effects, should not be handled by UNHCR for duty-free clearance.

4.3.3 Local requirements for customs exemption vary from country to country, and may also depend upon the nature or intended use of the goods in a consignment. In some countries, general agreements have been established for «exempt» organizations, simplifying the formalities of free entry. In other countries, each consignment must be certified separately, sometimes via a government ministry. Getting the necessary documents approved can take considerable time. Know what these requirements are for sea, air or land shipments, and who has authority to grant duty-free entry. Establish standard document lists and routing procedures to get customs exemption expeditiously.

4.3.4 Obtain an exemption certificate for each consignment as soon as possible, in advance of the arrival of the shipment. Forward the exemption certificate with the shipping documents and appropriate receiving instructions to the designated UNHCR agent, who will deal with the port authorities, customs officials, shipping agents and others to release the consignment from the port. A sample covering memorandum to use when transmitting shipping documents is attached as Annex XIV. It illustrates the type of information which should be provided to the receiving agent. Especially when the port (on the seacoast?) is some distance from the place where the exemption certificate is issued (in the capital city?), the documents must be rushed to the UNHCR agent using the fastest, most reliable means available.

Chart 4.D: Checklist of Requirements - Customs Exemption and Clearance

1. What restrictions may apply to the import of goods?

Check import restrictions before issuing a purchase request. Some commodities may not be permitted or may require special documentation: e.g., processed foods such as cheese, jam; radioactivity certificates for agricultural products. Customs often encounter difficulties when assessing the essential nature or intended use of the goods being imported: e.g., cigarettes for refugees or goods for use in income-generating projects. Be sure that the shipment is essential and can be justified under the terms of the government's exemption provided to UNHCR and its implementing partners.

2. Who is authorized to issue an exemption certificate?

Identify the senior official responsible, who may be in a government ministry or in the "exempt" organizations that are UNHCR implementing partners. Blanket exemption is preferable, which may involve various government ministries and publication in the official government gazette.

3. What documents and information are required to issue and obtain an exemption certificate?

Determine standard requirements, usually a copy of the shipping documents (Bill of Lading, commercial invoice, etc.). If the receipt of the shipping documents is not timely, a Letter of Guarantee providing a detailed description of the goods, their value, name of the vessel, number of the cargo manifest and other information may be acceptable.

4. Who handles customs clearance for UNHCR shipments?

Identify the responsible implementing partner or forwarding agent. Responsibility for customs clearance may vary according to the type of shipment, e.g., shipments arriving by sea or air, food and non-food shipments.

5. How can delays in customs clearance be avoided?

Ensure that the description of the goods in the exemption certificate accurately defines the actual goods in the consignment, and that necessary customs documentation (additional to the exemption certificate) are provided. Determine and fulfil other customs requirements, as necessary.

6. What procedures should be followed to route documents and expedite customs exemption and clearance?

Outline standard procedures explaining what documents are sent to whom to obtain the customs exemption and the subsequent routing, requirements and responsibilities to clear shipments. Clarify the action necessary to deal with potential anomalies in the standard procedures, or define separate procedures for different types of shipments/situations.

4.4 Bills of Lading and Letters of Guarantee

4.4.1 The Bill of Lading is usually prepared and issued by the shipping agent of the vessel on which the consignment is transported. See Annex XV for an example of a Bill of Lading. All the «originals» are negotiable by endorsement, and any one of these can be used to collect the goods at the port of discharge. Normally, the captain carries only a copy of the Bill of Lading on board the vessel, which is not transferable. Standard practice is to issue three originals, or four if a Notify Party is indicated:

(a) one original is sent by the supplier to the consignee (and one to the Notify Party) with the other shipping documents; and

(b) two originals are sent by the supplier to SPAS at Headquarters, who retain one original and forward the other original to the consignee field office, in case the Bill of Lading sent directly from the supplier fails to arrive.

4.4.2 A shipowner, by virtue of the Bill of Lading, is obligated to see that the goods listed are delivered to the named consignee, the person to whom the shipping company has contracted to deliver them. The Bill of Lading represents title, or ownership, of the cargo. To receive the shipment, maritime convention requires The consignee or his agent to present, to the ship's master or the ship's agent, a duly endorsed original Bill of Lading and proof of entitlement to the goods. By turning over a shipment without an original Bill of Lading or where there is any doubt as to the identity of the holder, the shipowner runs the risk of being liable for the whole market value of the goods delivered, in the event that a third party presents an original Bill of Lading and claims the goods.

4.4.3 Unless the named consignee can present himself to take delivery with an original Bill of Lading, the Bill of Lading must be endorsed on the back to transfer entitlement to an assigned agent, rather like endorsing a bank cheque. UNHCR consignees should endorse Bills of Lading only to authorized receiving agents who can then obtain the goods on proof of identity. Never endorse a Bill of Lading «To order»; this gives title of the goods to anyone in possession of the document.

4.4.4 To avoid delays in discharging and receiving the shipment, when the consignee has not received an original Bill of Lading in time to take delivery of the cargo from the vessel, a Letter of Guarantee signed by the UNHCR consignee may be acceptable. Most ports or ships' agents have a standard form Letter of Guarantee. An illustrative example is attached as Annex XVI. A bank guarantee, obtained from the local bank where UNHCR operates its account, may also, be needed to certify the consignee's creditworthiness. UNHCR does not normally require this additional certification because shipowners are familiar with our organization and its credibility. The Letter of Guarantee certifies that:

(a) the Bill of Lading is not yet in the consignee's possession;

(b) the consignee relieves the shipowner of any liability, will pay any costs or damages sought by another party in relation to the delivery of the goods without the Bill of Lading, and will make available the goods themselves on demand, if possible; and

(c) the Bill of Lading will be surrendered, duly signed and endorsed, upon receipt.

4.4.5 In situations involving short sea voyages, where an original Bill of Lading cannot reach the consignee before the vessel itself arrives, an original Bill of Lading may be carried in the captain's bag on board the ship. The captain or the ship's agent must be confident that the receiving agent requesting delivery of the consignment is properly entitled to do so. In this instance, the UNHCR consignee field office must provide an official letter of authorization to the designated receiving agent, who can present this to obtain the original Bill of Lading that travelled with the consignment, and to take delivery of the cargo.


4.5.1 Because of the complexities involved in the receipt, clearance and inland distribution of international consignments, particularly those arriving by sea, the UNHCR field office or the implementing partner responsible may choose to contract with a forwarding agent to handle these matters. Receiving shipments by air or by land directly may be more convenient. Provide proper documentation and send someone from the office to the airport to meet the flight or carrier's agent, and pick up the consignment. Consider appropriate arrangements for meeting, receiving and transporting shipments arriving at a land customs depot.

4.5.2 Contracts with forwarding agents must be established with due regard for standard UNHCR purchasing practices. Assess the required services, in consultation with government and port authorities, implementing partners and prospective agents who are knowledgeable about local practices and port facilities. Evaluate local firms providing the necessary services, in consideration of their capabilities, suitability, reliability and efficiency. Contract awards must be authorized by the geographic desk at Headquarters, and should not exceed prescribed US-dollar limitations without competitive tendering and approval of the UNHCR Committee on Contracts, as appropriate.

4.5.3 A variety of services are available from companies which may be referred to as clearing agents, superintendence companies, or forwarding agents, inspection services or surveyors may also be necessary to examine food shipments, technical equipment or damaged goods. Forwarding agents usually provide the most comprehensive service, including customs clearance (if they are customs brokers) and transportation services, to carry the goods from the port to their final destination.

4.5.4 Consider the need to hire independent superintendents or inspectors to oversee port handling operations. If reliable and experienced forwarding agents can take responsibility for these operations, third party inspection should not be necessary. In some circumstances, however, the forwarding agent may not be able to control the quality or quantity of goods arriving and held in the port. Retain another agent independently to:

(a) observe the discharge, storage and loading operations;
(b) check weights and inspect individual packages or bags for conformity of packaging;
(c) sample and test goods according to recognized standards for quality assurance; and/or
(d) issue weight and quality inspection certificates.

4.5.5 Forwarding agents, superintendence and inspection companies usually have established fee scales for each of the services they perform. Try to negotiate discounts in these fees for UNHCR. In any event, make local provisions to pay for their services.

4.5.6 Promote open competition when selecting an agent. Try to identify individual companies which can provide all the services needed, to avoid situations where the services of several different agents must be coordinated, and to simplify the settlement of resulting claims. Do not use one agent exclusively over an extended period. Select several suitable companies and use them on a rotational basis, as long as their services are satisfactory and costs are competitive.

4.5.7 In smaller ports in some developing countries, however, there may not be a number of competing local agents. Where choice is limited, check the services provided and the fees charged carefully. Monitor actual port activities and clearance reporting requirements closely. If performance is not satisfactory, consider alternatives, such as delegating port clearance and handling to a competent international expert working directly for an implementing partner responsible for logistics and commodity management in the host country.

Chart 4.E: Selecting a Forwarding Agent


· Proper facilities to meet UNHCR's needs, such as a bonded warehouse to protect and control shipments in transit or a trucking fleet for inland transportation.

· Trained, competent and trustworthy staff who know what to do, when, and how to do it.

· Good service at a reasonable cost, based on a proven record of reliability and cost control when compared to the other companies providing similar services.




Representatives are flexible and often immediately available, even outside office hours and on public holidays.

May not have an established reputation, and could overcharge.

Small size probably means less influence in the market, with port authorities, carriers, etc.

May not be able to meet their contractual liabilities should damages be incurred.




Corporate image and reputation may result in preferential fee scale to UNHCR.

Have specialized staff in each field of expertise, and resource personnel to meet most requirements.

May have contacts, correspondents and affiliated agents abroad.

May be able to negotiate discounts with carriers, handling agents, etc.

Often have their own warehouse.

Should be able to meet their contractual liabilities, should damages be incurred.

Bureaucratic structures provide less flexibility in meeting client needs.

May have to deal with various departments, each handling a specific task.

Chart 4.F: Assign Port Clearance Responsibilities to an Implementing Partner*

* These tasks illustrate the responsibilities actually undertaken by an implementing partner in one African country. Similar duties could be assigned to the receiving department of implementing partners responsible for field logistics or commodity management in other countries.

1. Clear all refugee food and non-food shipments from the seaport into a nearby national refugee supply warehouse or by truck directly to regional warehouses or refugee sites, as instructed.

2. Handle customs exemption arrangements and, deal with customs agents in the port to clear consignments.

3. Liaise with UNHCR, WFP and the government food department on planned food shipments, receipt and reporting on final port clearance.

4. For all food and non-food shipments, liaise with UNHCR, the port authority and shipping agents.

5. Hire and pay port porters and stevedores for cargo handling and commercial vehicles when needed to move consignments from the port to warehouses.

6. Report amounts dispatched daily from the port, and the destinations. Provide supporting documents (truck way-bills, etc.) to the commodity control unit and the transport unit. Indicate details of shipments remaining in the port, ready to transport or awaiting clearance.


4.6.1 On arrival of the vessel or carrier, the shipment should be discharged and cleared promptly. Ideally, the UNHCR consignee field office, the responsible implementing partner, or a designated receiving agent should have made the necessary arrangements prior to arrival, to supervise the unloading directly onto vehicles or wagons and dispatch the goods immediately from the port to their final destination. This expeditious procedure is, however, rarely possible.

Local Requirements and Conditions

4.6.2 Port transit time must be minimized. Shipments are usually discharged and held in port warehouses, transit sheds, an exposed storage area or simply on the quay. Storage space in the port is assigned by the port authority or, in some instances, by the local agent of the carrier, pending completion of inspection and clearance procedures. UNHCR or its designated agents cannot control in-port storage. Yet, it is during this time that goods are exposed to possible pilferage, diversion and damage from the elements or poor handling and storage practices. Cargo containers do add some measure of security to their contents.

4.6.3 Port clearance procedures are complex and time-consuming. The use of reliable forwarding agents is recommended, particularly for shipments arriving by sea at ports which may be some distance from the UNHCR consignee field office. These responsibilities may also be delegated to an implementing partner who may handle the arrangements themselves when staff have relevant expertise, or they may retain their own forwarding agents.

4.6.4 Most port authorities stipulate that the shipping documents must be received a number of working days before the vessel berths. Heavy expenses can result if ships cannot discharge their cargo and are detained pending arrival of the shipping documents. Shipowners may also levy demurrage or detention charges for delays caused by slow rates of discharge, or when rented cargo containers are held in the port beyond a prescribed period. Port authorities also charge a fee for goods stored or remaining in the port beyond a prescribed grace period, usually one week to ten days. Seek information from your forwarding agent. Present the shipping documents as soon as possible; never wait until the ship arrives.

4.6.5 Some ports impose discharging and port storage restrictions to control pests and to maintain cleanliness. Known as Direct Delivery, vessels may be permitted to discharge certain goods, such as cereals or cement, only by direct transfer to trucks or rail wagons, which must leave the port immediately. If such is the case, arrange port and customs clearance, handling equipment, sufficient labourers and transport units to receive and handle the cargo before the vessel is due. Otherwise, port authorities may detain the vessel at anchor.

4.6.6 The responsible Field Programme Officer in the UNHCR consignee field office must determine the initial distribution (or dispatch destination on release) for each shipment arriving in the port. Provide specific instructions to the designated agent, ensure that transportation arrangements are made, and request confirmation on completion of port clearance and dispatch to inland locations.

Chart 4.G: Summary of Port Activities

1. Tally clerks keep track of the number of individual items or amounts being discharged from the vessel or carrier, to confirm delivery quantities. Individual tally clerks may be appointed for the shipping company, the consignee or the shipping insurance company.

2. Insurance company representatives, UNHCR-designated receiving agents or inspectors may also oversee the discharge of the cargo and port handling, to note any shortlanding or excess quantities, or damages and their apparent cause.

3. A qualified surveyor must inspect all food shipments and other UNHCR consignments where damages or losses will exceed US $1,000.

4. UNHCR or the designated agent takes delivery of the shipment from the local shipping company agent against an endorsed Bill of Lading, Letter of Guarantee, or other shipping waybill, and supporting documentation which may include a packing list, tally sheets, statement of facts, or inspection report. Any evidence of shortage or damage must be specified at this time.

5. UNHCR or the designated agent arranges customs inspection and clearance, providing a customs exemption certificate for the shipment and any other documentation (for example, a commercial invoice, certificate of origin, phytosanitary certificate or radiation certificate) required by the government customs officials.

6. UNHCR or the designated agent obtains a release order from the port authority on presentation of the shipping agent's release and the customs clearance certificate. Port fees may be payable for handling operations or storage before a port release order is issued.

7. UNHCR or the designated agent arranges removal of the shipment from the port, including provision of the transport units, labour, necessary supervision and documentation controls.

Port Handling, Storage and Dispatch

4.6.7 Confirm responsibility in advance for the payment of handling charges between the shipping company and the consignee. Avoid paying for the same service twice. Normal UNHCR shipping terms are C&F (cost and freight) liner out, in which case the consignee is liable for all related costs once the shipment «leaves the ship's tackle» at the destination port. If the Bill of Lading stipulates «landed» or «ex quay», the shipping company must place the goods on the quay alongside the vessel, while the consignee is responsible for any handling costs to move the goods from the quay. Inspection services during discharge may be stipulated by SFAS or in a donor agreement, in which case SFAS or the donor will appoint and pay for the inspector.

4.6.8 Check the terms for each shipment carefully, and consult with the designated agent to establish requirements and to stipulate who pays for what. Never agree to pay demurrage, detention or other exceptional charges without first consulting with the SFAS Shipping and Insurance Officer at Headquarters, by telex or telephone.

4.6.9 Before the vessel arrives, verify that the port authority will berth a vessel without delay and that adequate discharging equipment and labour are available. Handling, transporting and storing each shipment are labour-intensive operations. Unless provided in the contract of carriage on the Bill of Lading, the receiving agent must arrange stevedoring contracts for equipment and labour to discharge, handle and move the cargo to the assigned in-port storage area or to dispatch the cargo out of the port. The port authority or companies licensed to operate within the port may offer these services. Hold the handling contractor responsible for any loss or damage caused by negligence or failure to meet his contractual obligations.

4.6.10 During discharge. UNHCR's receiving agent, or other appointed official, should be present continuously, to minimize discrepancies regarding quantities received and to supervise careful handling:

- Tally the cargo as it is discharged from the ship.

- Discourage the use of hooks because resulting holes in commodity bags and packages cause losses or damage the contents.

- Separate damaged goods from undamaged goods immediately. Provide extra bags or packaging materials to repair or repack spilled or damaged goods promptly.

- Keep cargo containers locked and sealed until ready to de-stuff them and remove the contents from the port. Record the seal number and indicate if the seal was broken on receipt or prior to de-stuffing.

- Try to ensure that consignments stored in the port are properly stacked on dunnage in a clean transit shed or storage area.

- Provide a transport voucher for each vehicle load or, if less than a full load, for each consignment leaving the port, to be signed at destination to confirm that the type, quantity and condition of the goods dispatched have been received.

4.6.11 When a large number of consignments are expected or have arrived within a short period of time, establish priorities for clearing the shipments from the port. Some port authorities prefer to deal with current shipments first, allowing earlier shipments to remain in storage until the present rush is over. Regardless of when they arrived, queue consignments in the correct sequence for clearance, as follows:

- Clear damaged, but recoverable, goods held in open areas.

- Clear perishable goods or goods with limited shelf-life as soon as possible.

- Clear other goods stored in the open.

- Clear containerized shipments before expiry of the container free-time period (usually 10 to 14 days after discharge).

- Clear consignments held in transit sheds or port warehouses.

4.6.12 Locating a supply warehouse adjacent to the port can have several advantages, particularly if the warehouse has a secure section which the government will authorize for holding «bonded» shipments. Consignments may be moved to this warehouse immediately on arrival, and held «in bond» pending customs clearance. This eliminates port storage fees, reduces damages or losses which may occur in the port, and alleviates port congestion. The warehouse also provides a staging area for dividing shipments intended for several inland destinations and for dispatching goods in a timely manner to meet supply demands.

Port Handling and Dispatch Records

4.6.13 For each shipment, maintain a record of port handling, clearance, dispatch and receipt details, including descriptions and quantities of the supplies and related handling costs. Cost data is useful to analyze expenditures in comparison with local market rates quoted competitively, and to recommend changes to improve efficiency. The information may also be needed by SFAS at Headquarters to recover ITSH subsidies from WFP and other programme donors.

4.6.14 UNHCR receiving agents should submit a report, with supporting documentation, for each consignment cleared. See Form SFAS/FH-2 in the Forms Annex for an example, or agents may have their own forms which meet UNHCR requirements.

4.6.15 To identify loss or damage, and where it occurred, compare:

(a) the Bill of Lading and packing list with the discharge report for loss or damage during transport and discharge;

(b) the discharge report with the port release order and customs certification, for loss or damage in the port;

(c) the port release order with the dispatch report and the transport waybill or port gate ticket, for loss or damage on loading; and

(d) the transport waybill with the signed copy from the inland destination, for any loss or damage during inland transport.

4.7 Shipments in Transit

4.7.1 For inland destinations and land-locked countries, UNHCR shipments may have to transit a seaport or travel overland «in bond» through another country. UNHCR logistics personnel or a designated UNHCR forwarding agent in the sea port or the country where the goods are in transit may be asked to act on behalf of the consignee field office at destination, to expedite the shipment of these goods.

4.7.2 «Bonded» shipments are subject to a guarantee, or bond, given to the government of the country where the goods are in transit, that the goods are intended for another country and are not being imported into the transit country. On presentation of proof that the bonded goods have left the transit country, the bond is released. If the goods remain in the country of transit beyond a stated period of time, the bond is forfeited. Bonded shipments are usually arranged and transported by forwarding agents who charge special fees for these services.

4.7.3 Signify that transit assistance is required by designating the UNHCR office or agent at the transshipment location as the «Notify Party» when issuing a purchase request or instructing Headquarters concerning shipments. For example, in East Africa, the SFAS Purchasing Liaison Officer in Nairobi is the Notify Party for all international shipments passing through Mombasa, and the Regional Logistics Officer in Djibouti is the Notify Party for all goods shipped via Djibouti and destined for Sudan, Ethiopia or Somalia. SFAS then arranges for the supplier to provide a complete set of shipping documents to the Notify Party.

4.7.4 As requested or required, these officials can facilitate the transit of international shipments by:

(a) locating and securing the shipment on arrival at the transit port;

(b) arranging any government documentation necessary to move the shipment to its final destination;

(c) providing inspection, superintendence or port handling and clearance services; and

(d) confirming transshipment arrangements, onward dispatch and final delivery of the consignment.

4.7.5 The Notify Party requires a complete set of shipping documents to attend to local requirements and arrangements. To release goods in transit for transshipment, UNHCR or its designated agent may have to post a bond to guarantee that the goods will not stay in the transit country. Shipping insurance information is necessary to confirm or extend coverage to the final inland destination. UNHCR consignee field offices should arrange for payment of related shipping and handling services in the transit port or country with the Notify Party before expenses are incurred.

4.7.6 On receipt at the final inland destination, the UNHCR consignee field office is responsible for acknowledging delivery to both the Notify Party and SPAS at Headquarters.

4.8 Shipping and Receiving Reports

4.8.1 In compliance with UN rules and regulations, the UNHCR consignee field office must submit a Receiving Report to SFAS for each international shipment within one month of its arrival at the named destination. The Receiving Report confirms the fulfillment of the supplier's and carrier's obligations to UNHCR and, in the event of loss or damage, initiates action for an insurance claim. For each consignment, the Receiving Report to be completed is attached to the shipping documents forwarded to the consignee by SFAS (see Annex XIII for an example).

4.8.2 Send the completed and signed Receiving Report to SFAS without delay. Do not wait to attach insurance claims documentation, which can be dispatched separately when available. Before completing the Receiving Report, the responsible UNHCR official should verify that:

(a) the shipment has been received and the date;

(b) the quantities and description of the goods is (or is not) in accordance with the shipping documents; and

(c) any damage or loss is noted and local action to initiate an insurance claim has begun.

4.8.3 At the end of each month, SFAS issues a Shipping Status Report listing all international consignments shipped during the month. Copies are sent to each UNHCR consignee field office. Monitor these reports to verify the receipt of shipping documents and consignments, and to ensure that the relevant Receiving Reports have been forwarded to SFAS at Headquarters.

4.9 Receipt of Local or Regional Consignments

4.9.1 Receiving local or regional consignments demands the same care and attention as receiving international shipments, although the shipping documentation and procedures will usually be less complex.

4.9.2 On receipt, the storekeeper or designated official must confirm that the nature of the goods and the quantities correspond to the information shown on the waybill, and that their condition is satisfactory. Note any apparent shortage or damage on the waybill before signing for receipt of the shipment. One copy of the signed waybill is returned to the person who delivered the goods. Retain one signed copy as a receipt voucher, for recording and reporting purposes.

4.9.3 In the event that the consignment was locally or regionally purchased, the person making delivery should present the following documents to the consignee:

(a) original waybill;
(b) copy of the Purchase Order;
(c) copy of the invoice;
(d) packing list, showing the contents of each package in the consignment; and
(e) Inspection Certificate, if any.

4.9.4 On receipt of a shipment from a local or regional supplier, the UNHCR receiving agent must acknowledge receipt to the Purchasing Officer who placed the order. Payments to suppliers can be made only when the terms of the purchasing agreement are fulfilled, including specified delivery arrangements.

4.9.5 After careful inspection, submit a Receiving Report to the responsible Purchasing Officer. Any loss or damage, and its apparent cause, must be reported promptly, to permit recovery or replacement of the goods or their value from the supplier or the insurance company.

4.9.6 Goods received are entered in the warehouse stock records for control purposes, carefully stored and protected pending their release to the intended users or distribution to the refugees.


4.10.1 SFAS at Headquarters insures all international purchases exceeding US $ 1,000 under UNHCR's Worldwide Open Cover Marine Cargo insurance policy. Beginning in 1988, a separately administered project has been established to which SFAS charges insurance costs for goods purchased by them under General Programmes. Insurance premiums for purchases from Trust Funds or Special Programmes continue to be charged against their own project budget, where an amount of one per cent of the total C&F value of the goods must be allocated to cover this expense.

4.10.2 SFAS also prefers to insure donations under the UNHCR policy. The geographic desk at Headquarters must provide a Purchase Authorization for the related premiums which may later be recovered from the donor. Donors sometimes provide their own insurance coverage, but this is usually not as comprehensive or as economical as the UNHCR coverage. It is also less efficient when UNHCR must deal with the numerous other companies and agents selected, in the event of a claim.

4.10.3 The UNHCR policy provides the most comprehensive coverage for shipments moving on any form of transport (ship, truck, rail wagon, airplane) against all risks, including war and strike risks. Coverage extends from the point where liability for the goods passes to UNHCR (usually at the port of loading) until the goods reach their final warehouse in the port of discharge or other destination named in the insurance certificate. This includes arbitrary storage up to 60 days in transit ports and port warehouses, awaiting on-transportation or port clearance, provided such delays are beyond the control of UNHCR. If necessary, this coverage can be extended for an additional period, provided SFAS is notified to this effect. The insurers must also be informed, through SFAS, of any deviation from the normal course of transit, such as may occur if the goods are discharged in a port other than the one specified in the insurance certificate.

4.10.4 The singular advantage of UNHCR's policy is that goods are insured throughout their voyage, including 22 days in the port at their destination, when shipments are most vulnerable. If goods remain longer than 22 days in the port of discharge, notify SFAS by telex to extend the insurance coverage, such extension being required for each additional 15-day period.

4.10.5 UNHCR insurance covers all types of goods and expenses related to their transport, including assessments for compensation to the shipowner, using the principles of general average in the event of loss or damage to the vessel or its cargo during the voyage. Arbitrary storage or damages caused by UNHCR's negligence, however, are not insured.

4.10.6 All transportation of cargo where UNHCR is at risk should be insured through SFAS. The UNHCR policy is an open cover policy, which means that insurance declarations can be made at any time during the term of the policy. It is not necessary for coverage to be in place before a shipment begins its voyage, provided coverage is requested as soon as the necessary information is available. A Purchase Authorization issued by the geographic desk may be necessary to cover the insurance premium.

4.10.7 UNHCR officials should forward information on insurance requirements to the SFAS Shipping and Insurance Officer in writing through the geographic desk as soon as details of the consignment's contents, value, point of loading and destination are known. See Annex XVII for the Shipping Insurance Request which may be used for this purpose.

4.10.8 For an additional premium, goods requiring inland transportation from the port of entry to a warehouse at another final destination can also be covered, provided the originally insured consignment is not divided for distribution to several destinations. Details of these requirements must be forwarded to the SFAS Shipping and Insurance Officer at Headquarters, who will arrange the extended coverage.

4.10.9 Whenever possible, local purchases should be contracted Free at Destination, in other words, UNHCR only pays for the goods and quantities actually delivered at the named destination. Any shipping liability rests with the supplier, as UNHCR takes title to the goods only at the time of delivery.

4.10.10 For each shipment insured under the UNHCR policy, SFAS sends confirmation of coverage by telex and forwards a Shipping/Insurance Advice form (see Annex XIII for an example) to the consignee. For shipments not covered by UNHCR where the value of the goods exceeds US $1,000, a copy of the Insurance Certificate, stating coverage arranged by the donor or the supplier, should accompany the shipping documents received from the supplier. If an original Insurance Certificate is received, retain a copy and forward the original to SFAS immediately (as it will be needed at Headquarters in the event of a claim).

4.10.11 Insurance coverage ceases when the consignee, receiving agent or implementing partner takes delivery of the goods at the destination named in the Insurance Certificate. Goods are usually turned over to an implementing partner in the host country for storage and transport to inland warehouses and distribution sites. These agencies should provide suitable insurance coverage so that any loss or damage to UNHCR-supplied goods during this phase of their transport can be claimed, and the goods repaired or replaced, or compensation received.

Chart 4.H: Illustrative Examples of UNHCR Insurance Coverage

Example 1:

200 Mt of sugar
Destination: Mogadishu

The sugar is insured up to the time it leaves the port for refugee sites inland, or until it is dispatched and unloaded into the ELU/CARE warehouse in Mogadishu.

Example 2:

2,000 tents
Destination: Gambella, Ethiopia (via Djibouti)

The tents are insured until they arrive in Gambella, including their transit in Djibouti and during inland transport and unloading in Gambella.

Chart 4.I: Information Necessary for UNHCR Insurance Coverage

· Project symbol, Purchase Order/CAF number, or other reference.
· Names and addresses of the consignor and the consignee.
· Description of the goods.
· Number and description of the packages, and shipping marks.
· Gross weight.
· Value of the goods, and cost of freight.
· Means of transport/name of the carrier.
· Point of departure.
· Date of departure.
· Destination.
· Shipping marks.


4.11.1 Insurance gives an added measure of protection to the material assistance that UNHCR provides to its beneficiaries. The effort and costs to insure a consignment are wasted, however, unless claims are submitted for insured damages or losses.

4.11.2 Report promptly, by telex to SFAS, all shipping and transit losses estimated to exceed US $1,000, regardless of the international coverage provided. SFAS handles all matters related to these insurance claims and undertakes recovery action with the insurance companies involved. Timely cooperation from the UNHCR consignee field office and its forwarding agents is essential to follow up with complete claims documentation, and to provide requested, relevant information. Headquarters needs to know if the consignee intends to repair or replace the goods. Such action requires the approval of the geographic desk, and funds must be made available.

4.11.3 Inspect every shipment carefully on receipt. Evidence of loss or damage should be noted on the Bill of Lading, waybill or other delivery receipt. If there is the possibility of hidden damage which can only be ascertained after detailed examination of the contents of the shipment, endorse the delivery receipt conditionally for non-apparent loss or damage.

4.11.4 If goods are missing, hold the carrier responsible to trace the missing goods and report the results of the search to the consignee. Obtain a Shortlanding Certificate.

4.11.5 To protect the insurance company's right of recourse against carriers and other incriminated parties, submit a Protest Letter holding them responsible for any irregularities or any apparent loss or damage to the shipment. See Annex XVIII for an example. The Protest Letter to a shipping company must be presented within the time stipulated on the Bill of Lading, truck or air waybill, which is normally within three days of taking delivery of the consignment.

4.11.6 For C&F shipments insured by UNHCR, arrange an official survey by an approved surveyor, of all damages and losses where the amount of the claim is estimated to exceed US $1,000. See Annex XIX for an example. The insurance company covers the cost of the survey if damage or loss is established. The surveyor should examine the damaged shipment within one week after discharge, in the presence of representatives of UNHCR, the carrier and any other concerned parties. Survey reports, submitted to SFAS at Headquarters, preferably in English, must elaborate on the apparent cause, nature and extent of the damage or loss. For damages or loss under US $1,000, a similar written report from the UNHCR field office or its designated agent will suffice, avoiding the cost of a survey.

4.11.7 Insurance claims for CIF shipments, which have been insured by the supplier or donor, are governed by the conditions of the insurance certificate. Adhere to these conditions carefully, and route all documents to SFAS for claim settlement. Use the surveyor named in the insurance certificate. Unless the certificate stipulates that no survey is required for loss or damage below a stated value, a survey is required in every case. Some insurance policies contain the condition, «No risks after discharge». For claims against these policies, the surveyor must certify that the loss or damage occurred prior to completion of the discharge of the cargo, because any loss or damage afterwards is not insured.

4.11.8 Make claims against local shipping insurance companies with the same attention and diligence, in accordance with the conditions specified in the Insurance Certificate.

Chart 4.J: Inspection of Shipments for Damage or Loss

Inspect all goods on receipt by the consignee from the carrier and report all damage, loss or missing items by telex, noting the apparent cause:

· Is the packaging damaged: opened, crushed, broken or dented?

This is normally caused during transport or by rough handling. Inspect goods at each transit point - discharge, onward dispatch, delivery at the warehouse - and note observations. This helps to identify who is responsible, when successive receiving reports or transport waybills are examined.

· Are the contents damaged or missing?

Damages result from rough handling, when packages are dropped, on rough roads or in high seas, or from exposure to adverse conditions such as rain, high humidity, extreme temperatures or infestation. Packages or their contents may also have fallen into the sea during discharge, dropped off a truck in transit or been stolen.

· Are the number of packing units in the shipment the same as those stated on the Bill of Lading or waybill?

This can be confirmed by counting the units. Missing packages must be explained by the shipping company, the vehicle driver, or any other person responsible for transporting the shipment.

· When the contents of the shipment are checked against the packing list, is part of the consignment missing?

If there is no evidence of tampering or missing packages, then it is possible that the supplier neglected to ship the complete order, or the consignment has been split somehow while in transit.

Chart 4.K: Summary of UNHCR Consignee Action in the Event of a Shipping Loss or Damages

1. Note details of loss or damage on the carrier's delivery receipt.

2. Notify SFAS immediately by telex.

3. Send a Protest Letter to the carrier.

4. For losses, obtain a Shortlanding Certificate from the carrier.

5. For loss or damage exceeding US $1,000, arrange for a survey report.

6. Obtain other documentary evidence, such as the port authority's release order or signed delivery receipts, including tally sheets.

7. Take photographs if possible.

8. Document all related action, including estimates and invoices for repair, public health orders to condemn or destroy foodstuffs, etc.

9. Forward copies of all documentation and invoiced charges resulting from the loss or damage to SFAS at Headquarters.

10. Maintain a complete file of information on the claims action.

Chart 4.L: Documentation to Support Insurance Claims

1. Copy of the Protest Letter to the carrier, holding him liable for the loss and/or damage.

2. Carrier's reply to the Protest Letter (original).

3. Shortlanding Certificate or Certificate of Definite Loss issued by the carrier (original).

4. Receipt to the carrier with endorsement on the condition of goods received (original or signed copy).

5. Delivery/consignment notes (originals or signed copies).

6. Survey Report (original) by an approved surveyor.

7. Invoice for survey fees and any other charges related to the damaged goods.

8. Details of costs for repacking/handling to minimize loss/damage.

9. Unloading records (Tally Sheets) and any other documentary evidence related to the outturn of the goods at the place of transshipment and the final destination.

10. Port authorities release order (original or signed copy).

11. Photographs of damaged goods (negatives should also be sent).

12. Condemnation Certificates for damaged goods destroyed by order of health authorities or other official bodies (original or signed copy).

13. Accounts of the sale of damaged goods.

14. Invoice or estimated costs for local repairs to damaged goods.

15. Extract from the Master's log book if the carrying vessel has sustained a casualty and/or heavy weather.

16. A copy of the Master's extended Sea Protest either at the Embassy or Consulate representing the country of the ship's flag or at a notary public.


5.1.1 Logistics is the practical art of supplying material support to a defined group of beneficiaries. UNHCR's sources of material assistance for refugee programmes are suppliers and donors. Supplies and food aid must then be delivered to the refugees who are often located in remote geographic areas. Local transportation and communication infrastructures may have to be reinforced and processes for control and information feedback must be introduced, to ensure that the material assistance from the source reaches the refugees at the destination, in the quantity and quality provided.

5.1.2 Goods supplied from international sources are usually acquired on a C&F (cost and freight) basis, where the supplier is responsible for delivery to the port of entry in the host country. The field logistics system must, therefore, deal with the linear flow of material assistance from the port to the refugee sites. It involves the transportation of supplies and their storage at key transit points, with control throughout the system until they are finally distributed for the benefit of the refugees. The components of the logistics system are:

(a) the necessary hardware to move and store the goods, including a transport fleet of trucks, rail wagons, boats, barges, airplanes or other transport units, warehouses and other storage facilities, and special support facilities such as fuel depots, vehicle workshops, cold storage, milling sites and telecommunications links;

(b) records and reports to control the flow of goods through the system, including waybills, requisitions, release orders, issue vouchers, takeover certificates, stock control cards, storage ledgers, ration cards, receiving reports and distribution reports; and

(c) personnel to monitor the system by conducting checks and inspections, to manage and supervise the operation at key control points, and a multitude of drivers, porters, storekeepers and administrative staff.

5.1.3 When materials are obtained locally, suppliers should deliver them to the control point in the logistics system nearest the location where the goods will be needed. In this way, local supplies flow into the main logistics system and can be controlled from the receiving point in the same way as international supplies, while the suppliers are responsible for all the preceding supply and logistics phases.

Chart 5.A: The Logistics Operation for Refugee Supplies and Food Aid



5.2.1 Develop a planning formula for estimating future overall refugee supply needs. The system cannot react to immediate needs, so you must know what will be needed where, and how long it will take to fulfil these needs.

5.2.2 Define the area of operations and ensure that key personnel are correctly situated for maximum effectiveness. The UNHCR Branch Office may be in the capital, but the logistics operation usually extends from the port of entry to the refugee sites, and includes all the transport, storage and telecommunications facilities inside that area.

5.2.3 Unify logistics operations to eliminate duplication of effort and lack of coordination. For example, where several organizations are moving supplies to the same refugee sites, consolidate the transport operation.

5.2.4 Plan redundancy in transportation. Anticipate vehicles out-of-service in a trucking fleet. Plan alternate routes or transport methods, in case of local disruptions such as the destruction or collapse of a bridge. It is imperative to keep the «supply pipeline» flowing.

5.2.5 Simplify the logistics system to reduce transit time, to minimize the number of stops and transfers, and to consolidate facilities. Supplies should never travel over the same route twice. Speeding up the operation and reducing opportunities for theft may increase operational costs, but overall costs will be reduced.

5.2.6 Locate warehouses centrally in the area they are intended to serve. Avoid situating warehouses in military zones or areas where hostilities occur, however, because the goods in storage can be a tempting target for looters.

5.2.7 Always maintain adequate buffer stocks. Keep enough supplies on hand to meet needs when the logistics operation cannot keep up with demand. Analyze seasonal peaks and potential requirements to maintain buffer stocks at specified locations, at a level of 20 to 50 per cent of annual provisions.

5.2.8 For each refugee programme, create a diagramatic sketch of the field logistics system, showing:

(a) sources of supply, key ports of entry and receiving points;
(b) in-settlement stores and/or distribution centres and the number of refugees served by each;
(c) modes of transport and the distances involved;
(d) key supply terminals and transshipment points;
(e) national, regional and district warehouses; and
(f) telecommunications links.

5.2.9 Inform UNHCR Field Programme Officers and other concerned refugee programme officials about the logistics system. Identify standard and alternate methods of transportation in the area of operations, transit times, carrying and storage capacities, and key responsibilities, including who to contact when making enquiries.

Chart 5.B: A Typical Field Logistics System


* Adapted from a diagram in UNICEF Assisting in Emergencies


5.3.1 The primary function of the field logistics operation is to move supplies from their source in the host country to their intended destination, to arrive when they are needed in the quantity and quality required. Consider existing transportation options and limitations in the area of operations, equipment requirements and potential sources. Choice of transport is influenced by availability, reliability, speed and cost.

5.3.2 Avoid competing with other international agencies for limited existing government or commercial transport facilities, or duplicating necessary services. Work together to consolidate requirements and seek solutions which meet these transportation needs. Close collaboration with WFP is essential, as this UN organization normally supplies a large proportion of refugee food aid.

5.3.3. Evaluate alternatives using information gathered from national and local administrations, including the transport ministry and the military, local offices of other international aid agencies, transportation and bus companies, and other commercial enterprises, such as the oil companies. Identify the most reliable and economical means of moving anticipated quantities of refugee supplies.

5.3.4 Plan for contingencies before the actual need arises. Develop alternate routes simultaneously and be ready to use them as soon as problems are evident on the primary route. Breakdowns in the primary transport system are usually unpredictable, or its capacity may be insufficient during peak periods or when refugee needs increase. Whenever the primary route is vulnerable to natural, political or military actions, it is imperative to have an alternate route planned to avoid disruptions in delivery.

5.3.5 An important element in assessing potential transport modalities is the availability and location of support facilities for the transport fleet. Fuel, spare parts and maintenance are necessary, whether for trucks, locomotives and rail wagons, boats or aircraft, and possibly motorcycles, tractors or generators. Facilities and supplies must be situated conveniently in the area of operations, and have the capacity and reliability to maintain the selected transport units effectively.

5.3.6 In determining turnaround time to deliver supplies to destinations using proposed transport routes, do not underestimate the time it takes to load, unload and manoeuvre supplies, especially by hand. Consider using mechanical handling equipment where large quantities of supplies are involved. Providing local employment may be a secondary operational objective, but the use of forklifts, conveyor belts and other mechanized methods can significantly increase handling rates and also reduce damages.

5.3.7 Transport costs vary according to the distance involved, the type, size, weight and frequency of shipments, the mode of transport used, seasonal factors, and the overall supply and demand for transport services in the host country's economy. Commercial rates also depend upon operating costs, destination, probability of return cargo, and conditions en route (including security risks) which can affect fleet maintenance costs. Competition between major transport sectors, agencies or companies to carry all refugee supplies in the host country can encourage rate reductions and self-imposed improvements in capacities, facilities and services.

5.3.8 Once refugee supply routes and transport modalities have been established, continuously monitor actual requirements, logistics capacity and conditions in the area of operations. Listen to local staff and drivers who can report deteriorating conditions or potential local problems which will adversely affect the logistics operation. Adapt plans or take action to respond to any changes, expected or unexpected.

5.3.9 Transport efficiency and effectiveness can be assessed in terms of:

(a) cost, usually calculated per MT-km;
(b) transit times;
(c) security and safety, measured as minimal loss or damage;
(d) flexibility and reliability; and
(e) adequacy of control and monitoring procedures.

5.3.10 When existing transport capacity is inadequate, examine possible alternatives to increase capacity on established routes. Make plans to facilitate the repair or replacement of vehicles, locomotives, boats, barges, aircraft, ferries, bridges, rail lines, roads, etc. The government or the owners should undertake these tasks themselves, but they may not have the resources to do so. Technical or financial assistance may be negotiated to subsidize the upgrading of facilities. Avoid rehabilitating derelect transport units, however, as this is generally not timely, easy or cost-effective. Alternatively, provide additional transport units by borrowing, renting, contracting or buying, or implement contingency supply plans.

Chart 5.C: Assessment of Alternative Inland Transport Modalities

1. Available routes and possible transshipment points - road, rail, water, air transport.

2. Constraints on alternate routes - weight limits on bridges, ferry capacity, restricted water depth, adverse weather conditions.

3. Normal route volume and forecast changes in volume resulting from refugee programme logistics needs - will this increase hazards or cause rapid deterioration along the route?

4. Potential security risks to personnel, refugee supplies and transport units moving along each route.

5. Usability of routes year-round, because of seasonal/weather conditions -flooding, snow, muddy during heavy rains.

6. Telecommunications facilities between key points along each route.

7. Appropriate type, size and capacity of vehicle, rail wagon, boat or barge, or aircraft for each route, availability and cost per unit.

8. Availability, location and cost of fuel, maintenance facilities and trained personnel to keep the transport units operational.

9. Round trip time on each route for one trip from point of origin to destination, including loading and unloading.

10. Bottlenecks on each route and potential solutions in terms of materials, equipment, expertise, cost and timeframe to resolve.

Analyzing Transport Capacity Requirements and Utilization

5.3.11 To provide sufficient transport units for the refugee logistics operation at the right place and the right time, examine and quantify the following factors:

(a) What quantities of food and programme supplies must be transported? The quantities to be transported can be calculated in terms of total tonnage, once the programme needs of the refugees are known.

(b) Where are supplies required? Supplies must be transported from where they are situated to where they are needed. Goods situated in national, regional or district warehouses must be transported in sufficient quantities to meet the needs of the refugees served from the next staging or transshipment point in the logistics system.

(c) When are supplies needed? How soon the supplies are needed may affect the mode of transport selected, and the size of the transport fleet. One 10-MT truck can carry 300 MT in 30 days if the distance from source to destination requires only a one-day turnaround time, but if the 300 MT are required within 10 days, three trucks will be needed.

(d) How often are supplies needed? Transport requirements to supply refugee needs on a one-time basis, or to move excess quantities of supplies needed on a random basis, can be met by borrowed or contracted carriers. Transporting established quantities on a regular basis, such as the movement of monthly food rations, requires the provision of a reliable transport fleet over an extended period of time.

5.3.12 Moving supplies through the field logistics system, from where they are situated to where they are needed, in sufficient quantities and in a timely manner, assumes that the supplies are on hand at their source in the host country. Because a large portion of the material assistance for refugees in many countries is met from international sources or by local manufacturers, the quantities and timing of needs are factors which must also be considered in the front-end planning and acquisition phases of the supply process. Port handling capacity and practices can also affect the in-country availability of internationally supplied refugee assistance.

Chart 5.D: Calculating Transport Fleet Capacity and Requirements

1. What tonnage of supplies must be moved? In what given period?

2. What is the turnaround time, to move one load from its original location to its destination, and for the transport unit to return? Do not overestimate speed. Include loading time at source and unloading time at destination.

3. What is the carrying capacity of one transport unit?

· Allow 20 to 50 per cent contingent capacity for rest days and holidays, and to provide for maintenance and repair of the transport units.


25,000 refugees are located 250 km from the regional warehouse. They require 400 g of cereals and 50 g of edible oil per day, distributed every 30 days. Travelling on gravel roads and tracks, trucks can cover 125 km per day. What size of truck fleet is needed?

* 10% margin accounts for voluminous cargoes or under-loading due to road conditions.

Allowing for contingencies, five 20-MT trucks should be provided to supply these refugees. The fifth truck should be on stand-by as a replacement or recovery vehicle.


Ten 8-MT trucks are available to carry supplies to a refugee camp located 100 km over a dirt track from the district warehouse. The camp population is 30,000. Rations have been increased to 500 gms per day for distribution every 10 days, plus the trucks have been carrying an average of 30 MT of other supplies, such as tents and blankets, to the camp each month. Average turnaround time for a truckload is 3 days, including all loading, unloading and 20 per cent down time. The responsible implementing partner has requested 5 additional trucks. Is the request justifiable?

* 10% margin accounts for voluminous cargoes or under-loading due to road conditions.

Allowing for contingencies, the 10 trucks available should be more than sufficient to meet delivery needs. The request for 5 additional trucks cannot be justified in terms of needed capacity alone.

Note on Fleet Utilization:

If statistics show that the above fleet has been carrying an average of 400 MT per month to the refugee camp for the past year, what is the percentage utilization of the existing fleet?

Ten 8-MT trucks can carry 80 MT each trip. In 30 days, with a turnaround time of 3 days, each truck can make 30/3 or 10 trips.

Total potential tonnage = 80 MT x 10 trips = 800 MT


5.4.1 Examine the facilities and services provided at ports of entry where refugee supplies are brought into the host country - seaports, airports or land border crossings. Knowing the potential quantities and types of programme supplies needed for refugees, are the port facilities adequate to receive, discharge and store supplies temporarily?

5.4.2 Assess port handling capabilities initially and verify them frequently to anticipate problems before they arise. Seek information from port, airport and government authorities, other international aid organizations, and related commercial enterprises, such as forwarding agents, freight carriers and exporting companies.

5.4.3 Losses may be caused by pilferage, spoilage, poor handling and transit storage practices, or diversion of goods. Delays in clearance can contribute to these losses and can also create a «bottleneck» in the supply and logistics system.

5.4.4 Port congestion, a common problem in many developing countries, may result from a sudden increase in the number of arrivals or the arrival of large shipments which follow too closely on each other. If seaport congestion is a recurrent problem, examine the docking and berthing capacities of the port. Using two 5,000 MT vessels may be more efficient than using one 10,000 MT vessel, because smaller berths may not be as congested as larger ones. Also, determine if there is another less congested port in the region with coastal freighter services for transshipment.

5.4.5 Port congestion is aggravated by delays in port clearance. Clearance activity rates can be severely constrained due to a lack of cargo handling personnel, equipment or transport units to remove the cargo from the port area. Where clearance procedures may cause delays or port handling and storage facilities are inadequate, consider alternatives to help improve port capacities, including the establishment of a bonded warehouse adjacent to the port, where goods can be moved directly from the carrier and held pending clearance.

5.4.6 Use reliable forwarding agents to speed up the port handling and clearance process. These agents should be knowledgeable about local practices and requirements.

5.4.7 To avoid excessive handling, programme supplies can be forwarded directly to their final destination once cleared from the port, if the consignee's agent receives proper instructions and arranges inland transport in a timely manner. Otherwise, goods must be moved to a warehouse near the port, unloaded and stored pending their dispersal to the destinations where they are needed.

Chart 5.E: Are Port Facilities Adequate?

Use this checklist to assess seaport capabilities, the most common port of entry for most large international UNHCR shipments. Adapt this list to assess airports or land border crossings.

· Number, type, size of vessels which can be handled.

· Number of berths, their maximum length and depth.

· Average vessel waiting time and discharge time.

· Port equipment, unit handling capacities and reliability.

· Bulk cargo and container handling equipment and capacities.

· Facilities for Ro-Ro ships.

· Automatic bagging equipment and supplies.

· Transit storage facilities.

· Availability of manual labour, size of the labour force, working hours, shifts and reliability.

· Ordinary rates of discharge per gang or per shift, both manual and automated.

· Port documentation requirements and procedures for clearing shipments.

· Operational constraints: port congestion, weather conditions, particularly at certain times of the year.

· Inland transport facilities: rail lines on or near the quay, access roads, barges or lighters for inland waterways, loading equipment.

· Condition/state of repair of all facilities and potential to increase capacity.


5.5.1 When moving supplies inland, trucks provide greater flexibility than rail wagons, water barges, boats or aircraft, in terms of capacities, scheduling and routing. Provided destinations can be reached by road or track, appropriate vehicle selection is determined by:

(a) the conditions of terrain or weather which will be encountered en route;

(b) the nature and quantity of goods to be transported;

(c) the timeframe and frequency of each trip and the duration of the supply requirement at particular destinations; and

(d) the availability of fuel, spare parts and servicing facilities.

5.5.2 Consider potential sources of vehicles to fulfil transportation requirements. Borrow trucks from the government or other international agencies, especially to meet interim or short-term needs. Repair trucks which are currently out-of-service to increase existing capacity, but do not repair derelict vehicles. Contract with local commercial carriers or rent vehicles, to meet longer term needs or to increase capacities during peak transport periods.

5.5.3 If other options are not suitable, purchase a dedicated fleet of trucks with sufficient capacity to carry out the task. Try to standardize or limit the different types of manufacturers, makes and models used. Organizational resources and vehicle servicing facilities must be assured to manage and maintain a dedicated fleet. See Chapter 6, Vehicles, for additional information.

Chart 5.F: Selection Criteria for Commercial Transport

· Define requirements in a public tender, including schedules, tonnages, products/commodities, point of departure, destination and responsibility for loading/unloading labour.

· Request offers accompanied by proof of ownership of the proposed trucking fleet and proof of corporate financial stability and operational reliability, such as audited financial statements or bank statements, a bank reference and references from named previous clients.

· Conduct a first-hand inspection of the proposed trucking fleet to verify the number and mechanical condition of the vehicles.

· Select the contractor based on price competitiveness, proven reliability, number and condition of trucks available, and financial stability.

Chart 5.G: Terms for Commercial Trucking Contracts

1. Trucking costs are quoted per ton of cargo, per trip per truck to/from a specified destination, or per truck for a given time period, preferably with unlimited mileage. Vehicle capacity should be stipulated. Costs can include or exclude loading and unloading.

2. Costs of maintenance and vehicle insurance are borne by the contractor. Stipulate liability in case of accidents, loss or theft of the vehicle or its load.

3. If costs include the driver (and his mate), driver selection rests with the contractor, but review or specify driver qualifications carefully and reserve the right to request driver replacement if he should prove unsatisfactory.

4. Contractors should provide replacement vehicle(s) in the event of a time-consuming breakdown.

5. Make provision to terminate or extend the contract on short notice.

Fleet Maintenance and Fuel Supplies

5.5.4 Trucks require reliable fuel supplies, frequent maintenance and repair when operating under field conditions. If national fuel supplies are inadequate, import and store fleet fuel and lubricant needs. Check at the outset that there are no importation restrictions. The fleet also requires one or more mechanical workshop facilities, conveniently located in the area of operations, properly staffed and managed, with adequate equipment and spare parts.

5.5.5 Fuel consumption is difficult to estimate because the rate for each type of vehicle differs and depends upon the size of the engine, its state of repair, its age and local driving conditions. When travelling on poor roads or at low speeds, consumption can increase by as much as 35 per cent. The best way to determine local needs is to monitor fuel consumption and mileage for each vehicle to calculate average local consumption rates. Use these rates to establish fuel quantities for supplying field locations.

Chart 5.H: Average Vehicle Fuel Consumption Per 100 km*

* Adapted from ICRC Red Cross Cargo.

Petrol Engines

Diesel Engines


8-12 litres

2-wheel drive pick-up van

10-13 litres

Pick-up van

14-17 litres

4-wheel drive pick-up van

13-16 litres

Land cruiser

21-27 litres

Land cruiser

14-17 litres


15-18 litres

Small truck (3.5 to 8 tons)

18-28 litres

Larger trucks

35-50 litres

Fleet Movements and Waybills

5.5.6 More supplies will move in less time if trucks move individually or in small groups. Mobile radios can facilitate communications between vehicles and with the fleet operations base.

5.5.7 For long distances in remote areas, or where there are security problems, create truck convoys. Appoint convoy leaders who are able to enforce discipline, make decisions and resolve problems. If possible, issue sufficient fuel for the round-trip, and assign a mechanic with appropriate tools to accompany the convoy.

5.5.8 Each vehicle should keep pace with the vehicles behind, by maintaining visual contact in the rearview mirror. In this way, the convoy stays together and the convoy leader sets the pace, travelling in the last vehicle. Maximum speed should be 50 km/h on hard-surfaced roads and 20 km/h on dirt roads or tracks. If a vehicle in the convoy breaks down, the convoy must stop and wait until repairs are effected or the convoy leader makes alternate arrangements. Trucks may discharge their cargo along the convoy route. Once empty, they should wait for the convoy's return if it will travel on the same route, or continue with the convoy if it is making a circuit.

5.5.9 Truck waybills must be established for every truckload, showing all information concerning the shipper, the consignee, the exact number of packages, the gross weight of the consignment, and the shipping marks. Truck weigh scales should be located near the fleet operations base or main supply warehouse to permit truckload and consignment weights to be determined easily and accurately. A packing list or issue voucher providing a detailed description of the consignment is annexed to the waybill. If trucks will cross borders, appropriate customs documentation, driver and vehicle identification and clearance are also necessary. The carrier or fleet manager prepares the waybill in triplicate:

- Copy 1 goes to the consignee.

- Copy 2 must be signed by the consignee and returned to the consignor.

- Copy 3, signed by the driver, stays with the shipper to be matched against the returned Copy 2 to confirm delivery.

5.5.10 Drivers transporting supplies should check their load carefully to ensure that the quantities and condition of the cargo coincide exactly with the information included on the truck waybill. Otherwise, they may be held responsible for shortages or damage.

5.5.11 The receiver of a shipment must sign the truck waybill to acknowledge delivery. Note any loss or damage on the waybill, indicating that the carrier is held liable for such loss or damage.

5.5.12 For additional information on organizing and operating a vehicle fleet, see Chapter 6, Vehicles.


5.6.1 If an adequate rail network exists between the port and the area of operations, rail is usually the cheapest alternative, especially for transporting large, bulky consignments such as food. Time and cost savings may be achieved if the railroad is used for transporting supplies on routes of 500 km or more.

5.6.2 Rail terminals or depots are rarely located exactly where they are needed. Assess facilities to determine if loading the rail wagons at the port and transshipping them from the rail depot to the warehouse at the destination justifies the distance, time, potential handling losses and relevant costs of using trucks to transport supplies directly from the port to the destination warehouse. There may be storage at the railhead or sufficient trucks must be available to move consignments promptly from the depot to the warehouse. Alternatively, suitable warehouse facilities adjacent to the railway depot may be provided, or a rail siding may be more conveniently located or constructed at the warehouse itself.

5.6.3 Whereas trucking rates vary with changing market conditions, rail rates are usually fixed for a given period. Try to get free transport or reduced preferential rates for moving refugee supplies, whether the railroad is privately or publicly owned.

5.6.4 The rail waybill, prepared by the railway agent, describes the contract of carriage, and provides instructions about handling, dispatch and delivery of a consignment. One copy is given to the shipper as proof of dispatch. Several copies accompany the consignment and are handed to the receiver at the destination. Other than a packing list, no supplementary documentation is necessary, unless the goods are transported across an international boundary. In this case, local enquiries can determine the nature of the documents required.

5.6.5 The receiver signs the waybill to acknowledge delivery of the consignment. A copy is not returned to the shipper, who should be notified separately that the consignment has arrived. If there is evidence of any loss or damage, the receiver must request a statement of damages from the railway company. Transit losses can be minimized when complete rail wagons are sealed, prior to departure, in the presence of the shipper's agent and opened at the destination in the presence of the receiver or other consignee agent.

Chart 5.I: Assessing Transport by Rail

1. Extent of the rail network and condition of the track/railbed in the area of operations.

2. State of repair and availability (including any seasonal variations) of locomotives and rail wagons.

3. Location/nature of rail facilities at the port and at the destination(s).

4. Reliability and timeframe to meet delivery requirements. Current transit times from port to destination(s).

5. Capacity of the railroad, current traffic and capability to increase traffic to meet refugee supply needs.

6. Railway resources and facilities to maintain or increase existing capacity.

7. Security of rail consignments at departure and arrival points, as well as en route.

8. Nature of the supplies to be carried, and type/number/capacity of rail wagons which can be used - tankers for fuel, closed wood- or steel-floored wagons for goods, flatcars for cargo containers.

9. Scheduling, documentation, reporting requirements and coordination for rail shipments. Railway management effectiveness and efficiency.

10. "Bottlenecks" in the railway network where trains carrying refugee supplies may be delayed, such as transit points where trains must be divided for different destinations or to overcome geographic obstacles, including mountain passes or rivers.

11. Other constraints affecting the use of rail transport.

12. Tariff structure compared to other modes of transport. Rates usually decrease as distance increases.

5.7 Transport by Water

5.7.1 Navigable waterways often go where there are no roads or rail lines, and the only remaining options are airlifting supplies or moving the refugees to a more accessible location. Inland, coastal or inter-island water routes may be used to transport supplies part or all of the way to refugee sites. Selecting this mode of transport depends upon:

(a) existing practices and current use of the waterway;

(b) availability of cargo-carrying boats, lighters, or barges and tugs, their number, capacity and state of repair;

(c) docking facilities and personnel at the point of departure and the destination for mooring and for handling, storing and transshipping the cargo;

(d) documentation requirements and permits for carrying cargo;

(e) constraints and seasonal considerations;

(f) costs and contractual options; and

(g) potential to increase capacity in terms of cost, expertise and time-frame.

5.7.2 Gather information to assess this option from government waterways administrations and port authorities, shipping companies, boat owners and captains, and other international aid organizations.

5.7.3 Contracts for transporting supplies by water can be established on a per shipment basis, with the rate stated per ton of cargo for the given destination. Or boats can be chartered to carry refugee supplies exclusively for the term of the charter agreement. Negotiate reduced rates whenever possible.

5.7.4 in any shipping contract, ensure that the terms state clearly the responsibilities of the contractor (vessel owner and/or captain), the shipper and the consignee, including provision for insurance and the assignment of liability for the vessel and the cargo in the event of an accident, loss or damage. Clearly indicate who pays port fees, and state that the vessel owner is responsible for fuel, maintenance and repair of the contracted vessel.

5.7.5 A Bill of Lading should be prepared for each shipment with a large shipping company, carrying the same legal ramifications as a Bill of Lading for an international shipment (see Chapter 4, Receipt of Shipments). In other instances, local practices will prevail, but in every case an itemized listing of each shipment must be provided, for the captain to acknowledge delivery of the cargo on board, and for the consignee to confirm receipt of the total consignment at the destination.


5.8.1 Aircraft are the fastest, most reliable means of transport, but airlifting refugee supplies is expensive, and should only be considered as a last resort, when supplies are urgently needed in a location where no other solution is feasible. Transport by air may be used to supplement land or water transportation in country programmes where the area of operations is geographically vast and land or water routes are long, to move personnel and high-value, low-volume supplies. In emergencies, airlifting may be an initial response to the situation, but funds are better spent providing the means to move much larger quantities of supplies using other modes of transport.

5.8.2 Together with the geographic desk and SFAS, assess the potential use of aircraft in the overall logistics plan. Aircraft require extensive, carefully organized ground support at both their departure and arrival points. Obtain information from civil aviation authorities, airport managers, airlines operating from local airports, air cargo companies and brokers, the aircraft pilots themselves, and other international aid organizations who have used airlifts in the area.

5.8.3 The minimum length of runway required and the maximum load capacity are directly related to the altitude and temperature at the airports concerned. Load capacity is reduced for longer flights, as more fuel must be carried.

5.8.4 To improve air cargo handling facilities, runways can be extended to take larger aircraft, usually a necessity in rural or remote areas. Lack of equipment may require the use of aircraft carrying self-unloading devices or military-style aircraft with ramps, such as the Hercules C130. For major emergency airlift operations involving large quantities of supplies, consider providing high-lift fork-lifts.

5.8.5 Approach the air force or airline companies, whether privately or nationally owned, to obtain agreements for free or special rates to transport refugee supplies. Ensure that royalties are waived if the use of a non-national carrier is planned. Be ready to give details of the consignment, including contents, number of packages, type of packing, dimensions, total volume and weight.

5.8.6 Alternatively, use a forwarding agent, air freight broker or consult SFAS at Headquarters. The following types of air freight services may be selected:

(a) Consolidated shipments - Small customer consignments to a given destination are grouped together to benefit from lower rates for larger shipments, but this may result in delays awaiting sufficient cargo prior to departure, or on arrival when the shipment must be re-sorted into individual consignments.

(b) Split charters - Consignments are consolidated, as above, but usually using a non-IATA airline which operates all-cargo aircraft. Costs are lower, but only larger consignments (normally 500 Kg or more) are accepted, and services are provided only to places with considerable cargo traffic.

5.8.7 When supplies are being transported by air, the carrier or agent prepares an air waybill which specifies the contract of carriage for handling, dispatch and delivery of the shipment to the consignee. Normally the shipper prepays the shipping charges, and no payments are necessary when the consignment is picked up at the airport of destination. The carrier or agent notifies the consignee on arrival, and turns over a copy of the air waybill, the packing list and any other shipping documents which are attached to Package Number One of the consignment.

Chart 5.J: Transport by Air - Assessment Checklist

1. Applicable air regulations, traffic rights for chartered flights, any related fees. Restrictions on night-flying.

2. Airport, air strip and landing facilities, including fuel availability, navigational aids and radio equipment, and types of aircraft that can be handled at the point of departure and at the destination in the area of operations.

3. Cargo handling capacities, equipment, any size or weight limitations, storage facilities.

4. Operational constraints, including security, weather and current air traffic.

Airports - Detailed Information Requirements

· Name, official designator, exact location and elevation/altitude.

· The length, width and orientation of the runway(s), type of surface, nature and position of any obstructions, and state of repair.

· Runway and approach lights, navigational aids, air traffic control and communications arrangements.

· Aircraft servicing facilities, type and cost of aviation fuel available, startup generators and other ground equipment, air crew rest facilities.

· Operating temperatures, local weather conditions and any seasonal variations.

· Types of aircraft which are available and can operate from the airport, their maximum load capacity, usable volume, loading and unloading constraints, runway requirements, range of operation and cost.

· Availability and condition of taxiways and parking areas, number, capacity and condition of forklifts, trolleys, tractors, aircraft cargo container handling equipment, availability of fuel and equipment operators, limitations on size and weight of individual packages/crates.

· Number, size, capacity, condition, security of cargo sheds and open storage areas (availability of pallets and tarpaulins), quantities of cargo on hand and available space for refugee supplies, lighting in sheds, loading and unloading areas, the source and reliability of the power supply.

· Normal handling capacity for the cargo facility, shifts, hours of work for airport and customs personnel, number of available staff including tally clerks and labourers.

· Method of granting landing rights, airport charges, royalties on non-scheduled carriers, and possibility of waiving charges for UNHCR charters.

· Potential to increase current capacity.

Charter Aircraft

5.8.8 When the need to charter an aircraft is established, discuss requirements with local charter companies, the government and other aid organizations to determine the availability of appropriate aircraft. Consult the SFAS Shipping and Insurance Officer at Headquarters, who can identify international charter services who can position aircraft locally. There are two types of aircraft charters:

(a) Trip charter - The aircraft is chartered for a round-trip to one or more specified destination (s), normally for a basic rental charge, plus the cost of fuel actually used. All other expenses are borne by the contractor. Cargo can be loaded up to the allowable capacity of the aircraft, within the limits for the airports concerned and prevailing conditions in the area of operations.

(b) Time charter - The aircraft is chartered for a specified number of days, weeks or months. Costs are usually based on a defined rate per hour of actual flying time, subject to a guaranteed minimum number of hours in a stated time period, including the hire of the aircraft and crew, maintenance and insurance. Costs for these services vary considerably with the type of aircraft and current conditions in the area of operations.

5.8.9 Charter services must be arranged by written agreement or contract, whether the aircraft is loaned from a government or other organization, or leased from a commercial enterprise. Prior to signature, submit all charter contracts to Headquarters for review and approval.

5.8.10 Charter services may be necessary to transport refugees, emergency supplies, UNHCR-accredited field staff, local government representatives or journalists visiting UNHCR programme locations. Plan every flight through a flight coordinator, and provide clear written instructions to the crew. Ensure that vehicles are available to transport passengers, luggage and cargo on arrival at the destination. Whenever possible, an official of the logistics organization should accompany the flight.

5.8.11 When all of the space or load capacity on a chartered aircraft is not needed, consider offering it to other aid organizations operating in this area, either free-of-charge or on a pro rata basis. A reciprocal arrangement may be opportune at some future time.

Chart 5.K: Contract Terms for Charter Aircraft

Seek special advice before establishing a charter agreement. Certain clauses in the contract are obligatory and require particular attention:

· Aircraft type, registration and markings. Also, year of manufacturer, number of hours flown, value of the aircraft, name of the civil aviation authority who issued the certificate of airworthiness, name and location of the aircraft operating base.

· Maximum payload and/or maximum passenger capacity.

· Radio equipment.

· Nationality and qualifications of the air crew, provision of standby replacement crew.

· Who pays loading and parking fees.

· Who deals with formalities to obtain traffic rights.

· Responsibilities for aircraft fuel and maintenance. Cost benefits may accrue if UNHCR provides duty-free fuel.

· Lease of generator, other ground equipment and storage for the aircraft.

· Responsibilities for cargo and passenger handling.

· Duty hours of the crew, hotel accommodation, living expenses and transport between the airport and the hotel.

· Aircraft and cargo insurance.

· Security of the aircraft while parked on the ground.

· Possible causes and liability for delays or grounding of the aircraft.

· Contract cancellation fees.


5.8.12 Chartered helicopters permit UNHCR staff and other refugee programme officials to visit remote sites quickly, to inspect the refugees' situation and to resolve problems. As is the case with any charter operation, schedule helicopter flights through a flight coordinator, as far in advance as possible. Plights require numerous clearances and the submission of a flight plan, usually at least 24 hours before take-off. All persons flying in the helicopter also require proper security clearances.

5.8.13 Refugee programme officials at the planned destination may be asked:

(a) to prepare a landing site;
(b) to arrange security when the helicopter lands and while it is on the ground; and
(c) to send a vehicle to meet the passengers.

Chart 5.L: Helicopter Landing Site

· 25 m x 25 m clear, flat area, preferably marked in whitewash with a large "H".

· A large, easily visible flag or windsock, to indicate wind direction.

· No trees, electrical wires, or other tall hazards within 50 metres.

· Surface damped down with water just before helicopter arrives, if possible, to reduce dust churned up by the rotorwash.

5.9 Storage and Deliveries

5.9.1 At receiving or transshipment points in the logistics system, supplies must be stored properly to maintain their quality, to protect them from pilferage or theft, and to keep track of their location. Provide suitable facilities at each location with sufficient capacity for the supplies that will be received, including the necessary handling equipment and stock control systems. Repair existing warehouses or establish new warehouses. Stored items may include blankets, tents, cooking sets, basic, complementary and supplementary food rations, buffer stocks, and other programme items.

5.9.2 One way to speed deliveries and reduce losses may be to eliminate forward field warehouses, and ship directly to refugee sites. However, regional or district warehouses provide greater flexibility for field staff in timing distributions to the refugees and in receiving other programme supplies. Holding refugee supplies at the district level enhances security. It also provides a buffer supply to reduce direct dependence on the national transport fleet and to permit more rapid response to contingency requirements. With good access, deliveries to regional or district stores can often continue in conditions which preclude delivery to the sites. Then when conditions improve, tractors, four-wheel drive vehicles or carts can be used to carry supplies on to the refugee sites.

5.9.3 To meet storage requirements for supplies, examine existing facilities to determine their suitability in terms of location, capacity, security and state of repair. Optional sources of needed warehouses may include existing government stores or commercial warehouses which can be borrowed or rented, other available buildings which can be converted for use as a warehouse, local construction of appropriate facilities, or importing and erecting storage tents or prefabricated buildings.

5.9.4 For additional information on establishing and operating proper storage facilities, see Chapter 7, Storage and Warehousing.

5.9.5 Schedule the movement and delivery of refugee supplies to ensure that goods arrive in a timely manner at the location where they are needed. To do this effectively, officials in charge of scheduling must know what supplies (type, quantity and quality) are on hand at each storage location in the logistics system at any given time. They must also know what needs must be met, where and when, with sufficient advance notice to permit them to move and position these supplies at the destination.

5.9.6 Provide officials in the logistics organization with information on programme plans and scheduled distributions to the refugees. Based on the types and quantities of supplies needed, their current location in the logistics system, and the timing and location of planned use, supply targets can be established for delivery to each destination.

5.9.7 Accountability within the storage and delivery system is essential:

- Stock balances at each storage location must be reported and monitored regularly.

- Records of supplies issued from one location must be reconciled with reported receipts at the destination, so that transit losses are identified and corrective action is taken.

- Statistics on quantities dispatched and received must be compared with planned supply targets to ensure that the transport fleet is operating effectively, and that planned refugee and programme needs are being fulfilled.

- Information on the release and distribution of supplies in the refugee programme must be reconciled with the balance of supplies on hand, and used to prepare utilization reports to donors, sponsors, governments and other interested parties.

5.10 Telecommunications

5.10.1 Good telecommunications between key locations in the area of operations - central logistics control unit, ports, airports, major warehouses, distribution centres, transport fleet operations base(s) and mobile units - permit a rapid exchange of information concerning the movement of programme supplies and factors affecting the movement. Unless telephone and telex connections are both extensive and reliable, it may be necessary to establish a radio network which should include both voice and teleprinter communications.

5.10.2 The appropriate government authority must approve the operation of The radio network and assign the operating frequency. In general, the higher the frequency the greater the operating distance. Multiple frequencies may be necessary to provide communications in variable conditions. Many governments also require special permits to import and/or erect radio transmitters. Check with other UN or international aid agencies for local requirements, especially if they are already operating a network. Help may also be available from the government ministry responsible for refugee matters, to expedite the application.

5.10.3 Determine needs for base and mobile units, aerials and antennae. Equipment requirements depend upon the operating frequency, the geography and distances between stations, and the number of locations to be equipped. Generators or batteries may be necessary to provide a reliable power source.

5.10.4 Examine suitable aerial and equipment locations. If possible, the aerial for a base station should not be surrounded by buildings or trees, should be located 10 to 20 metres above the ground, and the co-axial cable linking it with the transceiver should be as short as possible. A qualified technician should provide installation and training services.

5.10.5 When the need for radio communications has been established, request advice from the Telecommunications Manager at Headquarters, who will evaluate the requirements and advise on the most suitable equipment, taking into account both the economy and efficiency of circuits. Provide the following information:

(a) type of links required (voice, teleprinter, etc.);
(b) whether requirements are operational or administrative;
(c) geographical location(s) of radio-links and distance(s) between stations;
(d) nature and type of terrain (e.g., mountainous, flat dry land);
(e) expected volume of traffic to be exchanged;
(f) personnel who will handle the equipment; and
(g) power supply available locally.

5.10.6 Define protocols, disciplines and procedures for operating the radio network. For example, establish pre-set times for regular contacts between particular locations. Keep records of all outgoing and incoming messages, whether they are voice or teleprinter communications.

5.11 Transport and Storage Insurance

5.11.1 All UNHCR supplies and food aid must be covered by insurance during inland transport and storage. Simply the knowledge that goods are insured, and losses or damages are claimed, promotes greater care and a reduction in losses. To protect their own interests and to give an added measure of loss or damage prevention, local insurance companies often appoint their own representatives to oversee loading and unloading and to supervise the handling of refugee supplies.

5.11.2 When commercial transport is used to move supplies, carriers are usually required by law to provide only a minimum coverage. In some countries, there may not be a minimum at all. Any claim against the carrier must be filed in writing immediately on receipt of a consignment, or within a specified period of time if a consignment is lost in its entirety. Regardless of the coverage, always hold the carrier liable in writing for any loss or damage in transit, to protect the interests of both UNHCR and any insurance company involved.

5.11.3 For every consignment of supplies, verify that goods are adequately insured while in transit to their destination, and that the carrier has sufficient third party liability insurance to protect UNHCR in the event of an accident. Also, confirm that our implementing partners have proper insurance coverage when goods are turned over to them for transport and storage. Refugee supplies should be insured from the point where international coverage terminates to the point of final use or distribution. Investigate the availability of local insurance, or consult the SFAS Shipping and Insurance Officer at Headquarters.

5.11.4 The most comprehensive coverage for UNHCR consignments, other than local purchases, can be obtained through SFAS at Headquarters, under the UNHCR Worldwide Open Cover Marine Cargo insurance policy. Coverage for the entire value of the consignment extends from the warehouse at the point of departure to the warehouse at the destination. All claims against this policy are also routed through Headquarters, alleviating the need to deal with numerous insurance companies, agents, insurance adjusters and the terms of various different policies and coverages. Provided standard information is given, the UNHCR insurance broker will insure the consignment and follow up to recover any claims. For additional information on UNHCR shipping insurance and related insurance claims, see Chapter 4, Receipt of Shipments.

5.11.5 For refugee supplies in storage, the building owner and the organization assigned overall responsibility for the warehouse must provide proper insurance coverage. Local insurance should be available. Information for insurance purposes includes a description of the warehouse, its size, location, type of construction, protection and security measures. Normally, the value of the goods stored is reported periodically, with variable premiums based on this reported value.

5.11.6 One option for providing adequate insurance coverage during transit and storage may warrant further consideration and discussion: use the proceeds generated from the sale of packaging materials to pay local insurance premiums. Any settlements for loss or damage could also be credited to the sales proceeds account.


5.12.1 Logistics can be the lifeline of a programme operation, where the wellbeing of the refugees depends upon the receipt of food aid and other supplies. It is often the most expensive part of an operation, in terms of transport requirements, fuel and spare parts, maintenance and warehousing. The logistics system is also subject to abuse, especially when there are competing local demands for food, fuel and other refugee supplies. Moving food usually has first priority, but other logistics functions include the movement of non-food items, such as household supplies, medical needs, equipment and people.

5.12.2 Each refugee situation encounters its own logistical problems which must be overcome. Port, transportation or warehousing facilities in the host country may not have the capacity to receive and deliver the required quantities of assistance. Transport routes may be inadequate. Trucks, rail wagons or locomotives, river boats or ferries may need repair, or fuel supplies may not be sufficient or reliable. Refugees may be situated in areas remote from normal transportation routes.

5.12.3 Successful implementation of logistics solutions depends, in a large part, on a good logistics staff with the technical expertise, local knowledge and management abilities to succeed. Select the correct agency to control the system, provide a clear line of command, and define the responsibilities and working relationships between UNHCR, the implementing agency which controls the logistics operation, the host government, other implementing partners and international aid organizations, commercial enterprises involved, and other outside experts and consultants. The key functions in the operation are:

(a) overall planning, management and control;

(b) coordinating purchasing, receiving and transportation, including fuel and spare parts;

(c) allocating and scheduling supplies to intermediate warehouses and on to the refugee sites;

(d) planning and implementing the distribution system in consultation with camp administrators and responsible implementing partners; and

(e) controlling and monitoring operations in the field, including stock inventories, transport fleet management and maintenance, and distribution systems.

The Logistics Organization

5.12.4 To meet the overall supply needs of the refugees, one organization must control and coordinate the logistics operation, with a clear mandate from UNHCR, the host government and the other international organizations that it serves. The logistics organization must mobilize or develop the necessary logistics capacity and provide effective and efficient management of the overall logistics operation, from receipt of supplies in the host country, to storage, delivery and distribution at their destination, where the goods are used to benefit the refugees. Segments of the logistics operation may be delegated to other agencies or contracted to commercial enterprises, but control and coordination rests with the assigned logistics organization.

5.12.5 Selecting the right leaders for key management positions in the logistics organization has a direct influence on the success of the operation. Logistics managers must be politically sensitive because of all the different parties who potentially may be involved. Changes need agreement at the national level, and clear direction on requirements at lower administrative levels. Managers must have a flexible but pragmatic approach to problem-solving, with strong emphasis on systems design and analysis. The operation will benefit if managers have a propensity to identify key issues promptly, to make decisions, and to follow through, not only to ensure implementation of changes, but to verify that the desired results continue to be achieved once the system is established.

5.12.6 Develop a commodity management plan which emphasizes a systemic approach to the introduction or improvement of inland transport, storage and delivery of all refugee supply needs. Provide an interlocking set of clearly defined roles, and use empirical methods to continually review and revise the plan based on operating experience.

5.12.7 Personnel policies and procedures are required for selection, training, remuneration, disciplinary action, performance evaluation and promotion. Define responsibilities, procedures and lines of communication by supplying each staff member in the logistics organization with a detailed job description. Staff retention is encouraged through market-related salary adjustments, improved working (and living) conditions, and good supervision. Consider the importance of rest periods, recreational activities and leave to balance the intense demands of the logistics operation, as well as the personal security of the logistics staff. Employee recognition and incentive programmes can also be beneficial to reward good performance and long service.

5.12.8 Prepare a procedures manual or handbook which outlines organizational policy and procedures, and illustrates common forms used throughout the logistics operation. Provide other organizational tools employees need, in the form of training (in the local language, if necessary), equipment and tools to fulfil their duties, and stationery supplies for record keeping and reporting purposes.

Chart 5.M: Management of the Logistics Organization

1. Does the organization demonstrate effective, experienced and informed leadership?

2. Does the organization have a detailed commodity management plan which is reviewed and updated periodically?

3. Are the operational goals defined, in such a way that they can be monitored and evaluated easily?

4. Does the organization have a clear idea of its place and role in the assistance community, with well-developed official and operational relationships which are necessary to fulfil its responsibilities?

5. Has a complete personnel policy been defined, in compliance with local labour laws, with formal hiring and dismissal procedures and complete records of all staff?

6. Has the organization established detailed job descriptions for all staff, outlining each employee's duties and responsibilities, and provided to them at the time they sign their employment contract?

7. Is staff training, personal and professional development for national staff, given high priority?

8. Is the organization knowledgeable about, and in touch with, the refugee population it seeks to supply? Are the field monitoring staff experienced in similar operations?

9. Are established systems and procedures under constant review to find and implement further improvements?

Chart 5.N: Suggested Topics for Personnel Training


· Organization theory and design
· Work planning techniques
· Delegation, work assignment, and charting responsibilities
· Communications and reports
· Financial management and budgeting
· Management by objectives
· Evaluation and performance assessment
· Public and community relations
· Information management


· Planning, communications and leadership
· Motivation, problem-solving and working with people
· Quality control
· Organizational policies and procedures
· Specific job-related training

Field Logistics Staff:

· Site management
· Financial management and accounting
· Storekeeping and inventory control
· Fuel management
· Field monitoring
· Office procedures and communications

Secretarial Staff:

· Administrative tasks and duties

· Priorities, planning and time management

· Communications - reception, telephone, telex

· Typing and filing - general rules, document layouts, spelling, punctuation, use of a dictionary, filing system and maintenance

Most staff can benefit from language, business and report writing courses.

Organizational Accountability

5.12.9 Establish a budget for the logistics operation, to make cash available when and where it is needed to pay for fuel, repairs, labour and other operating expenses. Freedom to make expenditures is a distinct advantage, but proper accountability for budgetary control, disbursements and reporting must also be instituted. Designate persons authorized to expend funds, specify the purposes and limitations on the amounts, and prescribe accounting procedures for the control and replenishment of imprest accounts.

5.12.10 Assign tasks for various units, supervisors and staff within the logistics organization, indicating priorities and the sequence for introducing new procedures and stricter controls. Plan regularly scheduled and appropriately sized dispatches, with all consignments supervised and recorded by designated staff during loading, before departure, and when unloading at the destination. Identify the staff responsible for maintaining receipt, transport, storage and distribution records of refugee supplies, who are accountable for the quality and quantity of goods placed in their charge. Formalize site distribution arrangements, ensuring cooperation between field monitoring staff, camp administrators and the beneficiaries themselves.

5.12.11 Set goals to provide real targets to achieve in the forthcoming period, against which results can be measured. Shortfalls or problems encountered can be analyzed to find solutions for further implementation. Targets can also be used as incentives, to speed up operations or to reduce maintenance and repair costs. But their advantages must be weighed against their potential disadvantages, especially when due care is sacrificed for speed.

Security Matters

5.12.12 Given the high local value of many commodities in the supply chain, and the tensions which can result from geographical and psychological isolation in many refugee settings, pay particular attention to the security of refugee supplies and the personnel who manage and handle them. There is often an implied risk of harm to those who are assigned custody of supplies at any point in the logistics operation, sometimes within the organization itself, between employees and supervisory staff. The degree of stress involved can be affected by many minor incidents, such as quarrels which demand resolution, apparently spontaneous jostling or crowding, stone-throwing children or disturbed adults who must be restrained, delays or go-slows in commodity handling, or poor or misinterpreted communications. Disciplinary actions (for example, dismissal) can result in serious violence.

5.12.13 Such situations can be diffused before they begin, through the support of concerned authorities at the national level, frequent contacts between interested parties at all levels, and the strengthening of administrative controls and support systems for the staff involved. Storesmen, watchmen, porters and guards must be paid regularly and on time, and have defined and monitored responsibilities to prevent pilferage, and to provide incentive to stay at their post and fulfil their duties. Security problems are minimized if regional, district or site administrative areas are centralized in an enclosed compound with controlled access and exit. Compounds can include offices, storage facilities, a workshop, fuel storage and a commodity checkpoint.

5.12.14 All accidents, serious incidents, thefts, fires, third party damage claims and other breaches of security must be fully documented and reported to senior logistics managers- Details of the situation must include identification of who was involved, the consequences, authorities asked for assistance, outcome, disciplinary action or settlement and to whom, and any related recovery action from insurance or another source.

5.12.15 Transport checkpoints can be used to monitor deliveries of supplies. They may also serve as authorized rest stops or overnight parking areas, holding or relay points for transport unit tasking, supplementary fuel depots, or information points for drivers. Selection and training of competent checkpoint staff improves predictability and reliability of supply deliveries. The main elements for an effective checkpoint operation are:

(a) prior warning by radio of the identification numbers and cargos of transport units due to arrive at the checkpoint;

(b) checking the vehicle cargo against the commodity types and amounts specified on the waybill; or

(c) checking vehicles on their return, to ensure that proper delivery and receipt procedures were followed, with all cargo delivered to the correct store at the destination, and a properly signed and receipted waybill being returned; and

(d) recording details on the waybill about the time of arrival/departure of each vehicle. Use stamps, unique for each checkpoint location, to provide proper control.

5.12.16 Remote logistical sites in the area of operations are less isolated and accountability within the system is improved by instituting regular monitoring and reporting procedures. Periodic meetings provide an opportunity for field staff from different field locations and more senior managers to exchange information, especially when planning and implementing changes. Contacts between management personnel and field staff can be maintained using radio communications and by having monitoring staff visit field locations regularly.


5.13.1 A supplementary function of the logistics operation may be to evacuate or relocate people. Successful people movements require thorough planning, careful control and orderly execution. Good liaison between supervisory staff at the point of origin and at the destination is essential to coordinate the convoy schedule and the arrival of the refugees.

5.13.2 The guidelines provided here can help in planning people movements and anticipating potential risks and problems. Seek additional advice from individuals with relevant experience in the local area, such as managers of local passenger transportation companies or personnel in international organizations who have conducted similar operations.

5.13.3 The number of scheduled stops along the route will depend upon the distance to be covered and the prevailing temperature. More frequent stops are necessary in cold temperatures than in warm temperatures.

Chart 5.O: Planning a Convoy to Move People

1. Select a route which Is the safest and shortest route from the place of origin to the destination.

2. Use trucks with a low centre of gravity, or buses, which are inspected and proven to have good lights, brakes, tires and steering mechanisms. Never move people in trailers.

3. Make provision for personal effects to travel with the owners. Consider this when planning the number of people in each vehicle, or move personal affects in the trailer attached to the truck carrying the owners. Put livestock in a separate truck in the same convoy.

4. If water points along the route are inadequate, include a water tanker or trailer in the convoy.

5. Consider vehicle repair facilities along the route. If inadequate, include a breakdown/recovery vehicle in the convoy.

6. Conduct pre-departure health checks. Never move sick or severely malnourished people without using specific transport (ambulances, specially equipped buses, with medical personnel on board).

7. Record the number of people getting on the vehicles at the place of origin, and getting off the vehicles at the other end. Use hand-held counters or check off passengers against established lists. Medical and registration records should accompany them.

8. Do not overcrowd the vehicles. In the event of a breakdown, passengers may have to double up.

9. Provide a convoy escort, one person with authority, riding at the end of the convoy, in communication with the lead vehicle.

10. Assign one or more medical staff, with a fairly sophisticated medical kit, to accompany the convoy.

11. Take care of the drivers. To drive safely, they need adequate meals, rest breaks and time for vehicle maintenance. Consider using relief drivers.

Chart 5.P: How to Reduce Potential Deaths When Transporting People

1. Reduce speed:

- to minimize shocks and possible injuries caused by the jolting of the vehicles;

- to control motion sickness and vomiting (especially for people who are malnourished or dehydrated); and

- to control dust which causes vomiting.

2. Place personal belongings, bedding or sand on the floor of the vehicle. Personal belongings and bedding cushion shock. Sand stabilizes the vehicle by adding weight and lowering the centre of gravity.

3. Control food at departure and way stations. People should not be moved (except in a crisis) less than four to six hours after eating. Ritz crackers are known to suppress vomiting.

4. Control dehydration with water, tea or oral rehydration solution. In hot areas, use covered vehicles to provide shade. Move people during periods with moderate temperatures. Stop frequently.

5. Control hypothermia in cold areas by reducing speed, stopping frequently, providing blankets and tea.

CAUTION: Enclosed trucks may cause exhaust fumes to back up into the passenger area, especially at slow speeds or if winds are blowing from an adverse direction.


5.14.1 The logistics organization responsible for the receipt, storage and delivery of refugee supplies must implement a system for recording, reporting and monitoring the flow of goods from receipt to final distribution. The system of accountability, as a minimum, should include:

(a) adequate financial controls, records and reports, incorporating costing and budgetary control techniques to aid in continuous performance and cost efficiency analysis and evaluation at all levels in the organization, from receipt and port handling through to distribution;

(b) integrated documentation and information reporting procedures for the purposes of planning, controlling, directing and improving the movement of supplies and food aid; and

(c) statistical information to fulfil the needs of management, UNHCR and donors.

5.14.2 Information from the accountability system may be used to monitor the achievement of established goals and objectives, to evaluate ongoing results and levels of performance, to improve management, cost efficiency and resource utilization, and to plan future requirements to support the refugee programme more effectively.

5.14.3 An effective accountability system should not cause delays in the logistics operation. Define requirements clearly and instruct those involved accordingly. Staff at all levels in the organization, and other related organizations or enterprises who interface with the system, must understand and acknowledge their responsibilities for fulfilling information needs.

5.14.4 Ensure that customs clearance and receiving procedures and documentation requirements are established. Specify the types of documents needed, the number of copies, timing and routine. Provide complete, correct consignment delivery addresses to all concerned parties. Notify SPAS at Headquarters and local suppliers in advance of actual delivery to avoid delays caused by inadequate documentation.

5.14.5 Monitor the inland movement of goods using a system of waybills. A minimum of two copies must travel with each consignment - one remaining at the destination to serve as a receipt voucher, and one signed and returned to the dispatcher to confirm that the goods have been received. Other copies may be needed to invoice or pay for transportation, or for supplementary record keeping.

5.14.6 Storage records and reports must be implemented to monitor the type and quantities of supplies being held in warehouses throughout the area of operations, and all receipts and dispatches. Distribution reports and release orders are necessary to confirm that supplies have been used for their intended purpose.

5.14.7 Establish handling procedures and schedules for the movement of documents and information in the system. Identify appropriate information routing using mail, pouch, courier or radio, through government facilities, implementing partners or sub-offices, and the frequency of these services. Specify to whom documents, reports and other information should be sent.

Chart 5.Q: Accountability in Logistics Operations

Easily accessed information from records and reports generated by the system should answer the following questions:


Types of supplies handled, for which refugee programmes/projects and implementing partners.

How much?

Quantities involved.

Was received where?

Specified control point(s) in the area of operations.

From whom?

Source of the supplies.

And moved how?

Modes of transport involved.

At what cost?

Breakdown of capital expenditures and recurrent costs of operations, including personnel, labour, administrative and maintenance costs for handling, transport and storage by location, for organizational and contracted services.

With what losses?

Details of losses, including explanations of any differences between receipts and dispatches or distributions, apparent causes, and related corrective or recovery actions.

Distributed/released to whom?

End utilization of the supplies provided.

And reported to whom?

Final reports concerning the use or disposition of the goods.

5.15 Monitoring Logistics Operations

5.15.1 To monitor the logistics operation, select specific, quantifiable indicators to measure the achievement of objectives. Monitor these achievements, watch for deviations, and identify areas where improvements are required to enhance performance or modifications are necessary to meet changing situations.

5.15.2 Carefully analyze reports from operational units on supply movements, stock levels, rates of supply utilization, expenditures against budgets and reported accomplishments. Make regular observations and unannounced spotchecks of actual supply movements, stocks and storage facilities, distributions and end-use of supplies. Examine transport functions, including truck utilization, fuel consumption, turnaround times, frequency and nature of repairs, and driver performance. Also review the organizational processes for staff supervision and training, contracting, storage and distribution.

5.15.3 Organize occasional sample surveys to determine the adequacy of established indicators and targets, the actual end-use of inputs, final results and benefits. Develop your own checklist of things to look for, based on the standards, guidelines and suggestions outlined in this Handbook.


6.1.1 Motor vehicles are an integral and essential component of all UNHCR's programme operations in the field. The effective provision and use of appropriate vehicles have a direct impact on the achievement of programme objectives.

6.1.2 Vehicle needs must be assessed in the context of overall logistics requirements for a particular programme:

- Do not identify transport as a secondary requirement based on needs in other sectors, or base decisions solely on budgetary considerations.

- Develop a consolidated transportation plan which meets total programme delivery needs, and define the budget in terms of the plan.

6.1.3 Supplying UNHCR-purchased vehicles is only one of several options available to fulfil needs to move goods or people from one location to another. Other modes of transport may be appropriate - railway, water barges, carts or animals. Also examine other sources of vehicles, their capabilities and capacities, especially to solve immediate and short-term transportation requirements:

- Borrow vehicles locally which are owned and operated by the government, another UN agency, implementing partners or other aid organizations.

- Rent vehicles or contract transport needs from a local commercial fleet. Local security conditions or poor roads may discourage trucking companies from undertaking UNHCR deliveries, or may result in higher tariffs.

6.1.4 Before deciding to establish a UNHCR-sponsored, independent fleet - a complex and costly exercise - consider the feasibility of increasing the capabilities of an existing operation. Improve the operation's capabilities to repair vehicles which are currently out-of-service, but avoid repairing derelict vehicles, which is seldom practical. If the operating and servicing facilities are already in place, provide the additional vehicles necessary to meet UNHCR's needs. Standardize the fleet to the extent possible.

6.1.5 Establish control and monitoring procedures and assign responsibilities for vehicle operations from the start. This will encourage effectiveness and efficiency in the logistics operation, and the feedback will provide useful information:

(a) for ongoing budgetary purposes; and
(b) for making future decisions on the acquisition, disposal or replacement of vehicles.

6.1.6 Once the transportation fleet is operational, examine requests for additional vehicles carefully. Requested vehicles should be the same as the makes and models in the existing fleet. Look at past, current and forecasted needs, capacities and utilization. Can the request be justified over the long term, or would a short-term alternative suffice?

Chart 6.A: Identification of Vehicle Needs

Many UNHCR programmes are located in developing countries where road conditions are poor and vehicle servicing facilities are limited.

1. Justify the need for each vehicle in terms of its specific purpose in meeting overall supply needs.

2. Consider vehicle operating and maintenance requirements during the planning phase.

3. Undertake a detailed analysis of the costs of purchasing versus hiring/renting. Depreciation or the amortization of the capital investment over the expected serviceable life of a vehicle is a key factor.

4. Seek technical advice locally, or through TSS at Headquarters.

5. Answer the following questions:

- What types/quantities of goods or how many people must be transported, and how frequently?

- Where will the vehicle(s) be used, over what distances and what road conditions?

- What facilities are needed to provide fuel, lubricants, spare parts and ongoing maintenance and repair? Do they exist, or will they need to be augmented or developed?

- What are the associated costs for vehicle acquisition and for ongoing vehicle operations?

6.2 Responsibilities for Motor Vehicles

6.2.1 Each UNHCR programme is unique in terms of its complexity, operational relationships between UNHCR, the government and implementing partners, and local socio-economic, climatic and geographic factors. In broad terms, however, responsibilities associated with the provision and operation of motor vehicles can be identified and grouped by organizational level in UNHCR:

(a) Headquarters

- In consultation with the geographic desk and TSS, field offices may ask for technical advice on logistics, transportation needs, fleet operations and vehicle workshops.

- SFAS provides catalogues and current vehicle cost information, and makes international purchases of vehicles, fuel, lubricants and spare parts.

- The geographic desk and PMS obtain budget approval.

(b) Branch or Regional Office

- Coordinates transportation needs, plans interim solutions, submits budget proposals and issues purchasing requests for new vehicles, fuel and spare parts.

- Arranges delivery to inland destinations for internationally procured vehicles.

- Provides training programmes for drivers, dispatchers and fleet managers.

- Provides storage and inland transportation for fuel and lubricants.

- Maintains the necessary supply of spare parts, purchased locally or internationally.

- Maintains records of the complete vehicle inventory and data on each vehicle's location and condition.

(c) Field Office

- Manages the local vehicle fleet and drivers.

- Controls the receipt and issue of fuel and lubricants.

- Provides and monitors periodic maintenance and necessary repairs.

- Manages the local spare parts supply.

- Maintains detailed vehicle records on use and servicing, and submits periodic reports to the Branch or Regional Office.

6.2.2 UNHCR officials in the field may not be directly responsible for managing the activities described above because these responsibilities are often passed on to implementing partners or contractors. In every case, however, UNHCR officials must monitor vehicle operations that they do not manage directly, to ensure that proper controls and effective management techniques are being applied.


6.3.1 Proper vehicle selection is imperative to ensure that each vehicle supplied can fulfil its prescribed role in the overall transportation operation. Many different vehicle makes, models and options are available. For ease of reference, in a typical country programme, vehicles may be grouped into four main categories:

(a) Official vehicles - primarily for administrative and representational use, they carry passengers and occasionally goods, such as luggage or office supplies. Typically, these are sedans and station wagons, driven mainly in urban areas and on fair to good roads. For official vehicles which may be driven in areas with poor road conditions or on field trips or journeys over longer distances, light field vehicles may be selected (see below).

(b) Light field vehicles - often used as project vehicles to transport passengers and goods over shorter distances in the field. Pick-ups and Land Cruisers with four-wheel drive are ideal on poor roads or in off-road conditions.

(c) Heavy duty vehicles - used to transport supplies and food aid. Large vehicles needed for long distance transport on fair to good roads are, typically, truck and trailer units (4x4 or 4x6) with a load capacity of 10 to 15 MT per unit. Smaller heavy duty vehicles (4x2 or 4x4), with a load capacity of 5 to 9 MT are used to transport supplies over shorter distances, often on poor roads and occasionally off-road.

(d) Special purpose vehicles - such as minibuses, ambulances, water or fuel tankers, mobile workshops, dump trucks, tractors, graders, required for various programme sectors. The guidelines presented here may be applied, but in each case sector specialists should conduct a special assessment of needs, specifications and suitability.

6.3.2 The Field Motor Vehicle Standards Catalogue, published by the Inter-Agency Procurement Services Unit (IAPSU) of UNDP in Copenhagen (copies available from SFAS at Headquarters), lists a selection of vehicles suitable as official and project vehicles. More recently, IAPSU has issued a Heavy Vehicles-Truck Catalogue, also available from SFAS, which lists specifications for trucks and truck chassis from a number of suppliers worldwide.

6.3.3 Assess potential donations carefully before acceptance. Donors usually give preference to products from their own country, perhaps overlooking the real needs in the recipient country. Examine proposed donations using the suitability and selection criteria given here. Pay particular attention to vehicle durability, standardization with the existing local fleet, and servicing capabilities. Donations of used vehicles are likely to result in high subsequent expenditures for repairs and maintenance; they may only be considered in exceptional circumstances. Some offers must be politely declined.

Chart 6.B: Examples of Commonly Used Field Vehicles

Official Vehicles

Light Field Vehicles

Heavy Duty Vehicles

Special Purpose Vehicles

Official Vehicles

6.3.4 For the senior official in a UNHCR office, first choice is usually a four-door sedan, suitable for an international humanitarian organization without being ostentatious or conveying a negative impression. Additional passenger vehicles in an office should be selected from other models of the same make. An excellent second official vehicle is a station wagon, or a light field vehicle if its use for field trips is foreseen. Avoid very small cars which provide less protection in an accident, have limited use and may develop mechanical problems as a result of their lack of durability. Four-wheel drive should not be selected as an option for official vehicles because the vehicle's overall design may not be suited for poor roads or off-road conditions; consider this option only if seasonal difficulties may occur, such as flooding, snow, or ice.

Chart 6.C: Selection Guidelines for Motor Vehicles

1. Standardize the vehicle fleet, wherever possible, consistent with servicing facilities and makes/models common in the recipient country. Ideally, a manufacturer's dealer or representative should be present in the country or in a nearby country for consultation, service and the provision of spare parts.

2. Specify right-hand or left-hand drive, consistent with the driving rules and conventions in the recipient country. This will minimize accident risk.

3. Give preference to diesel engines, because of their reliability, safety and economical operation. Select petrol engines only when diesel fuel is not available or excessively priced, or when vehicles must operate in extremely cold climates. Mechanics who will service the vehicle must be familiar with the engine type. Standardize where possible, so that only one type of fuel is needed.

4. Choose vehicles with a longer wheel base, which have greater stability on poor roads and during off-road operations.

5. Weigh the traction advantages of four-wheel drive carefully against the added purchasing and operating cost of this option, and its specialized maintenance and spare parts requirements. Light field vehicles equipped with four-wheel drive consume almost double the fuel as the same two-wheel drive model. However, in some areas four-wheel drive is essential.

6. Request vehicles "as per standard export specifications for ... (recipient country)", and consider other options which are recommended for the country or terrain.

7. Specify colour, usually white or light blue, for UNHCR-supplied vehicles.

Light Field Vehicles

6.3.5 Because these vehicles may often be used in remote locations on bad roads and tracks with the most unfavourable servicing conditions, select a make and model with a proven record of reliability. Pick-ups or special purpose vehicles (see below) are also available on the same chassis, which will minimize spare parts requirements. Select a seating configuration based on intended use:

(a) seats fixed laterally across the vehicle to comfortably seat personnel travelling in the vehicle;

(b) benches fixed along the sides of the cabin for mixed use, to transport goods or to move passengers over short distances; and

(c) to maximize seating capacity, a roof rack to carry passengers' luggage.

Heavy Duty Vehicles

6.3.6 The need for heavy duty vehicles must be the subject of a careful expert evaluation of all technical aspects of the logistics operation. Truck fleets require an extensive infrastructure for ongoing control and maintenance. Aside from the high initial capital investment, major ongoing expenditures include the costs of dispatchers, drivers, mechanics, fuel and spare parts. If the need for establishing a trucking fleet is agreed, seek technical advice to assess the requirements for fleet acquisition, the ongoing associated costs and the need to establish mechanical workshops. To illustrate the complexity of the needs assessment for heavy duty vehicles, see the selection criteria in Annex XX.

6.3.7 Avoid purchasing one truck - find another solution. If the need for one truck is justifiable, consider only models which are used and can be serviced locally.

6.3.8 Choose a size and configuration of vehicle which is suitable for expected operating conditions. Safety may be impaired or vehicle damage result, if vehicles are overloaded or loads exceed weight-per-axle limitations. Moving supplies using a small number of large trucks rather than a large number of small trucks is more easily scheduled and controlled, and more economical. However, large trucks require better drivers, good roads, more skilled mechanics, sophisticated spare parts and larger, better-equipped servicing facilities. Individual break-downs in a large-truck fleet have a greater impact on operating capabilities. Twin axles are advisable for larger units.

6.3.9 Standard truck and cargo trailer combinations are more versatile than large semi-trailers. The tractor of a semi-trailer moving alone is more accident-prone because of its high centre of gravity. Both cargo trailers and semi-trailers are dangerous when operated on bad, pot-holed roads or when carried on ferries, especially when empty. If truck/trailer units are expected to make return journeys empty, consider the legality and practicality of using a «piggy-back» trailer unit which can be carried on the back of the truck unit, increasing the stability of the empty truck and reducing wear and tear on the trailer. Short and medium length truck chassis are best on bad roads.

6.3.10 Truck side-walls should be at least cab height, of solid construction. For more versatility, sideboards, pillars and tail-board may be removable to enable loading from back, top or sides, and for conversion to a flat-bed to carry cargo containers. Trucks should be equipped with a tarpaulin and ropes, and lashing rings or cleats around the truck body for securing it. Request tarpaulins which are waterproof, heavy duty, preferably light-coloured canvas fitted with eyelets. The tarpaulin support frame should be easily detached. Also assess requirements for optional lifting mechanisms, such as a small crane or a mechanically raised rear platform/tail-board.

6.3.11 For ease of maintenance and driver training, standardize the trucking fleet as much as possible. Give preference to truck makes and models presently in local use, as drivers and mechanics will already be familiar with them, and some spare parts may also be available. Check out potential national and regional suppliers who may be able to offer appropriate vehicles and quick delivery.

6.3.12 For international truck purchases from the manufacturer, allow 3 to 6 months from the date of the order for delivery. Regardless of the source of supply, however, remember that large orders of the same truck model will take additional time to be manufactured.

6.3.13 Spare parts should be ordered with every truck. Base initial orders on the manufacturer's recommendations, usually valued at 10 to 15 per cent of the truck's FOB value.

Special Purpose Vehicles

6.3.14 Choose special purpose vehicles by applying the criteria for other vehicles operating under similar field conditions. Use detachable special purpose equipment on standard vehicles, whenever possible. When vehicles are chosen for their special function, rather than their suitability and durability, problems can result. Breakdown of either the special equipment or the vehicle means that both parts are incapacitated.

6.3.15 Adapt other vehicles to the special purpose, unless a long-term need is established. Recognize the limitations of special purpose vehicles. For example, use light field vehicles or trucks in lieu of purchasing buses or minibuses to move people. Overloading buses is very risky. Excess luggage in roof racks raises the centre of gravity of a bus. Large quantities of luggage inside will obstruct the aisles. Both of these situations present a danger to the passengers. If buses or mini-buses are considered, remember:

- Their usefulness is restricted to good, or at least fair, roads.
- Buses have less transport capacity than trucks.
- Minibuses are less sturdy than field vehicles with a similar capacity.
- Bus drivers require a special licence in most countries.
- Special purpose passenger insurance must be provided.

6.3.16 In each case, justify a request for a special purpose vehicle in terms of its intended use to meet sectoral needs, and its suitability in the overall context of the local vehicle fleet and operating conditions. Consult with both sectoral specialists and fleet vehicle experts to determine the best possible solution.


6.4.1 As a rule of thumb, always select the most basic vehicle model unless there is a version which is more readily available which can be expected to be easily serviced. Avoid options which are vital to the functioning of the vehicle once installed, such as automatic transmission. Options and accessories which increase the usefulness or comfort of a vehicle are acceptable, provided they will not cause maintenance problems, significantly increase the purchase price or delay the delivery of the vehicle.

Chart 6.D: Vehicle Options and Accessories



- Lock for gas cap and outside-mounted spare wheel

Usually opened with the ignition key. If a separate key is needed, verify availability as part of the standard set and spare keys.

- Lap-and-shoulder safety belts on front seat

Obligatory in certain countries.

- Anti-theft ignition

Usually part of steering wheel lock which immobilizes the vehicle.

- Roll bar

For added safety, to protect passengers in case the vehicle overturns.

- Heavy duty, easily maintained upholstery

Not PVC or plastic, especially for vehicles operating in hot climates.

- AM radio

Standard equipment in many vehicles, which may improve the safety and security of personnel and cargo. FM (VHF) receivers are not usually useful outside major population centres. Cassette tape decks should only be considered if the vehicle will operate on longer journeys in remote areas.

- Anti-rust protection

Good in humid and coastal climates, or cold climates where salt is used on the roads, to reduce body maintenance and lengthen vehicle life.

- Rear window wiper/washer

Especially for dusty or muddy conditions.

- Shatterproof windscreen

- Mud flaps on all wheels

- Wing mirrors and large rear-view mirror

- Tinted windows

To minimize glare and reduce driver discomfort and fatigue.

Where appropriate:


- Heavy duty shock absorbers front and rear

- Heavy duty battery

- High capacity cooling system

- Front-end winch

For vehicles driven on poor roads or in remote off-road situations, and where rain/mud may cause vehicles to bog down.

- Heavy duty jack

To replace standard jack, which is often insufficient under field conditions.

- Second spare wheel

For field vehicles used in areas where tire repairs are not readily available.

- Additional fuel tank

For vehicles which will operate frequently on long trips or in remote areas. Can be installed by manufacturer.

- Air conditioning

To improve driving comfort at slow speeds in hot climate, in convoys or on dusty roads, or when carrying perishables. Assess utility against potential servicing problems and increased fuel consumption. At normal speeds on fair to good roads, normal ventilation should suffice.

- Block heater

Needed only in very cold climates.

- Roof rack

Vehicle centre of gravity raised when loaded, increasing the risk of the vehicle overturning in a critical situation.

- Jerrycans

Useful for longer field trips.

- one or two 20-litre metal Jerrycans for additional fuel, with proper facility for securing them safely

Minimum of petrol fuel on board, to avoid creating a fire hazard. Diesel fuel presents a much lower risk.

- one 20-litre plastic Jerrycan for water

- Flag staff or bracket for vehicle flagpole

For official vehicles or in security zones, to identify UNHCR vehicles.

- Fire extinguisher

Of questionable value because of low fire risk in most vehicles and high risk of theft when fire extinguisher is properly situated in a prominent and accessible place in the vehicle.

- Comfort options, e.g., special carpeting, upholstery or arm rests

Only if they do not significantly increase purchase price and will not delay delivery of the vehicle.

Unacceptable/Not Recommended:


- Automatic transmission

Need for highly specialized workshops for maintenance and repair, lack of durability in poor and off-road conditions, and impossible to start by towing if the battery is dead.

- Hydromatic suspension

Vulnerable in rough road conditions and difficult to repair.

- Electric windows

Failure to open or close if the system breaks down.

- Central door-locking systems

Not suitable because of dependence on the vehicle's electrical system, unless purely manual operation is possible independent of the automatic system.

- Alarm system

Of no value unless vehicle is properly locked, and then only if those who hear the alarm react to the alert. Tends to create a false sense of security and false alarms are common.

Fuels and Lubricants

6.4.2 Local supplies of fuel and lubricants may influence your selection of vehicles - petrol or diesel engine, larger or smaller trucks. Ensuring a relatively constant supply of fuel gives much more security and may very well avert major crises in the overall transport operation.

6.4.3 Anticipate fuel and lubricant requirements and probable consumption rates for vehicles under consideration. If local fuel is available, confirm that octane ratings are adequate for proper vehicle operation. Duty-free fuel may be provided for UN vehicles. Check that sufficient quantities can be supplied where they will be needed. Answer the following questions:

- What supplies are necessary - petrol, diesel, oil, grease, etc.? In what quantities? At what cost? Duty-free?

- Are sufficient stocks provided at all vehicle base locations?

- Are there fuel depots? Where?

- What system is used to obtain, transport and store fuel to/in field locations?

6.4.4 If available supplies are inadequate, try to contract with oil companies or distributors to provide guaranteed quantities at specific locations. If this is not feasible, you may have to buy fuel and lubricants from national depots or import your requirements, and make arrangements to transport and store the supplies where they will be needed. Large underground tanks and pumps are preferable, with delivery by bulk tanker. In emergencies, or less ideal conditions, supplies may have to be transported and stored in 200-litre drums, and dispensed using portable, manually operated pumps.

6.4.5 When planning the supply of fuels and lubricants for UNHCR-purchased vehicles, ensure that procedures are in place to control the issue and use of the supplies provided, and to report consumption data for planning, budgeting and delivery scheduling purposes.


6.4.6 Pay special attention to the quality and specifications for the tires supplied with the vehicle, particularly tread design and thickness. Tires designed for use in sand are not good for mud, and vice versa. Heavy duty, cross-country tires may be the most suitable for vehicles which will be used on other-than-hard-surface roads, except in desert or semi-desert conditions where sand tires are essential.

6.4.7 Assess the suitability of particular types of tires in consultation with a technical expert, preferably with local experience. Use relevant data on planned vehicle type, previous and planned use, and typical local conditions to aid in this assessment.

6.4.8 Road and off-road conditions in field situations are extremely hard on tires. They can wear out in 10,000 km, under some of the conditions encountered. Repairing tires with tubes in the field is easier than repairing tubeless tires. Slight damage to wheel rims, which can easily occur during off-road operations, does not affect tires with tubes. Consider the advantages of:

(a) providing an extra complete spare wheel with proper wheel mount on the vehicles (outside wheel mount must be lockable) or extra tubes; and

(b) equipping the vehicle with a tire repair kit.

Two-Way Radio Communications

6.4.9 Two-way radio communications with vehicles is one of the best means to increase utilization and security. Communications with the base station enhance the management of overall transport operations. In the case of convoys, communications can play a vital role in controlling the convoy and improving security.

6.4.10 The decision to install communications equipment in a vehicle is based on the vehicle's intended use and on established communications practices in the area in which the vehicle will be operating. If the need is justified, order a mobile radio separately through Headquarters. Request delivery in time for installation by a professional radio technician on arrival of the vehicle.

Technical Kit

6.4.11 A high degree of self-sufficiency is necessary for vehicles which operate primarily in areas without adequate support infrastructure. Tools delivered with a vehicle are often insufficient or of inadequate quality for field use. Consider supplying a specially prepared technical kit for remote operations. Items for the kit may have to be ordered specifically. Because of their value and portability, kits should be kept securely in a lockable box, issued against a receipt for each field trip and fixed to the vehicle. Provide driver training on the use of the contents through a local workshop.

Chart 6.E: Technical Kit for Field Operations

· Owner's Manual

· Towing cable or rope

· Battery jumper cables

· Tool set: screwdriver, hammer, flat- and sharp-nosed pliers, spanners, monkey wrenches

· Jack with jack handle and wheel wrench, suitable for use on soft or uneven ground

· Puncture repair kit

· Tire inflating equipment

· Wire, string, assorted nuts and bolts, PVC tape

· Vehicle-specific spare parts: headlight and tail-light bulbs, fuses, spark plugs, air and fuel filters, fan and water pump belts, hoses, clamps, extra tire tube

Other Suggestions for Field Trips

· Signal triangle

· Flashlight, preferably with own batteries, as well as a cable to connect to the vehicle battery

· Jerrycan(s) for spare fuel: 20-litre, metal

· Jerrycan(s) for water: 20-litre, plastic

· Fuel funnel

· Second spare wheel (rim, tire and tube)

· Extra engine and gearbox oil

· Brake fluid (in small sealed tins)

· Shovel

· Axe

· Fire extinguisher

· Tire chains (snow conditions)

· Sleeping bags or blankets, small set of cooking and eating utensils, camp stove or firewood

First Aid Kit

6.4.12 As a minimum, each vehicle should be equipped with a basic first aid kit containing a supply of antiseptic, bandages and dressings. These can usually be obtained locally.

6.4.13 A somewhat more complete kit may be purchased through Headquarters. In addition to basic first aid necessities, this UNHCR kit contains medical supplies to cope with sudden medical problems commonly encountered in the field, such as malaria attacks or digestive upsets. The kit includes instructions in languages used in UNHCR; the field office is responsible for any translation into local languages.

6.4.14 Arrange training in basic first aid for all field staff and drivers through a local institution, such as a hospital or the national Red Cross or Red Crescent Society.

6.4.15 Institute local administrative procedures to:

(a) obtain and secure standard first aid kits within the office; and
(b) replenish the contents of the kits at regular intervals.

Chart 6.F: Suggested Topics for a First Aid Course

· How to stop bleeding, prevent shock, deal with unconsciousness.
· Breathing problems, symptoms and possible causes. Resuscitation.
· Fractures and their signs. How to make a splint.
· How to make a stretcher.
· Bums and primary treatment.
· Dehydration and how to prevent it.


6.5.1 Before proceeding with the purchase of any vehicle, Headquarters must approve a budget allocation for vehicle acquisition.

6.5.2 For UNHCR programme operations, international procurement is the recommended method for obtaining needed vehicles. Its major drawback is the long lead-time necessary for manufacturers to produce and deliver the order - usually a minimum of three months from placing the order to receipt in the field. Submit complete specifications to SFAS at Headquarters, through the geographic desk.

6.5.3 Consider local procurement only if required models can be supplied ex stock under warranty. The price of locally purchased vehicles will always be higher than the international price. Investigate tax exemption or recovery of import duties for local purchases. Urgency alone can justify a local purchase, and then only if the cost or availability of rental or borrowed vehicles prevents their use to fill the gap until internationally purchased vehicles arrive.

Chart 6.G: Vehicles: International or Local Purchase?




Almost an unlimited choice of makes and models from which to choose.

Long delivery lead-time.

Ability to meet specific requirements for auxiliary equipment and special options.

Question of compatibility with existing local servicing infrastructure.

Lower prices, supplied duty-free, with possibility of quantity discounts.

Possible import restrictions causing delay in delivery.




Vehicle make and model (including options) already standardized with any local infrastructure.

Local price usually higher than international cost, particularly if tax exemption or recovery for UNHCR is not authorized.

Servicing, including repairs under manufacturer's warranty, available from the local supplier.

Stocked models likely to be older.

Short delivery lead-time, if ex stock.

Available vehicles possibly equipped with undesirable or unnecessary options.


6.6.1 Follow standard port clearance and receiving procedures to release vehicles from the shipping agent and from customs, or to take delivery from a local supplier (see Chapter 4, Receipt of Shipments). In addition, however, the consignee must arrange for each vehicle to be inspected, registered, insured and delivered to its final destination or operational base. Also, affix appropriate markings to the vehicle and install radio communications equipment at this time.

6.6.2 All of these services may be available through a contracted forwarding agent, or the consignee field office may have to contract separately. Detailed instructions and follow-up are necessary for each vehicle received. See Annex XXI for a suggested checklist.

Pre-Delivery Inspection

6.6.3 Pre-delivery inspection ensures that each vehicle is undamaged and in proper operating condition, both mechanically and physically, in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. Retain the manufacturer's local representative, a reliable local vehicle workshop or the workshop of an implementing partner to conduct the pre-delivery inspection.

Vehicle Markings

6.6.4 As part of the pre-delivery activities, each vehicle should be marked for identification purposes, as follows:

(a) UNHCR-registered vehicles - Affix «UNHCR» (or its French, Spanish or other language equivalent, in accordance with local practice) to both right and left front doors of the vehicle in an appropriate size which is easily seen. Decals for this purpose are available from Headquarters, or the identifier may be painted using a template. Security considerations may also suggest adding «UN» or «UNHCR» on the hood or roof of the vehicle, to make it easy to spot from the air.

(b) UNHCR-supplied project vehicles - Paint «Donated by UNHCR», or its equivalent, on both the right and left front doors of the vehicle. To readily identify each vehicle, the year of acquisition and relevant project code are also included on both rear passenger doors of light field vehicles.

(c) Donated vehicles - Donors may specify markings for vehicles to identify their contribution. Pay special attention to ensure that their requirements are fulfilled.


6.6.5 All vehicles must be registered on receipt, preferably in the name of the user of the vehicle, and not necessarily UNHCR. In the event of an accident, the driver is usually held liable for any criminal charges, but the registered owner may be liable for any civil damages claimed. The user (if not the owner) is not commonly involved in these legal matters, except in the possible regress of a claim against the owner.

6.6.6 For official or project vehicles operated by UNHCR staff members, where UNHCR is the owner, user and operator of a vehicle, registration is straight-forward. Liability and control are vested entirely in the office.

6.6.7 In the case of project vehicles, where vehicles purchased by UNHCR are turned over to an implementing partner, the situation is more complex. Project agreements usually foresee the transfer of ownership to the implementing partner. UNHCR is sometimes hesitant to do so immediately, however, because control over the use and disposition of the vehicle is also transferred. In the past, vehicles have been registered to UNHCR on receipt and delivered to an implementing partner, leaving UNHCR liable for civil claims resulting from the operation of the vehicle by our implementing partner. Registration of the vehicle in the name of the intended user is recommended, with the understanding that the vehicle will be operated for the purposes set out in the project agreement, and disposition of the vehicle will be made only after consultation and agreement with UNHCR.

6.6.8 Vehicles registered to UNHCR which are no longer needed for current or future UNHCR activities may be handed over, with a transfer of registration, to implementing partners. The disposition of this UNHCR-owned, non-expendable property requires the prior approval of the UNHCR Property Survey Board at Headquarters.

Vehicle Insurance

6.6.9 Vehicle insurance should be in place before a vehicle becomes operational. For UNHCR-operated vehicles, the Branch Office must arrange sufficient coverage. Minimum insurance requirements for vehicles transferred to implementing partners are specified in the relevant project agreement. Refer any questions concerning insurance to the Legal Adviser at Headquarters.

6.6.10 In assessing insurance requirements, consider the possible eventualities and the cost/benefits of coverage. In the event of an accident, three types of damages can result:

- Injury or property damage to a «third party» (not the vehicle or its occupants), is covered by third party liability insurance. This insurance is compulsory in most countries, but the amount of coverage stipulated is often less than actual claims which can occur. The registered owner of the vehicle is liable for any difference between the amount of coverage and the amount of a claim settlement. The UN Global Insurance Scheme, to which UNHCR does not currently subscribe, recommends coverage up to US $500,000 per accident (combined bodily injury, death and property damage).

- Damages to the vehicle requiring repair, or replacement of the vehicle in the case of excessive damage or total destruction, is covered by comprehensive insurance. This type of insurance is presently not compulsory in UNHCR. In any case, the risk is limited to the value of the vehicle at the time of an accident. On a global basis, the premiums for comprehensive coverage are high and cannot be justified in terms of potential reimbursements. Implementing instruments do require this coverage, however, for project vehicles whose ownership is vested in an implementing partner.

- Injury or losses suffered by the driver or passengers should be covered by passenger insurance. Pay special attention to the need for passenger insurance, because the risks involved are difficult to anticipate and the amount of any claims can be considerable. Staff members travelling on official business may be adequately protected by UNHCR employee insurance, but government officials, contracted experts, members of implementing agencies, media personnel and refugees may also be passengers, whose own insurance may be insufficient or non-existent.

6.6.11 For vehicles operated by implementing partners, mandatory clauses in project agreements require insurance for non-expendable property (comprehensive insurance for vehicles) and third party liability. UNHCR also declines responsibility for the activities and staff members of its implementing partners in the relevant project agreements. In reality, however, implementing partners, especially government departments, are often self-insured or their coverage is limited to the amounts compulsory in the respective country. A considerable risk exists if vehicles operated by an implementing partner remain registered to UNHCR, because settlements above basic legal obligations and insurance coverage may revert to the registered owner, i.e. UNHCR.

Delivery to the Vehicle Base Location

6.6.12 On completion of all receiving activities, arrange delivery of each vehicle to its final destination and user, where the vehicle will be based for its intended purpose. Vehicles may be driven under their own power or carriers may be contracted to transport the vehicles, especially for long distances involving poor road or driving conditions. Note that shipping insurance can be extended to cover vehicles to their final destination. If they are driven under their own power, however, third party liability insurance coverage must also be provided locally.

6.6.13 A minimum of two sets of keys are supplied with each vehicle. Give one set to the driver (or carrier), to be surrendered to the user's fleet manager when the vehicle is not being driven. Forward the other set of keys to the fleet manager, to be retained securely in the event that the first set of keys is lost and must be replaced by a duplicate set.


6.7.1 Staffing and procedures for vehicle operations depend upon the size of the fleet. Control is an integral component of overall logistics operations in a country, covering all aspects for the provision and maintenance of vehicles. For UNHCR-operated vehicles, the related tasks are usually assigned to the administrative officer or administrative assistant. For project vehicles, a logistics officer should control vehicle operations, possibly assisted by a full-time dispatcher.

6.7.2 For major programmes where several different implementing partners are involved, one organization should coordinate overall programme logistics requirements, to avoid duplication of effort and less-than-optimum use of existing transport capacities.

6.7.3 Communications between all points of a transport network are vital to effective operations and control. Radio communications with vehicles and with outposted offices which do not have regular telephone communications may be necessary.

6.7.4 Control procedures should include a periodic examination of vehicle operations and consolidation of related data. Feedback is important for planning and budgeting upcoming requirements for fuel, spare parts, the acquisition of additional vehicles, and the selection of makes/models for future procurement.

6.7.5 Vehicles are a dynamic and expensive part of a logistics system. Administratively, however, they are often treated as merely another category of non-expendable property. Following are some suggestions to improve control, use, monitoring and feedback, that may be applied to both official and project vehicles. Whether vehicles are managed by UNHCR or by an implementing partner. UNHCR officials must play an active role in encouraging the establishment of proper procedures and controls.

Vehicle Records

6.7.6 Each UNHCR office should maintain a comprehensive inventory of all official and project vehicles, separate from the UNHCR inventory of non-expendable property. Establish a Vehicle Inventory Record for each vehicle at the time of acquisition (see Form SFAS/FH-3 in the Forms Annex for an example). This record can also be used to notify the vehicle workshop that the vehicle is authorized for service, and to establish a corresponding Vehicle Operations Record File.

6.7.7 Provide each vehicle with a Vehicle Log Book to record all use of the vehicle, as well as all fuel allocations, maintenance and repairs. See Form SFAS/FH-4 in the Forms Annex for a suggested layout for the pages of the Log Book. The Log Book should remain with the vehicle at all times. Copies of all receipts, vouchers and work orders are turned in to the fleet manager daily, to be placed in the Vehicle Operations Record File.

6.7.8 At the end of each month, the driver or fleet manager should prepare a Monthly Summary of Vehicle Operations (see Form SFAS/FH-5 in the Forms Annex) for each vehicle. Attach all receipts, vouchers and work orders. The fleet manager can then consolidate the Monthly Summaries to provide an overall Monthly Fleet Management Report. Data for each vehicle is placed on its Vehicle Operations Record File, to provide an operational history.

Fuel Supplies

6.7.9 Provide a method to control and monitor the use of fuel. If fuel is available from a local supplier, institute fuel requisitions, issued by the fleet manager and signed by the driver, to record each time a vehicle is filled. The supplier may then invoice for the fuel supplied periodically, the amount supported by the fuel requisitions. If UNHCR provides special fuel depots for vehicles, the fleet manager may control and issue coupons for fuel. Each time fuel is issued, the vehicle registration number and driver's signature are noted on the coupon. Drivers also record the date and quantity/cost of fuel in the Vehicle Log Book. Calculate vehicle fuel consumption from Log Book records for planning and budgeting purposes.

6.7.10 When fuel must be imported and stored in drums, provide the necessary tools to extract the contents safely. Fuel drums should be opened with non-ferrous tools. Preferably draw fuel from upright drums using semi-rotary hand pumps. Otherwise, construct wooden frames to hold drums and prevent them from rolling; use brass taps which screw into the drum to draw the fuel. Funnels and measuring jugs are also useful.

Vehicle Drivers

6.7.11 Recruit local drivers for the vehicles - no one should drive a vehicle who does not have a locally valid driver's licence for the category of vehicle to be driven. Drivers should be assigned to and responsible for a specific vehicle, to assure regular inspection, servicing and maintenance of the vehicle, and to minimize the risk of accident or injury. Consider the feasibility of a safe driving bonus scheme.

6.7.12 Establish rules for drivers, which may be included as part of a driver's contract of employment. The sample rules provided in Annex XXII may be amended or augmented, according to local circumstances.

6.7.13 In addition to prescribed regularly scheduled maintenance, the fleet manager should ensure that drivers conduct daily and weekly vehicle checks and report any deficiencies promptly. Suggested checklists for these inspections are included in Annex XXIII. Drivers assigned to vehicles should conduct these checks first thing in the day, before leaving the base. Before undertaking any field mission, drivers should make a thorough inspection using the weekly checklist.

6.7.14 Drivers may also be trained and given the means to perform basic maintenance and repairs on their assigned vehicles. As an example, when vehicles are operating in remote areas or where local workshops offer limited repair services, fleet operations are enhanced if drivers can repair punctures or change the engine oil. Especially on field trips, basic spare parts, an adequate tool kit and an owner's service manual should be in the vehicle.

6.7.15 Driver discipline is essential to prevent misuse of vehicles, time, fuel and money. Schedule and monitor vehicle movements - drivers must account for any delays or irregularities. Establish rules and procedures, so drivers are aware of their responsibilities and duties. Enforce discipline consistently. For a first offence, warn the driver and explain what improvement or change is expected. For a second offence, issue a written warning. A similar third offence may result in dismissal. Drivers should be given an opportunity to explain; summary dismissal and replacement of an offending driver does not encourage widespread confidence, nor is the problem necessarily solved. Drivers who continually abuse or misuse their vehicle, or do not respond to disciplinary measures, however, must be dismissed.

6.7.16 Fleet managers and other programme officials should spot-check vehicles periodically and randomly. Check the condition of the vehicle, the driver and any goods on board. Examine both the vehicle operating documents (registration, driver's licence, etc.) and the transport documentation (truck waybill, etc.). Follow up any necessary corrective action with the fleet manager or official in charge of vehicle operations.

Vehicle Accidents

6.7.17 Relatively minor accidents occur in urban areas, and do not usually involve serious injuries or loss of life. Serious accidents take place in rural areas, where the consequences can be severe if collisions occur at higher speeds, or vehicles leave the road or overturn. Accidents may be caused by technical malfunction, but more commonly are the result of driver error.

6.7.18 In the event of an accident, the driver or another staff member present is responsible for:

(a) assisting, as best possible, any injured persons or animals involved in the accident;

(b) reporting the accident immediately to the police and local authorities and notifying the fleet manager;

(c) never becoming part of an on-the-spot settlement initiated by another party; and

(d) recording all pertinent details of the accident

- specific location, road/weather conditions, date and time of day,

- names, addresses, telephone numbers of all witnesses and any other drivers involved,

- driver's license numbers, vehicle registration and insurance coverage information for any other vehicles involved, and

- an accurate description of the accident and any damage to people, animals or property.

6.7.19 A Vehicle Accident Report (see Annex XXIV) is submitted to the fleet manager who follows up and documents the related insurance claim, vehicle repairs and damage settlements.


6.8.1 Consider the requirements and local availability of maintenance and repair services as part of the needs assessment and transportation plan, and before making vehicle purchasing decisions. Effective maintenance and repair facilities must be identified for all vehicles to avoid losing the benefit of their transport capabilities. Vehicles which are out-of -service or unserviceable represent a significant waste of resources.

6.8.2 The useful lifespan of a vehicle and its reliability depend largely on regular maintenance. Where a basic service infrastructure does exist, problems are minimized by selecting makes and models which can be serviced locally. In some lesser developed countries and in most remote areas, meeting vehicle requirements for periodic maintenance and repairs requires well-thought-out solutions.

6.8.3 Each vehicle arrives with a manual that indicates the manufacturer's recommended servicing schedule. Fleet managers should establish a maintenance plan for each vehicle based on the manufacturer's recommendations and taking local conditions into consideration, which may dictate additional or more frequent maintenance activities.

6.8.4 Anticipate spare pans requirements by examining maintenance schedules and planned vehicle use. Where spare parts are difficult to obtain or unavailable locally, orders can be placed regionally or through SFAS well in advance of their scheduled need.

6.8.5 Vehicle repair needs are usually unpredictable, often resulting from breakdown or accidents. Delays while awaiting repairs are the main cause of acute vehicle shortages. Vehicle repairs require the same technical facilities as regular maintenance, with the possible addition of a body shop. Identifying spare parts requirements for vehicle repairs, however, presents particular problems when these must be ordered internationally. Historical fleet operations data is useful. Proper maintenance and safe driving practices appropriate for local road conditions should also minimize the need for unexpected repairs.

6.8.6 Make the driver responsible for keeping the assigned vehicle in good running condition, adhering to the vehicle maintenance schedule and arranging for both regular maintenance and necessary repairs. To permit the fleet manager to make alternate arrangements to meet transport needs when a vehicle is out-of-service, the driver should confirm with him the required servicing and the time-frame when the vehicle will be in the workshop before proceeding. Any servicing irregularities or delays must be reported immediately to the fleet manager.

6.8.7 UNHCR Branch Offices may incur expenditures up to US $2000 for each single case of repair. Only repairs exceeding this value require consultation with the geographic desk at Headquarters.

Spare Parts

6.8.8 Two different types of spare parts needs can be identified:

(a) parts for vehicle maintenance at regular and predictable intervals; and
(b) parts for vehicle repairs which may result from a breakdown or accident.

6.8.9 To ensure a sufficient complement of spare parts is on hand to service all vehicles from the time of their arrival (particularly in countries where the local infrastructure is inadequate for fleet maintenance), the most appropriate strategy is to obtain, through SFAS, the manufacturer's estimate of fast-moving spare parts needs for an initial period, say six months. For a large order, a manufacturer may be willing to assign one or more technical staff to make a detailed study in the field.

6.8.10 The lack of spare parts seriously impedes transport operations and capacities when vehicles must wait for parts to arrive. Priority must be given to planning periodic spare parts requirements and making accurate requests for purchases in a timely manner. Normally, the vehicle workshop has established its own inventory control and replenishment procedures and has the expertise to identify reorder levels and quantities to meet fleet maintenance requirements. Problems arise when non-technical personnel must order spare pans, or parts are needed for urgent repairs.

6.8.11 The value of urgently needed spare parts is minimal when compared with the disproportionate costs which may result from the loss of use of a vehicle over an extended period - for example, hiring alternate transport, driver's salary, insurance premiums. Availability and speed of delivery become the overriding factors. Fleet managers and workshop supervisors must know:

(a) potential sources for urgently needed spare parts - local, regional or international suppliers and agents; and

(b) the fastest and most reliable delivery method - usually by air or by courier, if other than a local purchase.

6.8.12 When ordering spare parts and repair components, certain technical information is necessary to ensure that the parts supplied are the ones required, and that all worn or damaged components are identified. Even for a particular make and model, exact parts vary from year to year. Full vehicle particulars (including serial and engine numbers), an explanation of the problem and a description of the parts will assist purchasing staff and the supplier in recognizing and providing the correct items.

6.8.13 SFAS supplies workshop service manuals and manufacturers' spare parts catalogues to UNHCR offices. Many of these are provided on microfiche, but SFAS has arranged to obtain hard copies from suppliers for offices where microfiche readers are not available. Forward requests for these manuals or catalogues to SFAS.

6.8.14 Requests for spare parts must be submitted in writing. Many parts catalogue numbers can be 15 digits long, not to mention the vehicle engine and chassis numbers. Errors cause delays and, if undetected, will result in the provision of the wrong parts. SFAS recommends the use of a Motor Vehicle Spare Parts Requisition (see Form SFAS/FH-6 in the Forms Annex) for all spare parts orders.

6.8.15 The way spare parts are packed can affect the efficiency of storage facilities and workshop operations. Spare parts are usually shipped in wooden cases, with packing lists provided separately with the shipping documents. Where fork lifts are not available to handle large containers, request packing in cases of an appropriate size for local handling capabilities. The contents of each case must be easily identified to save time in opening, sorting and securely storing the consignments on arrival.

Chart 6.H: Suggested Fast-Moving Spare Parts for Periodic Vehicle Maintenance

Air filters
Oil filters
Fuel filters
Shock absorbers
Brake linings
Accelerator cables
Ignition contacts
Muffler exhaust
Brake fluid
Transmission fluid
Windshield washer fluid

Vehicle Workshops

6.8.16 Effective mechanical workshops increase the average service life and serviceability of vehicles. Where the local infrastructure is assessed as inadequate, seek technical advice, probably from outside the country, to establish and operate a workshop for fleet maintenance. Several international aid agencies have acquired excellent experience in workshop management in field situations.

6.8.17 Expedient short-term solutions may be necessary to maintain vehicles in the early stages of an operation, but plan and take corrective action, to discontinue these stop-gap measures before they become institutionalized. Make-shift operations cause great stress for the personnel involved, and make the transport sector vulnerable to a sudden decrease in vehicle availability. The incidence of serious accidents will increase. Danger signs which indicate the need for improvement and better alternatives are:

(a) continued use of existing facilities which are unsuitable;
(b) local purchase of equipment, tools and spare parts at high cost;
(c) improvisation or welding of broken parts;
(d) cannibalization of unserviceable vehicles;
(e) constant switching of parts between vehicles which are temporarily off the road;
(f) oil and other filters left unchanged for long periods;
(g) vehicles driving on badly worn or damaged tires; and
(h) safety standards severely stretched.

6.8.18 The establishment of an effective vehicle workshop requires a substantial investment in technical expertise, resource personnel, equipment, tools, parts and labour. A professional and technical evaluation of needs can address the following factors:

(a) the number, age and diversity of makes, models and types of vehicles in the overall fleet;

(b) local availability and cost of service, maintenance equipment, tools and spare parts;

(c) availability and reliability of electricity and water;

(d) availability of existing purpose-built workshop facilities, storage and office space;

(e) availability of trained mechanics and employment terms demanded; and

(f) other related issues, such as drivers, training needs, discipline, road conditions, security and communications.

6.8.19 In defining the requirements for a vehicle workshop, other important considerations are:

(a) its location, existing facilities and the ease with which it can be expanded to fulfil its ongoing role to provide effective service;

(b) its staff complement of experienced and trained managers, supervisors and mechanics; and

(c) the expected life of the programme it serves, and the future use of the vehicles, equipment and property on termination.

6.8.20 A workshop needs a technically competent fleet maintenance manager, familiar with the fleet operations area, who exhibits authority and a sensitivity to local political and social factors. The manager should have a local budget, with authority to make local purchases when necessary. Managers will be obliged to bargain continually for local parts and services. They will need to select, manage, dismiss and sometimes endure threats from local employees. They must encourage and administer staff discipline, and may be subjected to some degree of local pressure. Local pressures commonly include requests to hire certain (perhaps unqualified) individuals, requests to repair or service vehicles not connected with the fleet operations, or requests to lend spare parts or equipment. Managers may demonstrate local goodwill to encourage cooperation, however, by assisting in the repair of community facilities, where such assistance does not interfere with the workshop's primary role.

6.8.21 Many of the tasks to maintain a vehicle workshop operation are extremely laborious and time-consuming, requiring skilled staff. A full-time parts/inventory supervisor is a valuable asset, removing a considerable burden from other workshop personnel. Workshops must also depend on the contribution of local employees, including mechanics, storekeepers, clerical staff and security personnel.

6.8.22 Managers, supervisors and expatriate advisory personnel are expected to develop and motivate national employees. On-the-job training and demonstration of proper methods and techniques are best. A training programme covering the theoretical and practical aspects of their work enhances an employee's knowledge and understanding of assigned tasks.

6.8.23 There never appears to be enough equipment or tools for the workshop, and losses occur continually. Tools are needed for routine maintenance and repairs. Special equipment and tools are used for major overhauls and bodywork. Most servicing is routine because locally available skills and facilities for special servicing in many developing countries are scarce. Each manager usually has his own list of necessary equipment and tools, based on personal experience. Compile a list of initial requirements and make provision for reasonable replenishment periodically. Requested tools and equipment must be in the ranges and of suitable sizes to service all makes and models in the vehicle fleet, taking into account possible needs for both metric and imperial sizes. Access to welding facilities is particularly important, including a reliable and adequate supply of oxygen and acetylene cylinders.

6.8.24 The provision of mobile workshops, recovery or servicing vehicles to assist fleet vehicles that break down in the field, and the related costs and benefits to add these fleet maintenance and repair capabilities, must be carefully assessed. Their usefulness will depend upon:

(a) the machinery, equipment and spare parts they carry;

(b) their operational range and limitations in terms of dispersal of the vehicle fleet and local roads, geography and climate; and

(c) the availability of trained personnel to operate the servicing equipment on board.

6.8.25 Tools, portable equipment and spare parts must be stored securely when not in use, and controlled when issued to workshop personnel. Security problems have been encountered in some countries, where spare parts and tools are being pilfered or stolen because of their high local value in comparison to local salaries - a set of tires can be worth the equivalent of five years' wages for a driver. The following measures may help to control workshop inventories:

- Focus inventory control and security responsibilities on selected, reliable individual staff members.

- Use locked cargo containers for secure storage of tools and spare parts (and restrict access to keys).

- Mark tools and spare pans, such as tires, distinctively for easy identification.

- Issue tools and spare parts only against authorized written requisitions. No spare part is issued from the store's inventory without the old broken or damaged part being surrendered to the storekeeper.

6.8.26 Storage arrangements are often neglected. Efficient shelf utilization can determine the amount of storage space needed, the number of spare parts that can be held, and even the ability to find a part at all. Shelving should be stable and no more than 2 metres high. Drawers also enhance the efficient use of available space.

6.8.27 A basic inventory control system can be maintained on a cardex system. One card is used for each type of spare part, recording details of the part description, source, catalogue (name and year) and order number, unit price, minimum reorder quantity, number of units on hand, incoming and outgoing quantities, with dates and corresponding receipt vouchers/parts requisition numbers. At the end of each day, parts requisitions and receipt vouchers are sorted and used to update the cardex file. Perform periodic spot-checks of actual inventory quantities on hand against quantities recorded on the cardex file. A complete physical inventory should be conducted at least semi-annually.

6.8.28 The workshop supervisor maintains a Vehicle Repair Status Report, updated daily, specifying vehicles under repair at the start of the day, those received during the day, and those completed and released. The fleet manager may use this report to monitor and predict vehicle availability for fleet operations. The workshop supervisor uses this report to schedule the workshop workload.

6.8.29 For each vehicle received in the workshop, a Work Order is prepared, listing the service requirements as indicated by the vehicle driver. All work carried out on the vehicle is recorded on the Work Order, and copies of parts requisitions are attached. Both the foreman/senior mechanic and the driver sign the completed Work Order to certify that the work listed has been completed.

6.8.30 The vehicle workshop retains a Vehicle Maintenance File for each vehicle in the authorized fleet. Basic vehicle data is included in the file, plus detailed records of all maintenance and repairs to the vehicle, and copies of all Work Orders and parts requisitions for each servicing job completed. The file is useful to monitor the frequency and nature of individual vehicle servicing and spare parts consumption.

6.8.31 At least semi-annually, the vehicle workshop submits a summary of all work performed on each vehicle to the fleet manager. This information is used to reconcile and update the Vehicle Operations Record Files. Decisions to dispose of or replace vehicles can be substantiated from these records.

Chart 6.I: Characteristics of an Effective Vehicle Workshop

1. Located near a main road, with convenient access.

2. Close to other operations buildings to allow good communications.

3. Level area with hard surface, not liable to flooding or dust problems.

4. Secure space with provision for fencing, night-time lighting, a guardhouse, and lockable stores for tools, parts, tires, etc.

5. Sufficient turning space for vehicles entering and leaving, turning and parking, preferably without having to back up.

6. Working facilities include several covered service bays, at least one inspection pit or ramp, at a sufficient distance from the stores area to minimize fire risk.

7. Office space for supervising staff and reception, staff wash-up and toilet facilities, a telephone or radio communications link, and provision of standby generators if necessary.

Chart 6.J: Suggested Topics for a Vehicle Workshop Employee Training Programme

Workshop Technical Operations:

· workshop safety
· engines and engine service
· clutch and gear box
· drive shaft, rear axle and steering
· exhaust systems
· suspension, wheels and tires
· chassis and trailer couplings
· batteries, battery service and charging
· brakes and brake service
· starting system
· lighting system and electrical accessories
· fitting, matching and measurement

Workshop Stores:

· how to use a catalogue
· how to prepare spare parts orders
· inventory control methods
· using a cardex system


6.9.1 Vehicles are classed as non-expendable property. They are subject to UN rules governing disposal and, for project vehicles, the relevant clauses in project agreements with our implementing partners.

6.9.2 Unlike other items of non-expendable property, vehicles have a sustainable life which does become obsolete or inefficient at a given moment, except perhaps as a result of an accident causing serious damage or complete destruction. Overtime, the value and usefulness of a vehicle decreases, while the expenditures for its maintenance and operation increase. The optimum time for disposal or replacement is the point where anticipated expenditures exceed the remaining value of the vehicle. Additional circumstances, however, can influence this decision, such as:

- The usefulness of the vehicle may still exceed its current commercial value.
- The replacement cost of the vehicle may be prohibitive because of budgetary constraints.
- Legal restrictions may apply to the disposal of duty-free vehicles.

6.9.3 To make informed decisions, certain historical data for each vehicle must be available:

(a) the vehicle inventory record, to confirm that vehicles under consideration are identified as UNHCR-supplied vehicles; and

(b) the vehicle operations record, to provide operations, maintenance and repair data and related costs for each vehicle.

6.9.4 Assess requirements to dispose of, or replace, vehicles annually. Apply the following guidelines:

- Review the records for each official and project vehicle.

- Scrutinize the following vehicles closely -

- those which have been operational for a minimum of five years or have logged 80,000 km, or

- those whose maintenance and repair costs deviate from the overall fleet average expenditure by 50% or more, regardless of age.

6.9.5 To dispose of vehicles registered to UNHCR, submit a completed UN Form GS.45 (see Annex XXV) to the UNHCR Property Survey Board at Headquarters before proceeding. The proposed method to dispose of the vehicle must be explained. If disposal through sale is recommended, also specify the sales procedure, estimated revenue and the intended use of the sales proceeds. If replacement of the vehicle is planned, include appropriate budget details and considerations. Note that the handover, by transfer of ownership (registration), of a UNHCR-registered vehicle to an implementing partner or the government constitutes disposal of UNHCR non-expendable property, and requires the approval of the Property Survey Board.

6.9.6 Disposal of vehicles registered to implementing partners is subject to confirmation by UNHCR, in accordance with the relevant clauses in the project agreement. Each recommended disposal action must be submitted to the UNHCR Branch Office, justified in terms of inter alia, the vehicle's age or mileage, condition, cost of continued maintenance or redundancy of the vehicle fleet. If UNHCR is asked to replace the vehicle(s), proposed budgetary provisions must be examined in consultation with the implementing partner and the geographic desk at Headquarters.

Chart 6.K: Vehicle Disposal - When?


7.1 The Importance of Proper Storage Facilities

7.1.1 Proper selection, supervision and control of in-country warehouses and storage facilities are responsibilities which cannot be left to the storekeeper alone. All UNHCR officials in the field must take an active role to ensure that refugee supplies and food aid are adequately protected until they can be used or distributed to the beneficiaries.

7.1.2 Storage facilities for supplies and food aid are located at key points in the area of operations. Supplies arriving in the country may be held in designated open storage or covered transit sheds pending port clearance. Warehouses are needed at each transshipment point or staging area. At the national level, goods are stored prior to allocation and transport to areas of need within the country. At the regional or district level, stocked items should be sufficient to meet planned needs for all refugees in the area, including buffer stocks of food and emergency items, in case of unexpected demand or a temporary disruption in the logistics system. Supplies for direct distribution to the refugees are allocated to camp warehouses or in-settlement stores, from which the goods are released to distribution centres on prescribed distribution days.

7.1.3 In the past, significant losses have been the direct result of poor planning or neglect, causing ineffective utilization of the resources provided by donors. Taking steps to improve facilities planning and warehousing practices can reduce, and even eliminate, damages attributable to:

(a) spoilage caused by inadequate protection during inclement weather;
(b) poor warehousing practices and facilities;
(c) lack of proper security and supervision; or
(d) prolonged warehousing of supplies and food aid.

7.1.4 At the national or regional level, UNHCR offices should maintain a central inventory of storage facilities currently used to hold UNHCR supplies and food aid. Review storage requirements at least annually, to assess anticipated needs and available facilities, and to make budgetary provisions for repairs, equipment and personnel. A record for each storage unit should indicate:

(a) its location and capacity;

(b) a description which includes the type of building, its condition, number of staff, handling equipment and special facilities;

(c) security arrangements, key control and the location of spare keys;

(d) the implementing agency and the name of the contact person responsible for the warehouse; and

(e) the name of the Chief Storekeeper or other person in charge of the warehouse.

7.1.5 The guidelines set out in this chapter establish standards for planning, controlling and monitoring all storage facilities which hold UNHCR-supplied material assistance. UNHCR officials in the field must encourage implementing partners and those with direct storage responsibilities to comply with these requirements:

- Ensure that the implementing partner and the Chief Storekeeper are both aware of their own, and each other's, responsibilities for safe-guarding the supplies entrusted to them.

- Help the implementing partner to identify and provide adequate warehouse personnel.

- Advise the storekeeper about good storage practices and meaningful record keeping.

- Support the storekeeper in requesting necessary alterations, repairs and equipment.

- Help to locate and supply all necessary assistance, equipment and chemicals for pest control operations.

- Assist in identifying and explaining any losses or required disposals, including the removal of stocks which are no longer of use.

7.1.6 Additional references which were used to develop these guidelines provide more detailed information and relevant instructions on storekeeping. Request copies of these manuals from SFAS or your nearest WFP Field Office:

(a) Food Storage Manual. 2nd edition, WFP. 1983. Although this manual deals principally with food storage, the information can be applied equally to non-food items. Useful details on storage structures, general storage practices, insects and mites found in stores, fumigation, and rodent behaviour and control are included in the text.

(b) Food Storage: Handbook on good storage practice, WFP, 1979. A simple, practical, well-illustrated book for storekeepers, it demonstrates the basic principles of stores receiving, handling, stacking, cleaning, inspection, disposal, accounting and record keeping.


7.2.1 Warehouses must provide proper secure storage, in terms of their capacity and the preservation of the quality and quantity of the items stored. Cool, dry storage facilities are optimal. Warmth and dampness encourage infestation and the growth of micro-organisms. Make every effort to prevent supplies and food aid from being exposed to sun, rain, humidity or high temperature. Open storage areas should not be used, except for very short periods for goods that will not be affected by exposure.

7.2.2 The necessary capacity of a proposed warehouse depends upon the number of refugees to be served and the quantity of goods to be stored and distributed. Make provision for anticipated reserve and buffer stocks, but avoid ordering and holding contingency supplies for indeterminate future needs. Consider consumption rates and shelf-life, and request supplies in manageable quantities.

7.2.3 The required storage area is directly related to the volume of goods, the storage plan, maximum storage height and admissible floor loading. Allow at least 20% over the required floor area for access and ventilation. For warehouses built on the ground, admissible floor loading may be 1,000 to 3,000 Kg/m2, depending on the building specifications for floor strength. If there is a basement or other open space beneath the floor, floor loading may not exceed 500 to 800 Kg/m2. Stacks of heavy items should never exceed two metres. Bagged commodities and bulky items may be stacked higher, but always ensure that floor loading is within acceptable limits for the particular warehouse facility. Stacks must never touch the walls or structural supports of the building.

7.2.4 Warehouse buildings should be conveniently located and provide protection from rain, flash floods, dampness, solar heating, rodents, insects and birds. A single large building is better than several small ones. The warehouse must be secure against theft, with adequate fencing, lighting and security personnel. The area surrounding the warehouse should be cleared and raised, to provide good drainage and easy access. Provide a special storage area for small, high-value items, and a parking, marshalling and turning area adjacent to the warehouse, inside the fence, for trucks.

Chart 7.A: Determination of Warehouse Capacity Needs

Must Know:


* Refugee population to be served
* Proposed distribution
* Frequency of distribution
* Period of required supply
* Unit volume/weight of goods
* Reserve supply

Expected influx of 30,000 refugees
One tent per family (average of 6 family members)
One time only.
Three months
1 MT = 25 tents = 5 m3


Allocate 550 m2 + 20% for access and ventilation = 660 m2 of floor space.

Chart 7.B: Weight/Volume Relationships of Common Relief Supplies

1 MT


Number of Units


2 m3

Depending on unit weight of bags.

Powdered Milk (bags or cartons)

3 m3

Depending on unit weight of bags or cartons.

Edible Oil

(200 litre drums)

1.5 m3

Approximately 5 drums

(tins in cartons)

2 m3

6 tins/25 Kg per carton or 40 cartons.

Medical Supplies

3 m3

Kitchen Utensils (35 to 50 Kg cartons)

4.5 m3

20 to 30 cartons, depending on unit weight.

Blankets (compressed)

4-5 m3

Approximately 700 heavy blankets.

Blankets (loose)

9 m3


4-5 m3

Approximately 25 family ridge tents.

Special Storage Facilities

7.2.5 Medical supplies and drug shipments can contain a large number of small, highly valued and often restricted items with a limited shelf-life. A separate, secure storage area is necessary for controlled substances. Antibiotics and vaccines require temperature-controlled cold storage arrangements, with sufficient capacity and a reliable power source. Combustible items, such as alcohol and ether, must be stored separately, preferably in a cool, secure shed in the compound outside the main warehouse. Use special care in storing and handling these supplies, to prevent surpluses or supply failures, and to avoid costly losses. Develop procedures for controlling, preserving and releasing medical supplies and drugs in consultation with key medical personnel in the refugee programme.

7.2.6 Materials such as fuels, explosives, compressed gases, insecticides and other flammable, toxic or corrosive substances are considered hazardous. International regulations require special markings to identify the dangers inherent in these products. Apply basic common sense for proper storage:

- Make all warehouse personnel aware of the particular hazards associated with dangerous goods.

- Follow warning instructions on the package label carefully.

- Stack hazardous materials with due care, providing signs which prominently display their dangers and warnings to all those who have access to the storage area.

- Store flammable substances separately, away from the main warehouse building. Do not permit smoking or open flames of any kind within 10 metres of the storage area. Keep fire extinguishers and sand buckets nearby.

- Substances which vapourize easily, whether flammable or toxic, must be kept cool.

- Never store chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides or cement in a warehouse where foodstuffs are located.

Storage Options

7.2.7 When storage space is required, examine all available options and weigh their suitability in terms of the criteria listed here. Borrow or rent existing facilities from the government, other UN agencies or international organizations, implementing partners or local commercial sources. Unconventional structures, such as schools, offices or vacant factories, may serve as potential warehouses. Negotiate repairs which may be necessary to the roof, doors, windows, floors, locks, lighting or fencing.

7.2.8 Where no suitable structures exist, consider building the necessary facilities. Construct a warehouse using local materials, such as corrugated iron sheets, wood, bamboo or thatch. For long-term operations and large capacity stores, pre-fabricated buildings can be purchased through SFAS at Headquarters and imported. Technical and managerial skills are needed for site supervision to ensure proper construction and installation of selected warehouse buildings.

7.2.9 For distribution centres in refugee camps, study the feasibility of constructing a multi-purpose building or integrating a secure storage room into other refugee community facilities, such as a school, workshop, office or feeding unit. Where goods may only be stored for a few days each month, the centre can be used for other purposes during its non-storage period, thereby becoming pan of the social infrastructure within the camp.

7.2.10 Particularly for emergency or short-term storage, improvise needs using cargo containers, bulk storage containers, railway wagons, barges, ships' holds, tents or tarpaulins and dunnage. Take special precautions, however, because closed containers, railway wagons and barges may be subjected to severe solar heating if not shaded. Check barges and ships' holds to see that the bilge water level is kept low and hatch covers are leakproof. Erect tents only on a prepared raised surface, preferably gravel filled, and surrounded by ditches for water drainage. Inside, place goods on dunnage, pallets or ground sheets, and cover stacks with plastic sheets for added protection.

Chart 7.C: Suitability of Available Warehouses

1. Sufficient capacity to meet forecast requirements for temporary or transit storage, reserve and buffer stocks.

2. Good access by road, rail or water to facilitate receiving and issuing supplies. Consider upgrading access to permit supply movement during or immediately following periods of poor weather conditions, compared with additional capacity needed to store buffer stocks.

3. Sufficient floor area to permit easy stock handling and access to all stacks for inspection, stock-taking, and insect and pest control.

4. Sound construction, dry and well-ventilated. Leakproof roof. No broken windows. Doors should close securely with no gaps. Ventilation under the eaves, covered with metal mesh, reduces in-store temperature.

5. Flat, solid floor with easy access for loading and unloading. Smooth, crack-free concrete floors are preferable, with rodent entry points cemented over to 100 mm thickness. If wooden floor, repair holes, fill gaps between floor boards, clean and treat space below floor with a suitable insecticide.

6. Walls clean, and as smooth as possible. Whitewash them.

7. Office space for warehouse supervisor, staff and warehouse records. Toilet and wash-up facilities. Regular garbage disposal.

8. Special requirements (e.g., electricity) for cold rooms, freezers, storage of harmful substances.

9. Lighting in building and surrounding area. Adequate electricity for 24-hour lighting preferable. Security fence at least 3 metres high, one (or more) watchmen.

10. Building thoroughly cleaned before use, and at regular intervals.

11. Repairs completed before use, or undertaken as soon as identified.

Chart 7.D: Suggested Options for Permanent Storage Facilities in Refugee Camps*

* Recommended in a report to UNHCR by Hendrikson Associerte Consultants GmbH., "Evaluation of the Food Storage Situation in Refugee Camps in Eastern Sudan", 1987.

Diagram 1 - Purpose-built Camp Storage And Distribution Centre

Diagram 2 - Example Of An Integrated Storage Facility (in a school)


7.3.1 Select and appoint the best available personnel, and give them clearly defined job descriptions, responsibilities and instructions. Provide training in all major storage aspects.

7.3.2 Storekeepers must recognize their responsibility to take proper care of the goods entrusted to them, from the time of arrival to the time of issue. They must be managers, supervisors and inspectors, as well as record keepers.

7.3.3 Provide day and night security guards, and other personnel necessary for 24-hour protection of the warehouse and its contents.

7.3.4 To fulfil their duties effectively, warehouse personnel require planned working hours and shifts, prescribed standards for good job performance, and good office support, tools and equipment. Regular staff meetings are advised, to give instructions and exchange information on protection and quality assurance matters.

7.3.5 Provide adequate supplies and equipment, as follows:

(a) sufficient quantities of forms, ledgers and other stationery to keep proper storage records;

(b) small tools for opening cases, such as hammers, pliers, crow-bars, steel cutters;

(c) spare sacks, needles and twine, and other small containers or cartons to repack supplies where packaging has been damaged;

(d) scales for weighing commodities, sieves of suitable sizes, and two-wheeled hand trolleys for moving supplies in the warehouse;

(e) brooms, dust pans, brushes, refuse bins for cleaning the warehouse and disposing of collected waste; and

(f) first aid kit, flashlight, fire extinguisher and other firefighting equipment, both inside and outside the storage building.

7.3.6 Examine needs for power generators, and equipment such as forklifts and conveyors to handle large quantities of supplies or heavy items. Get expert advice to help identify needs and develop specifications. Always overestimate the capacities required by at least 30 per cent. Particularly in large warehouses, where whole pallets must be shifted, a forklift may be essential. Consider The maximum height required and the type of power (petrol, diesel, electric) - in some cases, exhaust fumes must be avoided.

7.3.7 Use dunnage, or pallets, to raise supplies off the floor whenever possible. Dunnage is mandatory in stores lacking proper floors or where moisture can penetrate, and for all bagged foodstuffs to permit air circulation. If wood is available locally, place stored supplies on loose planks or build pallets; otherwise, use thick woven mats or plastic sheeting under the stacks. Pallets should be clean, level and free of projecting nails or splinters. If wooden pallets are not readily available, request SFAS at Headquarters to have suppliers state on Bills of Lading that pallets used on vessels should be delivered with the shipment to the consignee.

7.3.8 Avoid allowing spilled grains or other waste to collect under the dunnage on the floor, where rodents can feed and insects can breed. Lift dunnage and pallets off the floor when cleaning.

7.3.9 Normally, The owner of the building is responsible for building insurance coverage - third party liability, fire, water damage, window breakage. The implementing partner assigned overall responsibility for the goods stored in the warehouse must provide insurance to cover the goods themselves against risks, including fire, theft with break and entry, damage due to natural causes and burst pipes. Please note that no insurance company will cover losses resulting from pilferage or contamination by pests; these losses can only be reduced through improved warehouse management and control.

Chart 7.E: Security and Safety Measures

1. Exercise strict control of keys.

2. Restrict access to the storage area to authorized personnel only.

3. Check vehicles leaving the warehouse compound.

4. Prohibit smoking in the warehouse.

5. Provide conveniently located firefighting equipment.

6. Prescribe responsibilities and action in case of fire.

Chart 7.F: Proposed Training Session for Storekeepers


To provide instruction to improve general storage practices and reduce the incidence of loss or damage to stored supplies and food aid.


3 to 5 days.


· Stock accounting/stock records

· Stores hygiene and security

· Stacking of commodities

· Stock control and rotation

· Inspection of warehouses and stored commodities

· Reporting requirements

· Rodent control

· Insect infestation control

Training Materials:

· WFP Food Storage Manual and/or Food Storage: Handbook on good storage practice.

· Specimen forms for record keeping, stores inspection and reporting.

· Specimens and/or photographs of insect- and rat-damaged commodities and packaging.

· Examples of insecticides, sprayers, protective clothing, rat traps, baits, etc.

· Bag sampler, test sieve, magnifying lens, temperature probe, if detailed commodity inspections and technicalities to be discussed.

Chart 7.G: Two Designs for Simple and Effective Stacking Pallets*

* As suggested in the WFP Food Storage Manual, 2nd edition, 1983

Type 1 - Use 5cm x 10cm board (laid flat) throughout

Type 2 - Use 5cm x 10cm boards (on edge) for runners and 2.5cm x 5cm strips (laid flat) for cross pieces


7.4.1 Each storage facility requires a storage plan, to allocate sufficient space for goods before a consignment arrives. Ideally, the floor of the warehouse is laid out in a painted grid pattern, and marked in chalk each time to designate the area for each stack. In addition, maintain a chart of the storage plan, to identify available space at a glance and to locate stored supplies and their date of receipt easily.

7.4.2 Never store goods directly against walls, pipes, pillars, roof trusses or partitions because stacks place unacceptable stress on them, become inaccessible and are subject to dampness. Separate stacks using straight aisles at least one metre wide, to provide access for inspection, cleaning and loading. Keep foodstuffs well separated from other supplies to avoid damage from contamination. Store fuels, lubricants and other hazardous substances in a separate building or a designated, protected area outside the main warehouse.

7.4.3 Prepare a cleaning plan for the warehouse, comprising the tasks, timing and assigned staff duties. Include specific cleaning duties in the job description for each warehouse staff member, and follow up to ensure that the work is done thoroughly, as scheduled. Daily, remove all dirt, rubbish and small quantities of dirty spillage unfit for use, and destroy it by burning (well away from the warehouse) or through the garbage disposal system, if one exists.

7.4.4 Stack supplies and food commodities neatly on pallets placed on a clean floor. Pallets should never project beyond the bottom of the stack. Different items, different packages and consignments arriving at different times should be kept in different stacks. Build stacks carefully to ensure stability, maximize available space and facilitate stocktaking. With rectangular bags or boxes, the simplest method to «bond» the stack is to orient layers in different directions. This will prevent the stack from falling over.

7.4.5 Goods must be issued in the order in which they were received. Remember this when planning the stack layout, so that stacks placed earlier at the rear of the warehouse are easily accessible when it comes time to issue them.

7.4.6 Position stacks to benefit from available light and ventilation. Good natural or electrical lighting will make inspection easier. Ventilation and good air circulation is best for quality preservation in hot, dry climates. Do not obstruct ventilators.

7.4.7 Limit stack heights to prevent excessive floor loading or pressure damage to the packaging or the contents, and to avoid excessive floor loading. Packages can be crushed or split by compacting caused by the weight of the packages piled above. Excessive weight on the floor may cause structural damage to the warehouse. Individual stack dimensions at the floor should not exceed 6 metres by 6 metres, to facilitate inspection and cleaning.

7.4.8 Stack packages in their upright position, especially those containing cans or bottles.

7.4.9 Stack damaged goods separately. Do not stack different types of damaged goods together. Repair or repack if possible. Issue these first if they are usable.

7.4.10 In tents or improvised shelters, never allow stacks to touch the fabric of the tent or the walls or roof of the shelter. In open areas, keep stacks away from the perimeter fence.

Chart 7.H: Example of a Warehouse Storage Plan


Storage Planning Technique:

1. Plan a grid layout, allocate space for each consignment and chalk floor for stacking.

2. Store food and non-food items separately.

3. Allow at least a one-metre space around stacks and between stacks, walls, pillars, beams or other obstructions.

4. Provide enough space to permit easy access to each stack for loading and unloading.

5. Store separate consignments of the same goods in separate stacks. Use FIFO principle when issuing supplies.

Chart 7.I: Recommended Warehouse Cleaning Plan

Before using the warehouse:

· Thoroughly clean floors, walls, ceiling, partitions, support beams, windows, doors and frames. Treatment with Insecticide may be advised.

· Clear weeds and clean up rubbish In the area surrounding the warehouse building, to remove potential food sources for rodents and to eliminate places where insects may breed.

Always clean any spillage promptly, especially foodstuffs and oil.

Each day, sweep the floor and dispose of the sweepings.

At the end of each week, clean the building walls and the sides of each stack. Clean up weeds and rubbish in the area surrounding the warehouse.

At the end of each month, clean the entire warehouse thoroughly, from top to bottom.

As scheduled for periodic cleaning:

· Sweep the walls, stacks, and floor, wall/floor joints and all comers.

· Clean the roof beams and tops of the walls.

· Clean doors, frames and door channels.

· Clean in sequence, from top to bottom, and from the farthest point inside the warehouse towards the door(s).

· If walls and/or floors have been sprayed with insecticide, unnecessary or excessive brushing will remove it.

Chart 7.J: Create Interlocking Layers to Bond Stacks for Stability

1st Layer

2nd Layer

Orient rectangular packages or bags in opposite directions in alternating layers


7.5.1 The Chief Storekeeper in each storage facility must exercise due care in protecting and accounting for the supplies and food aid entrusted to him. The complexity of requirements will vary, depending upon the size of the facility, the nature of the goods in storage, its position in the logistics chain, and the reporting relationships for accountability. Basic operating standards and controls are, however, essential for good commodity management.

Stores Record Keeping

7.5.2 Maintain records of all incoming and outgoing stock, and stock on hand, and check them against physical stocks on a regular basis:

- The Stock Control Ledger provides a chronological picture of receipts and issues, source or destination, quantities and item descriptions. Each entry is cross-referenced to the corresponding official receipt/issue voucher, release authorization, truck waybill or other document which is kept on file to substantiate the action taken.

- A Store Card (see Form SFAS/FH-7 in the Forms Annex) is established for each type of goods or commodity stored in the warehouse. All receipts and issues are recorded, providing a complete history for the item, and the current total balance on hand.

- A Stack Record Card (see Form SFAS/FH-8 in the Forms Annex) is affixed to each stack in the warehouse, showing the receipt and any issues of the goods in the stack, and the balance on hand. The reverse side of the card may be used to record treatments administered to the goods in the stack.

- A Stores Inspection Report (see Form SFAS/FH-9 in the Forms Annex) is completed each time the Chief Storekeeper inspects the warehouse.

7.5.3 Each month, the Chief Storekeeper must submit a Monthly Summary Report to the person responsible for overall warehouse operations, including stock quantities on hand, and total receipts and issues during the month by type of goods. Any significant actions for the period are reported, such as pest control treatments, losses or repairs. Recommendations for required repairs, supply re-orders and other information are also made in this report.

Chart 7.K: Warehouse Operations Flowchart


Chart 7.L: Record Keeping Procedures

1. Use Stock Control Ledgers, Store Cards and Stack Record Cards.

2. Record all receipts, issues and balance on hand. Retain a copy of the receipt/issue voucher or waybill for verification.

3. Record all inspections and pest control treatments.

4. Verify records by conducting a physical stock count at least every six months.

5. For any stocked item lost or disposed of, record the quantity, and an explanation of the loss or the reasons for disposal and the method.

6. Submit a Monthly Summary to the senior official responsible for warehouse operations.

Receiving, Handling and Issuing Stores

7.5.4 Ideally, larger warehouses should have separate doors and work areas for receiving and issuing supplies. This arrangement will eliminate any confusion and potential scheduling problems when these activities occur simultaneously.

7.5.5 Every consignment arriving at a warehouse must be counted and inspected carefully as the goods are being unloaded. Look for damaged packaging or commodities, and check for losses:

(a) sacks with holes, or split bags;
(b) broken or partially open crates;
(c) dented, buckled or leaking drums or cans;
(d) signs of wetness or stains on the surface of bags or cartons; or
(e) signs of insect infestation.

7.5.6 The quantities received should agree with those listed on the waybill, stores requisition or packing list. Where tampering is evident, carefully check the contents of packages for missing items. Weigh sample bags of bulk commodities to confirm unit weights. Take random samples of commodities to check for quality, when appropriate.

7.5.7 Record the number of units/weight of the goods received, and any amount which has been damaged or lost. Submit consignment receiving reports to the appropriate authority or agent, noting damage, shortage, excess or non-conformance, quantities, conditions and any extenuating circumstances. Initiate insurance claims and follow up on claims documentation where necessary.

7.5.8 Instruct and supervise porters handling goods in the warehouse, to ensure that the goods are moved and stored efficiently with a minimum of damage. Never load or unload in the rain. Provide forklifts and/or conveyors, with trained operators, for large or heavy consignments. Use trolleys if these are available. Goods must not be dragged along the floor, dropped or thrown. Do not permit porters to use hooks which damage packaging and bags.

7.5.9 Only authorized officials may sign a written release order to issue supplies from storage. On receipt of a release order, the Chief Storekeeper confirms that the supplies are on-hand and supervises their turnover to the receiver's agent taking delivery. Stored goods are issued on a «first-in, first-out» - FIFO - basis, i.e., the stores received first are issued first because they have been stored for the longest period. This rule is applied consistently, except for usable damaged goods, which are always issued first, regardless when they arrived. Record the issue in the warehouse records.

7.5.10 A Stores Requisition/Issue Voucher (see Form SFAS/FH-10 in the Forms Annex) is prepared in three copies for each release order, with the receiver's agent signing to acknowledge receipt of the goods. Two copies accompany the issued consignment to their destination, while the original is filed with the release order. The receiver's agent obtains the signature of the receiver at the destination, returning one copy to the warehouse for matching with the original Stores Requisition/Issue Voucher to confirm final delivery.

7.5.11 At least semi-annually, and quarterly if possible, conduct a physical inventory of all supplies and food aid in the warehouse to verify that the quantities on hand agree with the quantities shown on the Store Cards and Stack Record Cards. Report any shortages to the senior official responsible for warehouse operations, and investigate the reasons for these shortages. Do not delete quantities from the stores records without proper authority to do so.

Stores Inspection

7.5.12 The Chief Storekeeper must inspect the storage area, the warehouse building and the storage stacks weekly. Examine stored items carefully and take prompt corrective action to protect supplies and prevent losses. Storage conditions and retention periods for various kinds of refugee supplies are shown in Annex XXVI. Complete a Stores Inspection Report (see Form SFAS/FH-9 in the Forms Annex), indicating all actions required to repair structural damages or to control commodity damage, and follow up to confirm and record the action taken.

Chart 7.M: Stores Inspection - What to Look for

Building and Area Inspection

· Roof leakage or signs of flooding.
· Broken windows or ventilators.
· Badly fitted or damaged doors.
· Cracked walls or floors.
· Dirty or dusty interior.
· Signs of rodent entry.
· Damaged fences.
· Broken or burnt out lights.
· Inoperative or missing equipment.
· Presence of trash, discarded items.

Stores Inspection

· Look for spilled commodities.

· Look between bags or packages in the stack, along seams, for signs of insects (webs, cocoons, etc.) or rodent damage.

· Look around the stack base and under pallets for signs of insects or rodents (e.g., nests, droppings).

· Look for water damage, mould, caking, discolouration, stained bags or packaging leaks.

· Examine stacks for damaged items mixed in with regular stock. Check that damaged goods are stacked separately in the warehouse.

· Check expiry dates on items with limited shelf life.

· In stored grain stacks, lift the top bag and feel the bag underneath for heating, which can indicate germination or infestation in the stack.

· Look for swelling or rusting cans.

· Flying insects are usually a sign of heavy infestation - sample foodstuffs as necessary and examine other stacked supplies more thoroughly.

· Watch for signs of theft.


Check in dark places using a good flashlight.

Remember to inspect the outside of the warehouse building and the surrounding area.

For additional tips on stores inspection, see Annex XXVI.


7.6.1 To ensure that the material assistance provided ultimately reaches the intended beneficiaries, in the quality and quantity supplied, stored goods must be protected against pest infestation. In addition to other damages caused by excessive moisture or high temperature, birds, rodents and insects damage as much as 10 per cent of stored cereals on a worldwide average; this figure can be as high as 20 to 30 per cent in sub-tropical regions, especially when foodstuffs are stored over long periods. To reduce potential losses, susceptible foodstuffs should never be stored longer than four months. While their danger to food is obvious, pests also damage fabrics (tents, blankets, cloth, etc.) and the packaging of other items.

7.6.2 Inspect warehouses and stored items carefully on a regular basis. Watch for signs of infestation. Consider sampling foodstuffs periodically. Separate infested stocks immediately from stocks in good condition. Consult with local experts in WFP, the government agriculture department and commercial fumigators. Also, refer to the WFP Food Storage Manual, which provides detailed explanations and descriptions of pest infestation symptoms and pest control measures.

7.6.3 Rats, mice and birds destroy packaging, consume foodstuffs and contaminate stored items with their excrement. In particular, rats and mice are carriers of diseases such as leptospirosis, amoebiasis, certain forms of typhus and, through their parasites, they can spread plague. The best way to prevent infestation is to improve the state of the warehouse and the surrounding area. Eliminate places where they can gain access to the building, and where rodents can breed or feed. Traps and poisonous rodent bait can also be placed inside the warehouse, but use poison with extreme caution if other animals or children are in the area, and do not permit poison to come in contact with foodstuffs.

7.6.4 Employ both preventive and curative measures to kill insects at all stages of their development - eggs, larvae, chrysalis, adult. At the same time, remember that the processes applied must not damage the commodities themselves, nor present any risk to those engaged in pest control or to the beneficiaries who will later receive the goods.

7.6.5 Chemical methods of pest control have the most widespread use today. Their purpose is two-fold:

(a) to prevent insect damage by eliminating any possibility of infestation in foodstuffs or warehouses; and

(b) to fight infestation by reaching and killing as much of the insect population as possible.

7.6.6 The choice of the optimum pest control product, dosage and method of application is crucial. This decision should be based on previous experience, or left to an expert. Pest control advisors should demonstrate knowledge of current methods, techniques and products for pest control, particularly when selecting chemicals which may be extremely dangerous if not properly applied. Pending treatment, chemicals for pest control must be kept in a separate locked store. The pest control team should be trained to use protective clothing and to employ safe application techniques before administering any treatment.

7.6.7 For prevention, commodities are often sprayed during bagging or loading operations. Suppliers should indicate when this has been done, specifying the type of product used, the date of the last treatment, and the duration of the protection. This information is helpful for warehouse personnel when planning future treatments.

7.6.8 Warehouses can be sprayed to prevent infestation. Treatment should only be applied to clean surfaces, however, as dust absorbs the products used. As a curative measure, warehouses may also be treated to kill insects, but this has no lasting effect because the insecticide must make contact with the insects to kill them. Apply the treatment at a time when the insects are most active, usually just before nightfall. Foodstuffs exposed to insecticide sprays should not be consumed for several weeks.

7.6.9 Fumigation of bulk foodstuffs is frequently used to eliminate insects at all stages in their development. The active phase of the insecticide can penetrate and destroy insects inside the stacks. Fumigation must take place in a closed and preferably airtight space. Penetration cannot be fully guaranteed, however, and infested bags in the middle of a large stack may remain unaffected. Following treatment, the gas is usually eliminated spontaneously after a few days of good ventilation. Too frequent treatment is not recommended, and other measures should be employed subsequently to prevent reinfestation.

7.6.10 Where the evidence indicates that treatment is necessary, supplies and food aid should be fumigated at the main or district warehouse, before being dispersed to numerous other locations in smaller consignments. The shipping of infested supplies demonstrates poor commodity management in the first place. The scheduling of pest control treatments at numerous sites is significantly more difficult than treating the supplies at one main location.

Chart 7.N: Sampling Technique

1. Take samples from all four sides and the top of a stack of bagged commodities using a bag sampler. Samples should form an Imaginary "W" mark on the surface of the stack. Remove about five bags at random from the top surface to collect samples from deeper layers as well.

2. Weigh the samples.

3. Sieve the entire sample from the stack slowly, allowing insects and grain to pass through.

4. Count the number of insects and identify them.

5. Express the number of insects per Kg.

For example: If a 5.42 Kg total sample was found to contain 8 insects, the number of insects per Kg equals 8/5.42, or 1.48 insects per Kg (which indicates heavy infestation).

Chart 7.O: Signs of Insect Infestation


Building Inspection

Stores Inspection

Sampling Inspection


None or few Insects found on walls, floors, beams or any equipment In the building.

No signs of Insects found in the course of a thorough search of the stack.

No insects found after sieving many samples from different parts of the stack.


Insects found regularly, Individually or In twos or threes In the course of a prolonged search.

Small numbers of insects occuring irregularly.

Insects not obvious in samples before sieving. No more than one insect per 3 Kg sample, or 10 insects per sack of 70 Kg.


Insects occuring regularly and frequently, often in aggregations, but nowhere so obvious as to draw attention to them.

Insects obvious, occuring regularly, perhaps in small aggregations.

Insects obvious in samples before sieving. No more than two insects per 3 Kg sample.


Insects obvious immediately on commencing inspection, crawling actively up walls, etc.

Insects Immediately obvious, crawling actively on the outside of the stack, on top or on the floor around the base.

Insects in considerable numbers obvious in samples before sieving. Between two and ten insects sieved from a 3 Kg sample.

Very Heavy

Insects present in exceptional numbers.

Insects so numerous and active that a rustling sound can be heard inside the stack. A thick band of Insects or cast skins around the base or on top of the stack.

Insects obvious before and after sieving in very large numbers.

Chart 7.P: Preparing for a Pest Control Treatment

1. Clean the warehouse and storage stacks thoroughly before spraying or fumigation. Stacks must have enough space all around them to permit treatment.

2. Prevent possible leakage to the outdoors by sealing windows, ventilators and doors.

3. Instruct all people not involved in the treatment application to stay well away from the treatment area.

4. Display warning notices prominently during treatment.

5. Obey all instructions of the pest control team leader.

7.7 Disposal of Supplies and Food Aid

7.7.1 Arrange for the disposal of unusable, spoiled or damaged supplies and food aid held in storage as soon as possible. Seek proper authority and advice, however, before proceeding.

7.7.2 Separate spoiled or damaged goods and foodstuffs from usable supplies, to avoid further damage. Store them in another place, pending disposal. Infested commodities should be treated promptly. The storekeeper continues to be responsible for these supplies until their final disposition, and due care is needed to prevent further deterioration, pilferage or contamination of other stores.

7.7.3 Other possible reasons for disposing of supplies and food aid provided by UNHCR may include:

- The size or status of the local refugee population has changed, making the provision of requested assistance redundant or excessive.

- Supplies or food aid has been provided which is unacceptable for use by the local refugee population.

- In-kind contributions have been especially requested for sale locally, to generate local currency for other refugee assistance purposes.

- The programme or project for which the assistance was intended has been terminated.

7.7.4 For stored goods which are no longer required or damaged beyond repair or use, the Chief Storekeeper must prepare a written report, detailing the items, quantity, condition and recommended action. In the case of food stocks, consult with local health authorities to determine suitable disposal action. Obtain expeditious agreement and approval from the relevant project management or UNHCR authority. Consider the following options or required actions:

- Identify the costs, parts or expertise necessary to repair damaged goods or to fumigate foodstuffs.

- Sell stocks which are unusable for refugees in the local market or donate them to welfare or community institutions.

- Have food tested because it may be suitable for animal food, even if it is not usable for human consumption.

- Prepare a submission to the UNHCR Property Survey Board at Headquarters (see Annex XXV) for goods belonging to UNHCR and obtain their approval before proceeding.

- Before disposing of donated items, confirm the proposed action with the donor, through the geographic desk and FRS at Headquarters for UNHCR donations.

- Where food is completely unusable, recommend burning or burying the supplies (in the presence of a UNHCR official). Use caution if it is buried, because local people may try to recover the food for themselves, ignoring the potential health hazard. Buried food can be made more unusable by covering it with waste oil or other liquid. If food is destroyed, obtain a certificate of destruction to confirm and record the action.

7.7.5 Make every effort to recover some or all of a loss through sale or exchange. To establish a value for the goods, conduct a survey of the local market. When approved for sale or exchange, advertise in the local newspapers or hold an auction, and apply the principles of competitive bidding. The contract for disposition must include the nature, quality and condition of the goods, the quantity, the price or value, and the conditions of delivery, contract fulfillment or terms of payment. Goods are usually sold «as is, where is», meaning that the buyer accepts the condition of the goods at the time of purchase, and is responsible for promptly removing the goods from their pre-sale storage location.

7.7.6 When selling spoiled food as animal fodder, be circumspect about the highest price. The primary objective is to ensure that the food is used exclusively for animal consumption, and not to maximize returns from the sale. For this reason, examine the highest bid. Does the potential buyer own animals? Is there any possibility that the food could find its way to the local markets, or into the diet of the local people who would be unaware of the hazards? The buyer must hold UNHCR harmless against any claims arising from the use of the food.

7.7.7 Deposit any cash acquired from sale or exchange in a special account. Subsequent use of these funds must comply with the conditions set out in the agreement on disposal action by all project management and UNHCR authorities concerned. Report the balance in the special account and any use of the funds on a regular basis to the UNHCR Branch Office, together with other periodic financial reports. The UNHCR Branch Office is responsible for forwarding this information to the geographic desk at Headquarters.

7.7.8 On completion of disposal, the Chief Storekeeper may delete the goods and the amounts from the warehouse records. The senior official responsible for warehouse operations should also maintain a complete file on each disposal, including copies of all relevant reports, correspondence, approvals, certificates and contracts of sale or exchange.


7.8.1 The materials used to package consignments of refugee supplies and food aid -sacks, cartons, crates, cans, plastic bottles and steel drums - have a residual value and alternate uses once they are empty. They should not be neglected, discarded, or left to be pilfered in some unused corner. Store them properly, so that they retain their value and do not simply accommodate insects, rats or mice. Stack them neatly, on dunnage if appropriate, in a separate, specified storage area.

7.8.2 Guidelines and procedures for the disposal of packaging materials must be established on a country-by-country basis, in consideration of the following alternatives:

- Distribute them to the refugees for household use.

- Supply them to the commodity management staff for repacking of damaged packages or other storage purposes.

- Sell them and use the sales proceeds to enhance the refugee programme.

7.8.3 The use of funds generated from the sale of packaging materials can reduce the hard currency requirements for local refugee projects or provide additional projects to alleviate the refugee burden on the host country. For smaller assistance programmes, if any saleable packaging is available, the proceeds may be used as petty cash for needed items, such as pencils, account books or warehouse stationery supplies. In larger programmes, the proceeds can be an important source of funds which may be used to improve the commodity management system by providing staff training, purchasing local storage or transportation insurance, improving storage facilities, or supplying useful handling equipment. Other possibilities may be suggested. Establish a special project for the use of sales proceeds, and obtain approval through the geographic desk at Headquarters.

7.8.4 Basic controls and accountability for packaging materials must be instituted in parallel with other aspects of the commodity management system. The complexity of the packaging materials component depends upon their quantity, utility and value. Since many of the reusable containers result from the distribution of food commodities, and a significant portion of refugee food is provided by WFP, close collaboration with this organization, as well as concerned implementing partners, is necessary.

7.8.5 Where packaging from donors is being considered for alternate use, try to «cancel» any donor label affixed to the sacks or containers before disposition, perhaps with a painted «X». Refugees or buyers may trade the packaging in the marketplace; they will reappear full of local commodities, for sale. Sacks full of local maize marked «Gift of the European Community» can create a wrong impression among journalists and others strolling through the local marketplace!

7.8.6 All commodity management staff and storage personnel must follow prescribed procedures for accounting, control and disposal of packaging materials. If all or part of the packaging is disposed of centrally, arrange to return empty containers on vehicles which have delivered new supplies from the central facility.

7.8.7 Revenue generated from the sale of packaging materials and its subsequent use must be accounted for separately, with reports submitted periodically to all concerned implementing partners and organizations, including the UNHCR geographic desk at Headquarters.

Chart 7.Q: Alternate Use of Packaging Materials: Assessment and Control

1. What types of packaging materials are received? In what approximate quantities?

2. Where are they "emptied"? That is, where do the packaging materials become available for alternate use? In what quantities?

3. What potential use can be made of the packaging materials at their available location? Must they be moved to another location? How?

4. For distribution to the refugees, what availability/eligibility criteria apply?

5. For repacking of goods in damaged containers, what criteria apply? Where are the materials needed?

6. For the sale of packaging materials:

· Who is responsible? Where?
· What is the sales procedure?
· How are the sales proceeds accounted for?
· Who decides on the use of sales proceeds?
· What procedures apply to the use of the sales proceeds?

7. How is the use of packaging materials accounted for, controlled, monitored and reported?


8.1.1 Supplies and food aid rarely remain under the direct control of UNHCR throughout the supply process until their distribution to the beneficiaries. A variety of operational arrangements with UNHCR's implementing partners are used to meet refugee needs for material assistance.

8.1.2 Aside from food and household goods, many of the supplies that UNHCR provides are not distributed to the refugees themselves. An almost endless list of materials and equipment are used in projects designed to promote interim self-reliance among the refugees and to improve their health and well-being. Examples are pumping equipment to provide reliable, potable water supplies, agricultural equipment, cement for the construction of latrines, storage and other buildings, and books and educational materials for refugee schools.

8.1.3 At some point in the supply process, goods (and sometimes even the money to buy the goods) are turned over to a UNHCR implementing partner, who assumes responsibility to provide and use the goods for the purposes prescribed in the relevant project agreement. This formal turnover must be documented and substantiated.

8.1.4 A generic name for this documentation is a Takeover Certificate. It must indicate the nature, condition and quantity of the goods, the name of the implementing partner receiving the goods, the date and their intended purpose. It provides documentary evidence should questions concerning the custody of the goods arise at a later date. The Takeover Certificate can have many forms:

(a) a Bill of Lading, endorsed to an implementing partner prior to the arrival of a consignment, with a signed and annotated copy returned to UNHCR following port clearance;

(b) a release order, authorized by a designated UNHCR official, instructing the responsible storekeeper to turn over specified supplies for a named purpose to an implementing partner. The storekeeper endorses the release order which is also signed by an official of the implementing agency to acknowledge receipt; or

(c) a Receipt Voucher, Stores Requisition or transport waybill which the implementing partner signs to acknowledge receipt of the goods listed on the document.

8.1.5 Retain the Takeover Certificate to match with subsequent reports from the implementing partner on the final use or disposition of the supplies. These reports may include distribution reports, inventories of non-expendable property, equipment installation reports or periodic progress and project reports. This follow-up facilitates UNHCR's distribution reporting and end-use evaluation, to enhance accountability within the supply system and with our donors.

Chart 8.A: Takeover Certificate - Information Requirements

WHO ...

(name of the organization and representative) turned over ...

WHAT ...

(description of the goods, exact quantity and condition) ...


(name of receiving organization and representative) ...

WHEN ...

(date and time) ...

WHERE and HOW ...

(circumstances/location) ...

WHY ...

(for what purpose) ... and


(representatives of both the delivering and the receiving organizations)


8.2.1 Distribution of food, blankets, cooking utensils and other domestic items to the beneficiaries takes place from in-settlement stores, ration shops or distribution centres, usually located right in the refugee camps. Camp administrators, under the direction of UNHCR's implementing partners, supervise the distribution. Proper control, monitoring and reporting procedures must be instituted to ensure that the refugees are not short-changed.

8.2.2 When all other phases in the logistics operation are adequately controlled, distribution provides the final opportunity for abuses to occur, so that the refugees may not benefit fully from the material assistance provided. Shortages can be concealed by underscooping. Goods can be subject to inequitable distribution, hoarding or diversion by refugee leaders.

8.2.3 Refugee awareness of their entitlements and the methods used to distribute commodities make the refugees themselves part of the distribution control system. Encourage the formation of refugee committees to monitor each distribution. Both UNHCR and WFP field officers should also monitor distributions carefully, to watch for irregularities and to verify the quality and the quantity of the household goods and food rations being distributed and the methodology employed.

Chart 8.B: Factors Affecting Distribution Effectiveness and Efficiency

· Unreliable demographic data or inadequate registration system for the beneficiaries.

· Ineffective distribution methodology. For example, when distribution is to refugee group leaders, rations actually reaching individuals are unknown.

· Uncoordinated storage and distribution areas.

· Poor security, failure to provide fenced storage and distribution centres.

· Irregular or unreliable supplies of rations.

· Supplies unsuitable for refugee needs or culturally unacceptable.

· Cultural and social pressures within the refugee group itself, including threats to personal security.

· Intense local pressure on national distribution staff, especially those residing in or near the camps, affecting quality of service, degree of trust and ease of working relationships.

· Lack of sufficient and experienced international monitoring staff, with proper transportation and convenient living accommodations.

· Lack of day-to-day liaison and cooperation between responsible authorities.

· Lack of properly documented controls and reporting requirements.

Distribution Centres

8.2.4 Proper distribution of food and other relief items requires:

(a) a reasonable number of refugees served by each distribution centre to permit safe Storage of commodities and proper control over each distribution;

(b) adequate, well maintained and secure storage to hold the supplies at the distribution site;

(c) standardized measures and weigh scales, properly used by distribution staff; and

(d) distribution staff who are trained in the principles and practice of distribution.

8.2.5 Distribution centres should have two separate areas:

(a) a secure, enclosed, sheltered storage area with sufficient capacity to hold supplies received in the camp for several days pending distribution. Staff must apply standard warehousing rules, especially those concerning cleanliness, security, stacking and record keeping; and

(b) a distribution area through which the beneficiaries pass in an orderly fashion.

8.2.6 Reserve or buffer stocks may have to be stored in the camp or nearby, for periods when the area is inaccessible, during the rainy season or the winter months. These needs should be anticipated during the logistics planning phase. See Chapter 5, Field Logistics Operations, and Chapter 7, Storage and Warehousing.

8.2.7 Equip distribution centres with scales to weigh commodities and to spot-check distributed food rations. Food rations, though calculated by weight, are often distributed by volume using pre-measured scoops. Level scoops are better than scoops with graduated markings, to ensure equal rations for all. For some refugee groups, «heaped» measures are more culturally acceptable, as evidence of a full measure. WFP has been instrumental in several countries, providing labelled scoops of the proper size.

8.2.8 Encourage cooperation between field monitoring staff, distribution workers, camp administrators and refugee leaders to schedule distributions, to inform refugees of their entitlements, to distribute equitable quantities and to provide an orderly flow of people through the distribution centre. Train distribution workers in proper scooping techniques and the use of weigh scales.

Distribution Methodology

8.2.9 Food rations must be regularly distributed in sufficient quantities to provide or supplement a nutritionally balanced diet for the refugee recipients and their families. The distribution of other relief goods and household items should be based on clearly established criteria to ensure equitable treatment of all the refugees involved.

8.2.10 Plan each distribution in advance and establish target quantities for each distribution centre. Taking into account what is available and where it is located, prescribe per capita quantities and commodities or items to be distributed on the next scheduled distribution date. Based on the refugee population served by each distribution centre, calculate delivery quantities and timing. Total tonnages are converted into units -bags, cartons and drums - and entered on stock issue vouchers and transport waybills for each destination.

8.2.11 Adjustments to the established food ration scale are sometimes necessary because of unevenness or lateness of shipment arrivals. When stocks on hand are insufficient for planned distributions, consider borrowing available local stocks from the government or other international organizations, to be replaced promptly on arrival of an imminent shipment.

8.2.12 Distribution controls must be assured to prove the eligibility of the people presenting themselves to receive material assistance and to avoid duplicate distribution to the same individuals. In ongoing refugee situations, registered refugees are often issued ration cards, which they present at each distribution. Less sophisticated methods which are no less effective, especially for emergency situations or in the initial stages of a refugee operation, include marking the refugees with skin dye, issuing and then collecting tokens or coupons, or physically separating those who are waiting for assistance from those who have already received it.

8.2.13 Overdistribution, within reasonable limits, is better than underdistribution. For example, recipients whose food rations exceed their needs, in moderation, can trade these excesses locally for other food and domestic needs, such as fruits, vegetables, meat and clothing.

8.2.14 One way to reduce food losses, increase consumption and make stocks easier to monitor is to provide limited, more frequent rations. A regular 10-day ration is smaller to handle logistically and refugees are not as likely to sell or hoard supplies. Overconsumption is not a critical problem because distribution is more frequent. Increased frequency also permits greater flexibility in adjusting ration sizes to compensate for delayed shipments. Scarce commodities can be used to best effect because they can be included periodically in more frequent smaller rations, rather than waiting until enough is on hand for larger, less frequent distribution. Because of the smaller quantities involved, the time taken for each distribution to the refugees is also reduced.

Chart 8.C: Distribution Options

· Direct to family heads or individual refugees, the most effective method to assure equitable distribution.

· Indirect to representatives of refugee groups (block or tribal leaders) for redistribution within the group. This works effectively only if refugee leaders are strong and honest.

· Centralized, where all commodities are distributed at one place in the camp.

· Decentralized, where there are several distribution centres located in the camp.

· Fixed distribution times, when rations are distributed on a particular date between specified hours. Always allow enough time, as early in the day as possible, to complete the planned distribution in an orderly fashion.

· Open distribution times, when refugees can collect rations at any suitable time over a fairly long period.

Distribution centre staff should be selected objectively, paid, follow prescribed distribution procedures, and be subject to monitoring and disciplinary measures.

Providing cooked food or prepackaged, mixed ration packs is expensive.

Chart 8.D: Accountability of Distribution Staff

1. The quantity of commodities on hand in the distribution centre should closely match the requirements of the beneficiaries.

2. The refugees should know what their entitlements are and how they are measured.

3. Refugees should have a ration card or other documentary proof of entitlement. The distribution worker must record the card number, punch the card or enter the amount in the refugee's passbook. Spot-check individual refugees after collection.

4. Tokens or coupons may be issued to the refugees, which are surrendered to distribution staff in exchange for a particular item or quantity of commodities. At the end, distribution staff must have enough tokens or coupons to equal the amounts distributed. Tokens and coupons are subject to stringent security, both before they are given to the refugees and after they are retrieved.

5. All refugees served by any one distribution worker should receive a standard quantity. An independent count of the number of beneficiaries can be reconciled with the total amount distributed.

Distribution Reporting

8.2.15 To ensure control over the distribution system, distribution staff receiving supplies and commodities and overseeing their distribution must be accountable to the project authority who dispatched the goods in the first place. Recorded outflows from one segment of responsibility in the logistics and distribution system must equal recorded inflows into the next segment of responsibility, over equivalent time periods. Accountability is achieved through regular reports of supplies received and issued, deliveries to the refugee camps, distributions to the refugees and balances on hand at each store's location.

8.2.16 Distribution staff must record the outflow of rations in distribution ledgers. After each distribution, each distribution centre must submit a report to the project authority. UNHCR and WFP, if appropriate. These reports can be used to compare planned targets with actual results achieved. They also provide statistics for donors, sponsors, governments and other interested parties on the amounts of relief goods received, delivered and distributed to the beneficiaries.

Chart 8.E: Information to be Included in a Distribution Report

1. Name and location of the distribution centre.

2. Commodities and amounts (units and weights) on hand after the previous distribution.

3. Commodities and amounts (units and weights) received.

4. Commodities and amounts distributed.

5. Number of beneficiaries.

6. Distribution date(s).

7. Balances on hand (if any).

8. Signature of the person preparing the report and certifying that the information included is correct.

Supplementary Feeding Centres

8.2.17 For supply purposes, supplementary feeding centres must report regularly, to outline receipts, utilization and balances on hand, the numbers being fed, the distribution frequency and the composition of the feeding mix. Stocks can be replenished based on this information.

8.3 Identifying the Beneficiaries

8.3.1 To distribute commodities to individuals or groups, once or repeatedly, these individuals must be easily and reliably identifiable. Authorities, refugee leaders or family heads may falsely increase the number of beneficiaries. Refugees may register several times in the same camp, or in several different camps. Leaders or others may register refugees who do not exist. Local people may also register as refugees, or otherwise obtain material assistance intended for the needy refugees.

8.3.2 Initial fear of uncertain or inadequate quantities of refugee supplies is an important cause for the refugees to attempt to increase their numbers. Resolve this problem right away, or the ongoing excessive supply will be used for personal gain or benefit. Cooperation and understanding between the refugee leaders and project authorities will alleviate uncertainties. Document a comprehensive picture of leadership, family structure, cultural factors and economic exchange in the refugee camps. Define an acceptable distribution system as soon as possible and get agreement from the authorities in charge and the refugees themselves.

8.3.3 Ideally, individual refugees possess identity documents containing a photograph and linked to separate records of age, sex, physical characteristics and their location in the refugee camp. Ration cards for individuals or families should be reflected, by number, in the identity documents, or combined in one document. Provide distribution staff with a list of the numbers of valid ration cards. Arrangements are necessary to update the lists, and to issue documents to new arrivals, to cancel lost documents and to retrieve and cancel documents belonging to refugees who leave the area.

8.3.4 The overall number of beneficiaries can be an issue of some dispute. Planning figures, census figures and working figures may all be different. Figures may not be adjusted periodically to take into account new arrivals, births, deaths or departures from the camp. Overstating refugee numbers affects a programme's credibility with UNHCR's donors. Obtain agreement from national authorities to confirm the number of refugees, using demographic sampling techniques or registration methods selected by UNHCR. Apply the same method to identify the refugees throughout the affected area.


8.4.1 Commodities and relief supplies may be held in a main camp storage area or they may have previously been delivered to each distribution centre, depending on local security conditions and facilities. Early on the day of distribution, staff physically confirm that the total amounts of each commodity on hand agree with those listed on the Commodity Allocation List, and are sufficient for the established per capita allocation or ration and the agreed population of recipients served by each distribution centre. Check that ration measures for each food commodity are on hand and in sound condition. Separate relief items and food commodities by type at each distribution point, arranged in an orderly sequence.

8.4.2 Family heads or their representatives bring their own containers and queue up next to the distribution centre. A controlled area with a restricted entrance and exit is best. The refugees pass in an orderly fashion along the distribution sequence, first having ration cards or other means of identifying eligibility checked and quantity entitlements recorded. Food rations are scooped or dipped in measured tins from commodity sacks or drums, and emptied into the refugees' containers. Other relief items are distributed according to prescribed criteria. The quantities and rations (number of scoops) may be posted so the refugees know their entitlements.

8.4.3 On completion of the distribution, any quantities remaining are confirmed and recorded. The difference between these amounts and the original quantities received in the distribution centre are compared with the number and quantity issued to the refugees. Any shortage or overage is explained in the distribution report submitted to the project authority.

8.4.4 Non-food items or special commodities to which every refugee is nor entitled to on a per capita basis require stated special distribution criteria, established by the project authority prior to distribution.

8.4.5 Extraordinary issues between scheduled distributions for new arrivals or other special cases require the written approval of the project authority.

Chart 8.F: Mass Distribution and Crowd Control

If you must count, register or distribute relief items or food commodities to large numbers of people, here are some helpful tips:

1. Plan for success, initially choosing an area and a population where the exercise is likely to work. Start small, and increase the scale as you gain experience.

2. Cooperate with local officials and refugee leaders, listening to their ideas whenever possible and gaining their respect and agreement for the methods used.

3. Hire staff under contract, with specified duties for which they are paid, and make them subject to disciplinary action. Provide a simple manual which explains the methodology to be used.

4. Designate one person in authority, with responsibility for the overall exercise. Make sure everyone knows who is in charge, that the person is always visible and has an interpreter nearby.

5. Provide effective communications to the staff, refugees and their leaders to understand what you intend to do and how. Use personal radios and public address systems or megaphones if available.

6. Define the working area carefully, identifying the boundaries of the group or groups involved, and keeping people seated to cause less confusion during the proceedings. Keep animals, brought to carry away the distributed supplies, well away from the area, for reasons of hygiene and order.

7. Make special provisions, allocating separate areas (preferably shaded) for the elderly, the disabled, children and other "at risk" groups. Keep their waiting time to a minimum and have medical personnel on hand.

8. Provide crowd control personnel positioned throughout the assembly area. These should be civilian personnel who are easily recognized - provide hats, uniforms, whistles, as appropriate. There must be no weapons at or near the working area.

9. Supply sufficient quantities for the distribution. People will wait more calmly if they know there is enough for everyone. Always keep a reserve stock aside to deal with unexpected demand.

10. Speed is essential. Begin early when it is cool. Do not keep people waiting longer than is necessary.

11. Deal with potential problems. Things do go wrong, but it is usually best to finish once you have started. Control the perimeter. Keep people seated and stop temporarily when isolated individuals or small groups cause problems. If trouble is likely, distribute off the backs of vehicles, and be prepared to move if disorder does arise. Make sure registration and distribution documents are kept safely.


8.5.1 The ultimate measure of distribution effectiveness is how much the goods distributed contribute to the well-being of the individual refugees. This is difficult to assess directly. Relevant performance indicators must be identified, which can be more easily monitored and quantified.

8.5.2 Two methods to assess distribution effectiveness are commonly used:

(a) System Monitoring checks that the internal controls in the system are strong enough. Develop a checklist of system controls for monitoring staff to examine - types of control forms in use and their purpose, proper job descriptions and written procedures for distribution staff, adequate division of responsibilities, appropriate equipment on hand to carry out assigned tasks, and possible system weaknesses. This method is especially useful for large programmes where the number of monitoring staff is limited.

(b) Field Monitoring provides first-hand information, by conducting commodity control checks, inspecting commodity quality and observing distributions to refugees. At least some field visits should be unannounced. Checks include an examination of Commodity Allocation Lists, distribution ledgers, refugee registration and ration documents, and other forms to confirm their completeness, accuracy and authenticity. Pay special attention to actual weights where commodities are recorded in units, and check weigh scales for accuracy. Sample commodities for quality testing, or conduct a visual inspection by opening all or a sample batch of the supplies.

8.5.3 Monitoring staff should be honest, perceptive, inquisitive and persistent. They must be diplomatic, sensitive listeners who also have the ability to influence and convince people through discussion. They require a basic knowledge of nutrition, inventory control and distribution methodologies, preferably gained from prior experience in a similar operation.

8.5.4 Monitoring staff should be paid and employed under a firm contract which contains a detailed job description. Regular meetings involving monitoring staff and supervisory personnel provide a forum to discuss problems and encourage suggestions. Avoid hiring refugees as monitoring staff as they will be subjected to ongoing community pressures which may become unbearable. National staff may also be subjected to pressure, but usually to a lesser extent. Supervisors must be sensitive to these pressures and attempt to alleviate them. It is also necessary for international staff to monitor the monitors, to verify that their sampling and measuring techniques are suitable and their observations thorough.

Chart 8.G: Distribution Monitoring Objectives

1. To check that individual refugee families receive the correct quantity and quality of material assistance.

2. To check that all relief items and food commodities received are distributed to the refugees.

3. To confirm that logistics and distribution staff are following procedures.

4. To ensure that the procedures in use give good control, that they prevent irregularities and allow accurate tracking of refugee supplies and their distribution.

8.6 UNHCR Distribution Reports

8.6.1 UNHCR is accountable to its donors for the resources they provide. How can we expect them to keep on giving, sometimes in the millions of dollars, if we fail to acknowledge their contribution and do not provide the reports they have requested?

8.6.2 Having established proper controls for the safeguarding of supplies and food aid in the host country, UNHCR Field Programme Officers must monitor the release and distribution of goods to ensure that assistance reaches the intended beneficiaries. Submit timely, informative reports to the geographic desk at Headquarters concerning the refugees and the end-use of the supplies and food aid provided.

8.6.3 For specific earmarked contributions, the reporting requirements are normally indicated on the CAF, a copy of which is sent to the UNHCR consignee field office. Comply with these stated reporting requirements by completing and forwarding UNHCR Distribution Reports (see Annex XXVII) to Headquarters. For longer-term projects, or where assistance has not been fully utilized by the requested reporting date, submit interim reports. FRS, with the support of the geographic desk and SFAS, ensures that UNHCR Distribution Reports received from the field are transmitted to the relevant donors.

8.6.4 All material assistance and food aid supplied, whether through an earmarked donation or from another source, should be the subject of a final report to Headquarters. In addition to the information on use and beneficiaries required by donors, include comments on the suitability of the goods for their intended purpose and any problems, such as those which may be encountered due to improper packing or labelling. Such feedback is most useful, both in the field and at Headquarters, to allow all concerned to learn from previous experience, to find better solutions, and to avoid similar situations in the future.

Annex I - Packaging Standards for International Shipments*

* Some information presented here has been extracted from the UNHCR Guide to In-Kind Contributions for Refugee Emergencies, and the Handbook for Donors of the ICRC.




Packaging must be moisture/vapour-proof, made of heavy duty plastic or metal, preferably reclosable, without sharp edges and sealed with the air removed.

Tins and cans must be accompanied by opening devices.

No glass, cellophane or paper packets may be used.

Desiccators may also be advisable.


Unless requested In "sets" or "kits", any one package contains only one product and only one standard size of that product. All packages In a consignment should be the same size.

Sets or kits packed together should contain diagramatic packing slips and instructions.

FRAGILE labels should not be required. Use partitions to strengthen packing and add filling material (wood shavings, straw, shredded paper, bubbled plastic) to ensure solid, full container.

Manual stacking probably means handlers will walk on stacked packages.

To be handled by one person, maximum weight recommended is:

carton or box = 25 Kg (55 lbs)

bundle or sack = 50 Kg (110 lbs)

Loose items should never be packed in sacks.

Packages must be stackable to a height of 3 metres.

Bales and bundles should be compressed and banded.

Compressed packages are stackable.

Outer packing should be lined with plastic, or heavy waterproof bitumen paper.

Cardboard absorbs humidity, as well as water.

All packaging should be closed or lidded and bound with strapping.

Only cartons under 10 Kg may be bound with packing tape.

Small or lightweight packages may be packed in a larger receptacle or stacked, sealed and banded on pallets.

Avoid light, tossable packages.

Pallets are made of good quality wood, of the size and type to fit transport and loading equipment used, wrapped with plastic shrink-wrap or sheeting and strapped effectively.

Each pallet must carry proper identifying marks and include a packing slip to itemize the goods on the pallet.

Woven polyester strapping may be used and is often preferable to steel bands.

Steel bands may rust and require special tools for removal.


Plywood boxes are recommended, with metal reinforced edges and corners and moisture-proof lining.


Triple corrugated cartons may be used, which are weatherproof-treated, lined, stapled and steel strapped.

Unit weight should not exceed 70 Kg.


Seaworthy, quality wooden crates are made from slats of wood, with a moisture resistant lining, strapped with steel bands. Four carrying slings should be attached.

Crates are recommended for heavy articles, such as generators weighing up to 200 Kg. Do not position slats so that pieces of the contents can be removed through the spaces between the slats.


Standard containers are:

Containers are lockable, and non-returnable containers may be kept at field locations for ongoing secure storage.

- 20 ft - approximate capacity 28 m3 holding 18 MT

- 40 ft - approximate capacity 60 m3 holding 30 MT


Milk powder and enriched products are packed in 4-ply paper sacks, with plastic inner sack, not exceeding 25 Kg.

Legumes and grains are packed in jute outer sacks, with cotton inner sack, usually not exceeding 50 Kg.

Grains may be packed in woven polypropylene or cotton/polypropylene-blend sacks, with cotton inner sack.

Edible oil is packed in 100- or 200-litre steel or heavy-guage plastic drums.

Blankets and clothing are compressed in bales or bundles, covered with waterproof material and banded.

Hazardous products are packed according to transport regulations.

Hazardous products Include pesticides, explosives, corrosive liquids, compressed gases, flammable substances and other chemicals.

Annex II - Inspection Services

General Inspection of Consignments

Pre-shipment Verification

· Inspect items for compliance with requirements stated in the supply contract or Purchase Order, both in nature and quantity.

· Examine supplier's documentation for compliance with stated contractual obligations in format, invoicing, certificates of origin, test or analysis results, etc.

· Confirm that packing, labelling and shipping marks comply with contracted requirements or, if not specified, are appropriate for the particular goods, methods of transport/handling and destination.

Pre-shipment Inspection

· Witness all final performance and acceptance tests specified in the supply contract, including review of the test apparatus certification:

- Finished products must comply with latest approved drawings and specifications.

- Packing and marking must meet stated requirements or, if not specified, are appropriate.

Specific and Technical Inspections

Inspection of Work in Progress

· During visits of a frequency appropriate to the nature of the supply contract or, exceptionally, on a resident basis, monitor the manufacturing process to ensure that products will likely meet prescribed quality standards, inspections and tests, within the contracted delivery period.

Verification of Materials

· Verify the chemical/mechanical properties of materials and components against supply contract specifications by reviewing material certificates and the supplier's traceability system. As required, witness representative tests.

Verification of In-Process Tests

· Witness selected tests, and review other test records, performed during the manufacturing process to prove material integrity and performance, including accuracy of testing methods and apparatus.

Witness Final Tests

· Witness final performance testing to confirm product complies with contract requirements, supplier's offer or recognized standards.

Inspection of Finished Product

· Examine finished product for contract compliance, check any variations found and their acceptability, and review product finish and appearance.

Packing and Marking Inspection

· Verify that packing and marking comply with contract requirements or, if not specified, are appropriate to the goods, methods of transport, expected handling and destination (see details below).

Inspection and Supervision of Loading and Unloading

Loading point:

· Inspect cargo holds of vessels/carriers before loading.

· Inspect quantity to certify quantity supplied conforms to quantity contracted.

· Visually appraise quality of bulk or bagged goods, conduct sampling and analysis before and during loading.

· Survey loading/handling operations.

Unloading point:

· Survey unloading/handling operations.

· Inspect quantity by count and/or weighing, and quality visually or by sampling and analysis, if required.

· Inspect cargo holds of vessels/carriers to confirm complete consignment has been unloaded.

Packing Inspection

· Confirm appropriate packing methods and materials are used, always assuming goods will be exposed to rain, high humidity, condensation, high temperatures, mould, dust, sea water spray and rough handling:

- For packaging standards for international shipments, refer to Annex I of this Handbook.

- For bulk goods, consumables and capital equipment, UNHCR reserves the right to waive size prescriptions and/or accept supplier's standard export packages.

Marking Inspection

· Verify accuracy, adequacy and durability of shipping marks and labels:

- Shipping marks must strictly comply with instructions in the supply contract.

- Seaworthy cases, cartons or containers are marked with stencils using waterproof ink.

- Markings are clearly legible, their size determined by the size of the case.

- All packages must bear special handling information, warnings and special labels, as required under the rules and regulations governing the acceptance of cargo for sea, rail, road or air transport.

- Dangerous or combustible cargo is packed separately, adhering to the strictest safety measures and requirements.

Annex III - Incoterms (International Commercial Terms)

Incoterms are published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in cooperation with the United Nations, to provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the terms used in international trade contracts.

These international rules standardize local trade practices by explaining, for each of the terms, the transfer of the essential rights and obligations of the seller and buyer: the transfer of liability and the transfer of risks. Thus, the Incoterms define the moment and the place where the liability of the seller ends and that of the buyer begins.

To clarify a frequent misunderstanding about the Incoterms: they deal exclusively with the relationship between the buyer and the seller. They do not deal at all with the contract of carriage although, of course, the buyer and the seller base the contract of carriage on their contract of sale.


* The abbreviations in three letters given for each Incoterm are a standard reference agreed upon by the ICC and the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations.

The 14 Incoterms are:


Ex-Works... (ex factory, ex mill, ex plantation, ex warehouse, etc.).

Means that the seller's only responsibility is to make the goods available at his premises. In particular he is not responsible for loading the goods in the vehicle provided by the buyer, unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears the full cost and risk involved in bringing the goods from there to the desired destination. This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller.


Free Carrier... (named point).

Designed to meet the requirements of modern transport, particularly such "multimodal" transport as container or "roll on-roll off" traffic by trailers and ferries. It is based on the same main principle as FOB except that the seller fulfills his obligations when he delivers the goods into the custody of the carrier at the named point. If no precise point can be mentioned at the time of the contract of sale, the parties should refer to the place or range where the carrier should take the goods into his charge. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods is transferred from seller to buyer at that time and not at the ship's rail. "Carrier" means any person by whom or in whose name a contract of carriage by road, rail, air, sea or a combination of modes has been made. When the seller has to furnish a Bill of Lading, waybill or carrier's receipt, he duly fulfills this obligation by presenting such a document issued by a person so defined.


Free On Board... (named port of shipment).

The seller must place the goods on board a ship or other carrier at the port of shipment named in the sales contract. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship's rail.


FOB Airport... (named airport of departure).

Based on the same main principle as the ordinary FOB term. The seller fulfills his obligations by delivering the goods to the air carrier at the airport of departure. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been so delivered.


Free On Rail or Free On Truck... (named departure point).

These terms are synonymous with each other and with FOB, but are normally used only when the goods are to be carried by rail.


Free Alongside Ship... (named port of shipment).

Under this term the seller's obligations are fulfilled when the goods have been placed alongside the ship on the quay or in lighters. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. It should be noted that, unlike FOB, the present term requires the buyer to clear the goods for export.

CFR or C&F

Cost and Freight... (named port of destination).

Means the seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named destination, but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as of any cost increases, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The buyer must purchase shipping insurance against the risk of loss or damage.


Cost, Insurance and Freight... (named port of destination).

This term is basically the same as C&F but with the addition that the seller has to procure shipping insurance against the risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts with the insurer, pays the insurance premium and provides the buyer with an insurance certificate. Caution: insurance coverage under these terms is limited.


Freight/Carriage Paid to... (named point of destination).

Like C&F, this term means that the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. However, the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as of any cost increases, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered Into the custody of the first carrier and not at the ship's rail. It can be used for all modes of transport including multimodal operations and container or roll on-roll off traffic by trailers and ferries. When the seller has to furnish a Bill of Lading, waybill or carrier's receipt, he duly fulfills this obligation by presenting such a document issued by the person with whom he has contracted for carriage to the named destination.


Freight/Carriage and Insurance Paid to... (named point of destination).

This term is the same as OCP but with the addition that the seller has to procure transport insurer against the risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts with the insurer and pays the insurance premium.


Ex Ship... (named port of destination).

Means that the seller shall make the goods available to the buyer on board the ship at the destination named in the sales contract. The seller has to bear the full cost and risk involved in bringing the goods there.


Ex Quay.

Means that the seller makes the goods available to the buyer on the quay at the destination named in the sales contract. The seller has to bear the full cost and risk involved in bringing the goods there.

There are two "Ex Quay" contracts in use, namely "Ex Quay (duty paid)", and "Ex Quay (duties on buyer's account)" in which the liability to clear the goods for import are to be met by the buyer instead of by the seller. Parties are recommended always to use the full descriptions of these terms, or else there may be uncertainty as to who is responsible for clearing the goods for import.


Delivered At Frontier... (named place of delivery at frontier).

Means that the seller's obligations are fulfilled when the goods have arrived at the frontier - but before "the customs border" of the country named in the sales contract. Used primarily when goods are to be carried by rail or road but it may be used irrespective of the mode of transport.


Delivered Duty Paid... (named place of destination in the country of importation).

While EXW signifies the seller's minimum obligation, the term "Delivered Duty Paid" when followed by words naming the buyer's premises, denotes the other extreme -the seller's maximum obligation. The term "Delivered Duty Paid" may be used irrespective of the mode of transport.

Annex IV - Contribution Advice Form - Example


Contribution Advice Form (KIND)

ACTIVITY: 1987 Extra Budgetary Food/OTF




1 DEC 87

(1) Finance/Treasury
(1) Programming arid Co-ordination
(1) Fund Raising
(1) Registry

765 GFR

(1) Africa Desk IV
(1) Europe & Nth America Desk II
**(2) Supplies & Food Aid Services
(2) Ms von Buchwald
(1) BO Bonn
(1) BO Mogadishu
(1) Reg chron

**** KIND ****

DONOR The Government of Germany (Federal Republic of)
PLEDGE US$ 750,000 (US$ 750,000)


1. Cable to Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation (19 Oct 87)
2. Cable from Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation (26 Oct 87)


1. Telex on delivery stating dates, quantities received and condition of goods.
2. Distribution report: final report due: 30 Apr 88.


1. DESCRIPTION OF GOODS: 5,000 at yellow maize as follows:


- value of maize at US$ 120 per mt as per WFP price list


- International TX at 25% of value




2. Donor's earmarking: for SOMALIA.

3. This consignment will be shipped as follows:

- 3,000 mt shipped to Mogadishu
- 2,000 mt shipped to Berbera

4. Equivalent to DMK 1,237,500 (Rate: 1.65)

Annex V - Checklist for Donor Contributions

Refer to the CAF, Purchase Order or supplier contract, shipping notification, shipping documents, inspection reports, insurance certificate and relevant UNHCR reports to confirm the following details for each contribution, in-kind or in cash.

1. Details of Contribution:







Nutritional value








2. Value of Contribution:

Cost of goods






Handling charges




Source of Valuation



3. Date and place of purchase order:
(cash contributions)


4. Delivery:







Shipping documents


5. Transfer of ownership to UNHCR:





6. Responsibilities for:





Port clearance and handling




Inland transport


7. Turnover to implementing partner:

To whom?






8. Losses or spoilage:



Insurance claim filed


Value of loss




9. Receiving Report to SFAS:


10. Takeover Certificate:


11. Distribution Report:

Required when?


Received from implementing partner


Submitted to Headquarters


12. Remarks/other information:

Annex VI - EC Taking-Over Certificate

The undersigned: ____________________________________________________________
(name, forename, business name)

acting on behalf of the recipient (or on behalf of the Commission, as the case may be):


certifies that delivery has been taken of the goods listed below:


- place and date of taking-over: ________________________________________________

- products: ________________________________________________________________

- tonnage or weight accepted (net, gross or gross for net): ___________________________

- number _________________ at _______________ kg/net: __________________________

- port of shipment: ____________________________________________________________

- name of vessel: _____________________________________________________________

- date of shipment or making available (if free-at-port-of-shipment, see Article 13 (3) of the Regulation): __________________________________________________________________

- port of landing: ______________________________________________________________

- final destination: _____________________________________________________________

- means of overland transport: ___________________________________________________

- date of supply if free at port of landing or, free at destination (see Articles 14 (8) and 15 (4) of the Regulation): _______________________________________________________________

The quality of the goods delivered is in accordance with that laid down in the notice of invitation to tender.

Comments or reservations: _____________________________________________________

Annex VII - Purchase Authorization


Annex VIII - Quotation Request - Example




























P.O. BOX 2500









- UNHCR: (022) 39.81.11
- DIRECT LINE: (022) 39.84.32


NOTE: For purposes of confidentiality, the name(s) of the supplier(s) have been omitted in this example.

Annex IX - Tabulation of Bids

(Form has been photoreduced for reproduction. Actual size is 30 cm × 29.5 cm.)




Description of Items


Unit Pr.


Unit Pr.


Unit Pr.


Unit Pr.



















Delivery required site

Over/Under Budget



RECOMMENDED VENDOR __________________











REASON _________________________________








BY: _________________________________________

DATE: _______








Description of Items


Unit Pr.


Unit Pr.


Unit Pr.


Unit Pr.


Annex X - Purchase Order

Purchase Order



A duplicate of the Purchase Order is attached and marked "ACKNOWLEDGEMENT COPY". Please detach sign and date the Acknowledgement Copy and return by registered mail to the UNHCR Supplies and Food Aid Service Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland.


No Purchase Order shall become effective and no contract shall exist until UNHCR has received from the Vendor written acceptance of the conditions which govern this Purchase Order either on the acknowledgement copy or by a telexed acceptance to be subsequently confirmed by a return of the acknowledgement copy, duly signed by the Vendor.


The Vendor’s price shall reflect any tax exemption to which the United Nations and/or the UNHCR are entitled by reason of the immunities which they enjoy If it is subsequently determined that any taxes which have been included in the price are not required to be paid, or if having been paid, any such taxes are subject to refunding, the UNHCR shall deduct the amount from the contract price.


Time in connexion with any cash discounts offered will be computed from the date of receipt by the UNHCR of full documentation as specified by the purchase order and/or annex there to


The Vendor warrants the goods furnished under this Purchase Order to be free from defects in workmanship or materials This Warranty is without prejudice to any further guarantees that the Vendor provides to Purchasers, such guarantees shall apply to the goods subject of this Purchase Order.


The duly accredited representatives of the UNHCR shall have the right to inspect the goods called for under this Purchase Order at Vendor’s stores, during manufacture, in the ports or places of shipment, and the Vendor shall provide all facilities lor such inspection UNHCR may issue a written waiver of inspection at its discretion Any inspection earned out by representatives of the UNHCR or any waiver thereof shall not prejudice the implementation of other relevant provisions of this Purchase Order concerning obligations subscribed by the Vendor, such as warranty or specifications.


The Vendor shall pack the goods with new sound materials and with every care, in accordance with the normal commercial standards of export packing for the type of goods specified here in. Such packing materials used must be adequate to safeguard the goods while in transit. The Vendor shall be responsible for any damage or loss which can be shown to have resulted from faulty or inadequate packing


The Purchase Order is subject to the obtaining of any export licence or other governmental authorization which may be required. It shall be the responsibility of the Vendor to obtain such licence or authorization, but the UNHCR will use its best endeavours to assist. In the event of refusal thereof, the Purchase Order will be annulled and all claims between me parties automatically waived


Force Majeure as used herein shall mean acts of God, laws or regulations, industrial disturbances, acts of me public enemy, civil disturbances, explosions end any other similar cause of equivalent force not caused by, nor within me control of, either party and which neither party is able to overcome As soon as possible after the occurence of the force majeure, and within not more than fifteen days, the Vendor shall give notice and full particulars m writing to the UNHCR of such force majeure, if the Vendor is thereby rendered unable, wholly or in part, to perform his obligations and meet his responsibilities under this Purchase Order. The UNHCR shall then have the right to terminate the Purchase Order by giving in writing seven days notice of termination to the Vendor.


In case of default by the Vendor, including but not limited to failure or refusal to make deliveries within me limit specified, the UNHCR may procure the goods or services from other sources and hold the Vendor responsible for any excess cost occasioned thereby. Furthermore, the UNHCR may by written notice terminate the right Of the Vendor to proceed with deliveries or such part or parts thereof as to which there has been default.


In the case of goods purchased on the basis of specifications, the UNHCR shall have the right to reject the goods or any part thereof if they do not conform to specifications.


Any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to this or any contract resulting herefrom, or to the breach, termination or invalidity thereof, shall be settled by arbitration in accordance with the rules governing arbitration as set out by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, as at present in force, subject to such modification as the parties may agree in writing The parties agree to be bound by any arbitration award rendered in accordance with this paragraph as the final adjudication of any such claim or controversy.


Nothing contained in this Purchase Order shall be deemed a waiver, express or implied, of any privilege or immunity which the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees may enjoy, whether pursuant to the Convention on Privileges or Immunities of the United Nations or any other convention or agreement.


The Vendor shall not assign, transfer, pledge or make other disposition of this Purchase Order or any part thereof or of any of the Vendor’s rights, claims or obligations under this Contract except with the prior written consent of the UNHCR.


Should the Vendor be adjudged bankrupt, or should the Vendor make a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or should a receiver be appointed on account of the Vendor’s insolvency, the UNHCR may under the terms of this Purchase Order, terminate this Purchase Order forthwith by giving the Vendor written notice of such termination.


Unless authorized in writing by the UNHCR, ma Vendor shall not advertise or otherwise make public the fact that he is a supplier to me UNHCR and/or the United Nations, or use the name, emblem or official seal of the UNHCR and/or of the United Nations or any abbreviation of the name of the UNHCR and/or the United Nations for advertising purposes or for any other purposes.


No changes in or modifications to this Contract shall be valid unless mutually agreed between both parties and confirmed by an official amendment.


Service of any notice shall be deemed to be good if sent by registered mail, telex or by cable to the addresses of both parties, set out in the heading of this Purchase Order.

Annex XI - Letter of Regret - Example

United Nations High Commissioner For Refugees
Palais des Nations
CH-1211 Geneva 10

tlx: 289506 HCR CH
tel: 31.02.61

Geneva, 27 May 1987

QR: 00656/00002

Dear Sirs

We thank you for your response to the above request, but regret to inform you that we did not select your offer on this occasion. We look forward, however, to further business co-operation with you in the future.

Thank you and regards
UNHCR Supplies and Food Aid Service

Annex XII - Shipping Advice Telex - Example




: HCR/SFAS/88S/2113


: PO/01506 - SHIPMENT 01F




: HAM-71590-641-0-627




: NYK-3852


: NAGOYA, JAPAN 29/02/88


: PORT SUDAN 27/03/88









Annex XIII - Shipping/Insurance Advice and Receiving Report - Example

Shipping/Insurance Advice and Receiving Report - Example

Annex XIV - Transmittal of Shipping Documents - Memorandum




Date: _____________

Ref: ______________

TO: (receiving agent)

FROM: (UNHCR consignee)


Project No.: ____________ Vessel/Carrier: ____________________

PO/CAF No.: ___________ ETA: ____________________________

Description of the Goods: __________________________________

Please find attached the following shipping documents for the above consignment:

- Original Bill of Lading/Air waybill
- Commercial Invoice
- Packing and Weight List
- Certificate of Origin
- Inspection Certificate/Certificate of Analysis
- Customs Exemption Certificate
- Other ______________________________

Upon arrival of the goods at (port/airport), please oversee discharge, clearance and port handling. Notify this office immediately of the exact time/date of arrival, the date(s) of discharge of the cargo, its apparent condition, any losses or damage and where these occurred.

In the case of break-bulk shipments, please arrange a survey on discharge and on release of the cargo. For containerized shipments, kindly not the seal number and conduct a survey when the container Is opened.

Please notify us in advance of the date and place when the goods will be ready for release/collection by the implementing partner concerned.

In every case of damage or loss, a survey report of the shipment is needed, and you are requested to file a Protest Letter with the carrier and obtain a Shortlanding Certificate.

Your invoice for these services must be accompanied or preceded by your written report of goods/quantities discharged and cleared from the port, and any events or irregularities which occurred during the receiving operation. Where required, please supply survey reports, Shortlanding Certificates, a copy of the Protest Letter, and any replies or related correspondence or documentation.

Annex XV - Bill of Lading - Example



Annex XVI - Letter of Guarantee - Example


The undersigned state to be the consignees of:

(description of the goods, number of packages, and shipping marks)

shipped by: _____________________________________________________________
in order and arrived per steamship: __________________________________________
on: _________________________________ from: _____________________________

In respect of the above goods properly endorsed Bills of Lading are not yet in their possession. Nevertheless they desire to take reception of the said goods. In consideration whereof they undertake to pay the freight, expenses, contribution in general average and any other amount which the consignee might be liable to pay under the Bill of Lading or contract of carriage. Moreover they undertake to hold harmless the master of the vessel, the carrier, the owners and their agents:

(name of the ship's agent)

against all injurious consequences of any nature whatsoever, which for them or one of them might result from the delivery of the goods to the undersigned. Whenever a claim in this respect would be made against them or one of them in or out of Court, by a third party, the undersigned hereby irrevocably authorize them or him to make at the expense and for the account of the undersigned - that is after consultation with the undersigned, insofar in the opinion of the party held responsible there are no objections to such course - any settlement with the third party which they deem advisable, without obligation to justify such settlement. Both the undersigned and the co-undersigned undertake, jointly and severally, that in the event one of the guaranteed parties is held liable in connection with the delivery of the said goods without Bills of Lading, they, at the first request in writing of the agent of the said vessel, will pay in cash, as security for their obligations entered into hereby, in the hands of a firstclass bank or banker at (named city) to be appointed by the said agents, an amount equal to the damage claimed from the guaranteed party, increased with ten per cent. Nonetheless the undersigned undertake to surrender the Bills of Lading, duly signed and endorsed.

Further the undersigned undertake to put the goods at the disposal of the agents of the said vessel at their first request - insofar the undersigned will yet have or can yet obtain possession of same - as soon as the said agents notify in writing that someone else than the undersigned, as regular holder of the Bill of Lading relating to the above goods has come forward as consignee.

In the event third parties, rightly or wrongly, might arrest any property of the guaranteed parties, as security for a claim referred to before, then the undersigned at the first request shall cause the goods to be released from arrest at their expense and for their account by providing security, and the guaranteed parties shall be indemnified for all damage caused by such arrest.

The co-undersigned: ____________________________________________________

waiving all privileges and exceptions accorded by (country) law to guarantors declare hereby to bind themselves as surety for and severally as co-debtor with the first undersigned for the true fulfilment of the obligations entered into by the first undersigned in favour of the guaranteed parties.

(Signature of UNHCR consignee and
Co-signature of UNHCR receiving agent)

(Location and date of signing)

Annex XVII - Shipping Insurance Request




Date: _____________


Supplies and Food Aid Service

Attention: Shipping and Insurance Officer


Geographic Desk


From: Branch Office ________________

Please provide shipping insurance for the following shipment. The cost of the insurance premium should be charged to: _____________________________________________

The consignee will notify you directly on receipt of the shipment.








C&F Value




Vessel/Flight or Truck Number


Departure Date

: / / From:


: / / To:






B/L, AWB or Truck Waybill Number




Shipping Marks


Annex XVIII - Protest Letter




Notice for claim concerning:






This is to inform you that upon taking delivery of the above-mentioned consignment, the following irregularities have been ascertained:

On behalf of UNHCR (when the letter is sent by a designated UNHCR agent) we hold you fully responsible and liable for the financial loss sustained and for all other expenses and/or consequences which may arise.

We shall revert to this matter indicating the time and place of a survey to assess the full extent of the loss and/or damage, to which you are invited to attend.

In the meantime we would appreciate your advising us (in English) how you propose to settle this matter.

Yours faithfully

TO: (Carrier's Agent)

Annex XIX - Survey Report - Example

Should any of the information called for in this report not be available, the reason for the omission should be stated



Report No. PS/410/88

for use by LLOYD'S AGENTS and SUB-AGENTS only

This report is issued for use in connection with the claim against the parties responsible, but does not imply that the loss is recoverable from Underwriters. This must depend upon the terms of the Policy of Insurance.


(a) Name of consignee of goods is specified in annexed Schedule.

(a) The UNHCR Representative in Suden - Khartoum

(b) Name of applicant for survey (if not Consignee please specify relationship).

(b) Talab (...)

(c) Name/Registration Number of Vessel/Aircraft/Conveyance from which goods discharged.


(d) Port/airport/place of discharge and date of arrival...

(d) Port Sudan on 7th, May, 1988

(e) Date goods landed at port/airport/place of discharge...

(e) 10th, May, 1988

(f) If transhipped, name/registration number of original carrying vessel/aircraft/conveyance and port/airport/place of transhipment.

(f) Not transhipped

(Note - If goods lightered please give details under "Further remarks" on schedule.)


(a) la whose custody were the goods held between time of discharge and delivery to place where survey held?

(a) Consignees Agents

(b) Where and what storage was afforded to the goods during this period.

(b) Facilities


(a) Were goods transported by road or rail or by other means from port/airport/place of discharge to place where survey held?

(a) By Road Trucks

(b) If so, give date of commencement of transit and date of arrival at place of survey.

(b) 10th, May, 1988

(c)Give name of carrier for each transit ... ... ...

(c) Consignees transport


(a) What records/receipts were issued at time of discharge and up to delivery to consignee and what exceptions if any were noted at each stage?

(a) See Sticker

(b) Condition of goods when finally delivered ...

(b) See Schedule

(c) If there was any delay in taking delivery of goods, state consignees reasons.

(c) No delay


(a) If goods transported in container, please state type, number, marks and type of transit, e.g. LCL, FCL or house to house.

(a) Not applicable

(b) Was container seen by surveyor before or after being de-stuffed?

(b) Not applicable

(c) Was seal inspected by surveyor? (State number and condition.)

(c) Not applicable

(d) If not seen, state by whom it was removed...

(d) Not applicable

(e) Where and by whom was container de-stuffed? ...

(e) Not applicable

(f) Condition of container and cargo at that time

(f) Not applicable

Note - If not seen by surveyor state condition is reported by any other party, e.g. de-stuffing depot or consignee and name the party concerned


(a) Date of application for survey ... . ...

(a) 28th, May, 1988

(b) Date and place of survey...

(b) 25th, May, 1988 at Dein Geloud District

(c) IS there was any delay in applying for survey, state consignees reasons.

(c) No delay


(a) Description and condition of interior and exterior packing

(a) Bags

(b) Was packing new or second-hand? ...

(b) New

(c) Was packing customary? ... ... .... ...

(c) Customary

Note - If in the surveyors opinion the packing was not adequate for this transit, give full explanation under "Further remarks".


(a) Description of loss/damage ... ...

(a) See Schedule

(b) After examination, cause attributed by surveyor to...

(b) See Schedule

(c) In ease of water damage, state whether salt water, freshwater or sweat, and whether salt water contamination test was carried out.

(c) See Schedule


(a) Is Lloyd's agent aware of any casualty/accident suffered by the carrying vessel/aircraft/conveyance to which loss/damage found might be attributable?

(a) Not known

(b) If so, give details ...

(b) Not applicable

(c) Was a Master's Protest lodged or any other form of notification given to the appropriate Authorities?

(c) Not known


(a) Have Bill of Lading/CMR/Air Waybill or other documents of carriage been inspected?

(a) Houston B/L NO., not sighted

(If so, give date ad number of bill and whether original or copy.)

(b) What is the reference therein to the conditions of goods?

(b) Not known


Has the commercial invoice been inspected?
(If so, give Invoice No., due and amount.)



On the date of compromise of damage agreed with consignee or of disposal sale, the arrived sound market value amounted to
(State whether duty paid or in Bond.)

Not applicable


In the interest of all parties concerned, the damage has been assessed by way of compromise and a fair and reasonable allowance on arrived sound market value has been agreed amounting; to

Not applicable


No compromise being agreed with consignee, the damaged goods were, with our approval, and the consent of me consignee, sold by public sale or private tender for account of the consignee. The proceeds, as per attached sales account, amounted to

Not applicable


(a) Dudes payable on goods in a sound sue are

(a) Duty paid in full

(b) In view of the loss/damage, has the consignee applied for a rebate of duty and with what result?

(b) No rebate of duty allowed


(a) Has consignee given notice of loss/damage to or made a claim against ship/airline/railway, other carriers or bailees?

(a) Yes, to the steamship Agents

(If not, what reason does consignee give)

(b) Date on witch consignee states goods delivered into his custody.

(b) 10th, May, 1988

(c) Date on which consignee gave notice of loss/damage or made a claim and to whom addressed.

(c) 22nd, May, 1988

(d) Summary of reply if received ...

(d) "Liability repudiated"

(e) Was a joint survey by carriers/bailees and consignee held? If so, on what dale and where?

(e) No

(f) Name of other surveyor(s) and by whom appointed

(f) No


Rate of exchange on date of sale or agreement as to loss was
(Local currency a currency of invoice)

Rate to be checked with the Banks


Name of surveyor appointed by the Lloyd's Agent. (Please state if surveyor is member of the Lloyd's Agent's staff.)


FURTHER REMARKS. Note: If there has been any delay in holding survey or in issuing this report, the reasons must be stated below.


Certified correct and approved and issued without prejudice and subject to the terms, conditions amount of the Policy of Insurance

PLACE Port Sudan

DATE 29th, May, 1988

The following fees have/have not been paid by the applicant for survey: -

(Delete whichever does not apply.)

Agency fee

LS. 160.000 ms

Surveyor's fee


LS. 20.000 ms

Administrative Charge

LS. 20.000 ms


LS. 200.000 ms

Report No. PS/410/88


NOTE: It is the responsibility of the Assured to separate the damaged packages from the sound. In case of shortage. Lloyd's Agent should slate if possible, in addition to the following details, the invoiced and landed weights of the goods, and weight at the time of survey.

Report No. PS/410/88

Annex XX - Selection Criteria for Heavy Duty Vehicles

Consider each of the following criteria when identifying fleet vehicle needs in the field, and for selecting the most appropriate make and model. Each factor can be weighed in terms of its importance in a particular field situation.

Requirements Definition

What is to be carried?

Bulk or packaged goods

Estimated weight

Stacking requirements

Perishables or other delicate goods

How much, how often?

Quantities per month

Quantity per shipment

Irregular quantities

Over what distance?

Long distance

Short distance (distribution)


Flat areas or mountains

Road/weather conditions

Density of traffic

Load limits - roads, bridges, ferries, etc.


Access from side/rear

High/low, fixed, removable, or drop-down sides

Open or closed platform

Load support structures

Tarpaulin, ropes, with/without roof "bows"

Cargo protection (climate, security)

Auxiliary equipment (crane, elevator, tailboard)

Cargo box security lock

Suitability of Potential Makes and Models

Size of vehicle:

Utility weight (load capacity) and total weight

Number of axles

Usable space - m2 and m3

Overall dimensions of vehicle

Suitability to operate with cargo trailer

Legal restrictions

Technical data:

Engine power: ratio HP/total weight = 6 for diesel engines, plus 15-20% more HP for poor roads or higher altitudes

Maximum torque and corresponding rpm

Proportion utility weight to total weight

Distance between axles, weight distribution

Weight per axle (legal load limits)

Ground clearance

Suitability for driving off-road

Four-wheel/front-wheel/rear-wheel drive

Type of cabin (seating, with/without bonnet)

Gears (number, synchronization)

Braking system

Size, number, type of tires



Size and location of fuel tank


Mechanical and electrical connection for trailer

Colour and markings

Driver comfort:

Heating and ventilation

Air conditioning or electric fan

Seats, with arm-rests/head-rest

Power-assisted steering (necessary on all vehicles over 10 tons gross weight)




Bunk bed fitted into driver's cabin

Lockable box for personal items

Procurement and Maintenance Assessment

Purchasing considerations:

Fleet standardization

Optional equipment

Expected expenditures for maintenance/repairs

Experience of other fleet operators

Test driving

Optimum time for purchase (delivery lead-time)

Purchase price and expected life span

Funds available

Operation and maintenance:



Class of driver's licence required

Fuel type, availability and consumption rate



Spare parts (availability, cost)

Qualification of workshops

Location of workshops

Annex XXI - Checklist for Receipt/Delivery of Vehicles

1. Purchasing/shipping details:


· Project Symbol/MOD


· P.O. Number


· Bill of Lading Number


· Date Discharged


· Ship's Agent


· Forwarding Agent


· Date Cleared from Port


2. Vehicle information:

· Vehicle make/model


· Engine number


· Chassis number


· Keys supplied (number of sets)


- ignition

- doors

- fuel tank

- spare wheel

- other (specify)

3. Pre-delivery inspection:

· In accordance with manufacturer's specifications


· Performed by


· Date completed


· Comments/irregularities


· Claim for damages


· Install communications equipment


4. Vehicle markings:

· What? Where?


· Date completed


5. Vehicle registration:

· Registration number


· Registered to


· Date registered


· Original/copy registration supplied


6. Insurance coverage:

· Named Insured Insurance company


· Arranged by


· Type of coverage


· Effective date


· Expiry date


· Premiums paid by


7. Delivery of the vehicle:

· Delivered to


· Effected by whom? How?


· Date delivered


· Receipt acknowledged by whom?


· Keys delivered to whom?


8. Inventory and operational control:

· Vehicle recorded In inventory? Date


· Vehicle operating and maintenance record established? Date


9. Remarks/other relevant information:





Annex XXII - Rules for Drivers

A. Immediate dismissal may result from the following:

1. Drinking alcoholic beverages, being in a drunken state, showing characteristics of drug or other substance abuse, working without sleep or exhibiting any other behaviour which produces a physical condition not suitable for driving.

2. Theft of any equipment, commodity or item carried in or on the vehicle.

3. Gross negligence resulting in an accident causing damage or injury.

B. Drivers must also obey the following rules and are subject to disciplinary action for failing to do so:

1. Perform daily and weekly vehicle checks and confirm compliance in the Vehicle Log Book. Report deficiencies as soon as possible to the fleet manager. Keep the inside and outside of the vehicle clean and in good order.

2. Comply with all local traffic rules. No passenger or superior may authorize or order violations. In the case of an emergency, the driver alone may decide to disregard any rules (and be responsible for the consequences). Unless other lower limits are valid, maximum vehicle speed is limited as follows:

- in urban areas: 60 km/h
- on country roads: 80 km/h
- on highways: 120 km/h
- off-roads: 40 km/h

3. Do not leave a vehicle unattended, unless it is parked or locked in a place considered to be safe under the given local circumstances. Drivers are not responsible for personal belongings or baggage of passengers left in the parked vehicle unless specifically requested to guard them.

4. Refuel the vehicle in due time to avoid an empty fuel tank. Make sure that sufficient fuel reserves are carried on field trips.

5. Inform the base fleet manager by the fastest means in case of breakdown, accident or other operating irregularities, to arrange repairs and to establish the necessary reports and documentation.

6. Comply with regulation working hours. Unless more restrictive regulations apply locally, actual driving time per day may not exceed 10 hours, followed by a rest period of 6 hours minimum. Duty time other than actual driving time counts as 50% of driving time.

7. Observe the periodic maintenance schedule for the vehicle. Inform the fleet manager in advance when maintenance is due, so that vehicle operations can be scheduled accordingly.

C. Safety rules are strongly recommended:

1. Safety belts should be worn at all times by the driver and any passenger(s) in the front seat. Use of seat belts in the rear seat is recommended.

2. Passengers, other than staff members or persons authorized by the fleet manager, are not allowed on board the vehicle, except in an emergency.

3. Loads on the roof rack of a light field vehicle should not exceed 50 kg for a long-wheelbase vehicle.

D. Suggested local rules which may apply:

1. All vehicle occupants may require special clearance or permits to travel in vehicles.

2. Additional safety precautions may be needed when vehicles park outside the office compound or in certain areas.

3. Project or official vehicles should never be used for private commercial purposes. Carrying non-refugee goods or passengers should be prohibited.

4. Local reporting procedures may include other requirements besides maintaining a Vehicle Log Book, such as signing take-over documents for assigned vehicles, completing Vehicle Checklists or submitting Vehicle Defects Reports.

5. Special security instructions may be necessary in high-risk areas.

6. Administrative procedures may apply to the acquisition of fuel and the authorization of maintenance and repairs.

Annex XXIII - Drivers' Checklists for Vehicle Inspection and Cleaning


1. Check tires visually for pressure and damage.

2. Check auxiliary equipment - first aid kit, tool kit, spare tire(s), vehicle documents, fuel/water Jerrycans, flashlight, etc.

3. Adjust wing and rear view mirrors.

4. Check steering leeway.

5. Check battery, if starter operation is slow.

6. Check fuel level.

7. Check handbrake.

8. Check clutch leeway.

9. Check oil pressure (meter or light).

10. Check brakes within first 100 m. of driving.

11. Remove dirt, paper, cigarette ashes from ashtrays, floor, etc.

12. Clean the windshield, side and rear windows, mirrors, lights and reflectors.

Enter "daily checks performed" in the Vehicle Log Book, and any findings. Report any losses, damage or needed repairs promptly to the fleet manager.


1. Check all lights - front regular, high beam, parking and turn-signal lights, rear running, brake, reverse and turn-signal lights, interior and instrument panel lights.

2. Check brakes and brake fluid.

3. Check radiator fluid level.

4. Check engine oil level.

5. Check windshield washer fluid level.

6. Check hydraulic fluid level, if applicable.

7. Check tires (profile, rim, pressure).

8. Check spare tire(s) pressure.

9. Inspect engine and chassis for any oil leaks or other irregularities.

10. Check all door locks, window operation and windshield wipers.

11. Check auxiliary equipment:

- contents of first aid kit, tool kit, fuel and water Jerrycans,
- air conditioning,
- locks and keys for fuel tank, spare wheels, water and fuel can holders,
- radio (conduct two-way radio check),
- and other equipment, such as a winch.

12. Wash and clean the vehicle exterior.

13. Vacuum or sweep the interior, clean floor mats, seats, luggage and glove compartments.

14. Clean the interior of all windows.

Enter "weekly checks performed" in the Vehicle Log Book, and any findings. Report any losses, damage or needed repairs promptly to the fleet manager.

Annex XXIV - Vehicle Accident Report

Vehicle Accident Report (a)

Vehicle Accident Report (b)

Annex XXV - GS.45 - Property Survey Board

GS.45 - Property Survey Board





a) More than one item of property may be lilted simultaneously on the same form provided that the nature of the cases, the recommended dispositions and the recommended financial responsibilities are the same for all items.

b) If space is insufficient in any section of the form, submit the required information as an annex attached to each copy of the form.

c) Any other attachments, such as police reports and statements of witnesses, may be submitted in original only, provided they are in English or French. Documents in other languages must be accompanied by a translation.

d) Where information requested is not applicable, insert in the space reserved for this purpose: N/A.

1. Case report No.: will be assigned by the Secretary of the Property Survey Board at Geneva.

2. Originating office: specify organization, unit (Division-Section) and location.

3. Quantity: indicate the number of items for disposition in each descriptive category.

4. Description: Give short description of the property (e.g. “typewriter, Remington Rand”, “desk wood”; “automobile. Chevrolet, Biscayne 1969 Sedan, 80,000 km”).

5. Identification: list identification number used in United Nations if such exists, and manufacturer’s serial number (for vehicles, the chassis number).

6. Year of purchase: Indicate year property was purchased (i.e. received from vendor).

7. Unit value: if quantity is more than one, indicate unit cost at time of purchase, as shown In inventory records.

8. Total value: indicate total cost at time of purchase of the full quantity lilted under Item 3, as shown in Inventory records.

9. Nature of survey cue: check appropriate box and elaborate as necessary under Section 12.

10. Recommended disposition:

10.1 Repair: give estimated cost of repair
10.2 Disposal: check appropriate box taking into account that:

DESTRUCTION: is limited to materials or property of special nature such as postage stamps, flags, ammunition, coding machines, etc...., the disposal of which necessitates their physical destruction.

DISCARD: is used for materials which can be thrown away, to all cases, full justification must be given in Section 12.

11. Recommended financial responsibility: check appropriate box to indicate who should bear the financial responsibility except in cases of wear, scheduled replacement or surplus). Additionally, in Section 12, explain reason for recommendation.

12. Summary of case: describe circumstances and, if applicable, give a summary of investigation as detailed below. Elaborate the recommendations to the extent necessary for complete clarity.

12.1 For vehicle accident case: please complete form GS.46 accurately. Specify under para. 17 the purpose of the journey indicating clearly whether or not it was for official business. Make recommendation as to fault and as to any financial assessment which should be made against a staff member or other party. In addition, the rationale underlying this recommendation should be presented.

12.2 For loss, theft or damage cases: provide full details in the case, summarizing the salient points made by persons, witnesses and investigators involved and indicating who was responsible, whither there was negligence and what effort was made to recover the lost or stolen property. Attach police report, signed statements of persons and any witnesses involved, whenever possible. Make recommendation as to fault and as to any financial assessment which should be made against a staff member or other party. In addition, the rationale underlying this recommendation should be presented.

12.3 For wear, surplus, replacement, inventory discrepancy or other cases: give a brief explanation to substantiate the recommendation for disposal. Where item is for SALE, state who will pay customs duties, if any. Whenever possible give estimate of amounts involved.


ORIGINATING OFFICES AWAY FROM GENEVA: should date, sign and forward completed form and attachments to their PARENT OFFICE at Geneva, while keeping copy No. 7.

ORIGINATING OFFICES AT GENEVA: should date, sign and submit the completed form directly to the Secretary of the Property Survey Board Geneva, while keeping copy No. 7.

13. Parent office at Geneva: should insert its recommendation and date, sign and submit the completed form to the Secretary, Geneva Property Survey Board, while keeping copy No. 6.

GEN-12 (3-87)

Annex XXVI - Inspection of Storage Conditions*

* Adapted from ICRC Red Cross Cargo.


What to Look For:

Storage Conditions:

Conservation Life in Humid Climate:


Blankets and Clothing

Packaging, dampness; clothing should be clean

Dry, ventilated on pallets

Indefinite, if properly stored

Damp blankets and clothing must be dried immediately. Watch for moths.


Packaging, dampness

Dry, stacked, on pallets If possible

Indefinite, if properly stored

Damp patches must be dried promptly.

Fuel or Kerosene

Moisture-proof storage containers in clearly marked "no smoking or open flames" area

Fenced area or shed, locked, shaded, away from the main warehouse

Indefinite, if properly stored

Subterranean bulk storage tanks are best, but some fuel is stored in 200-litre drums.


Well organized and secure storage, all Items with current shelf life

Dry, cool, ventilated and temperature controlled, if necessary, to preserve shelf life

Variable or a shown on label, under controlled conditions

Combustible items, such as alcohol and ether, must be stored separately, preferably outside main storage area.


Grains dry, ungerminated, without impurities; flour dry and not lumpy to touch, sweet odour; maximum moisture content: 15%

Dry, cool, ventilated on pallets, relative humidity of the air: 70% maximum

Approximately 6 months

Check the moisture level, odour, live parasites.

Canned Products

Cans neither rusty nor bulging; cartons in good condition, no leakage, expiry date

Stack on pallets, if possible

6-12 months (see expiry date)

Distorted cans (bulging lids) or gases whistling out when a can is opened indicate the contents are inedible.

Powdered Milk in Bags

Dry, clean odour, ivory colour

Dry, cool, ventilated on pallets, shaded

8-10 months (full cream) 1 year (skim)

Milk powder sometimes becomes hard, but this does not alter its value, provided that its odour and colour do not change. DSM can be kept 2-3 years in the dark at about 15°C.

Crystallized Sugar

Dry, granulated, no clumps, shiny crystals

Dry, cool, ventilated on pallets, relative humidity of the air; 70% maximum

Several years

Sugar quickly absorbs humidity. Dry the sugar in loose layers. Damp sugar in blocks is fit for human consumption.

Annex XXVII - UNHCR Distribution Report

Distribution Report (a)

Distribution Report (b)


The forms in this section were designed to help you to meet the standards and requirements set out in the text of this Field Handbook. They are based on actual samples of forms in use in the field which were provided to the author during the information gathering phase.

The forms are reproduced here in actual size so that you may copy them for your own use. You may also adapt them, adding or deleting information to make the forms more suited to your particular needs.


Project No. _______________


PO/CAF/Ref. No.: _________

of Goods: ________________________________________

Dates Action Taken:

Planned Use:
(By whom, Destination) ______________________________

Need Identified
and Request: ___/___ /___

Date: ___/___ /___

Telex: ___/___ /___

Rec'd: ___/___ /___

of the
Vessel: ___/___ /___

from Port: ___/___ /___

Letter: ___/___ /___

Report: ___/___ /___






On receipt of Purchase Order or CAF

- Notify all concerned parties that purchase/donor action taking place.

- Define needs for forwarding agent and arrange contracted services.

On receipt of Shipping Notification Telex

- Confirm national/local delivery instructions (destination on clearance).

- Arrange transport/storage for shipment. Specify destinations and Quantities.

- Monitor ship's arrival and berthing arrangements. Resolve any delays.

On receipt of shipping documents

- Arrange customs exemption.

- Endorse Bill of Lading. Transmit shipping documents to designated receiving agent.

- Confirm arrangements for discharge, superintendence, inspection and reporting on shipment.

- Schedule loading, transport, storage of shipment.

On arrival and discharge of the shipment

- Resolve any delays - request assistance of authorities.

- Report arrival to SFAS by telex.

- Obtain receiving, inspection and dispatch reports.

- Notify SFAS on completion of discharge (quantities and condition).

On clearance of shipment from the port

- Load and transport shipment to destination(s).

- Prepare, submit receiving report to SFAS.

- Obtain documents (signed waybill, takeover cert.) to confirm delivery at destination.

- Arrange payment for related charges.

- Obtain information, prepare, submit distribution report.

- Assure file on shipment is complete and dose file.

If any loss or damage to the shipment

- Initiate claims action promptly.

- Note damages or loss on Bill of Lading.

- Send Protest Letter to carrier, copy to SFAS.

- Over US $1000, obtain Shortlanding Certificate and Survey Report.

- Under US $1000, prepare report of damage or loss.

- Submit all documents and details to SFAS.

- Arrange authorized repair or disposal of damaged goods.





Vessel/Carrier: __________________________________________________________________

Name and Address of Local Shipping Agent: __________________________________________

Date/Tine of Arrival: ___/___ /___


Date(s) of




___/___ /___


Date of Delivery: ___/___ /___


1. No. of units per Bill of Lading

_____ = ______ Mt

2. No. of units discharged in sound condition

_____ = ______ Mt

3. No. of units discharged in damaged condition

_____ = ______ Mt

4. Total units discharged

_____ = ______ Mt

5. Losses on discharge

_____ = ______ Mt

Explanation of damage or loss: _________________________________

Bill of Lading endorsed conditionally for loss or damage.

Shortlanding Certificate obtained/attached.

Protest Letter sent/copy attached.

Other (specify) ______________________________


6. No. of units discharged (same as 4.)

_____ = ______ Mt

7. No. of units cleared from port and delivered to transporter

_____ = ______ Mt

8. Total port loss (6 - 7)

_____ = ______ Mt

Explanation of damage or loss: _________________________________

Copy port release order attached

Copy of transporter's waybill(s) attached

Other (specify) ____________________________

Submit this completed report for each consignment cleared to:

(UNHCR consignee field office)

Forward any replies to the Protest Letter or copies of other relevant correspondence as and when they are received.

Prepared by: _________________________________ Date: ________________


Country ____________
Office ______________


Inventory No. ____________________________ Registration No. ___________________
Manufacturer ____________________________ Model ___________________________
Engine No. ______________________________ Year of Production ________________
Chassis No. _____________________________ Warranty Expiry Date ______________

Engine Type: __ Diesel __ Petrol

Capacity: ___ persons ___ MT

Steering: __ Right-hand __ Left-hand

Tire Size: ______________


Registered Owner: __________________________ Date: __________________________
3rd party liability insurance in the name of: _______________________________________
Limit of insurance coverage: LC ____________________________ US $ ______________
Insurance paid by: __________________________ Policy No.: _____________________
Expiry Date: Registration: ______________________ Insurance: _____________________


Supplier ______________________________ Delivery Date _______________________
Purchase Order No. _____________________ Project/MOD Ref. ___________________
Purchase Price (C&F) US $ ________________________ Donation ______ Yes ____ No
Donated by ____________________________ CAP No. _________________________


Vehicle Markings __________________________________________________________
Vehicle to be used by_______________________________________________________
For what purpose? _________________________________________________________
Base Location ______________________________ Date put in service _______________


Action: _________________________________ Date of Submission to the
_______________________________________ Property Survey Board: ______________




Registration No.________________________
Vehicle Colour _________________________
Year of Manufacturer ____________________
Project Ref. ___________________________
Engine No. ____________________________
Maximum Payload ______________________
Size of tires ___________________________
Pressure of front tires ____________________
Pressure of rear tires ____________________

Vehicle Make __________________________
Vehicle Model __________________________
Date of Receipt _________________________
Base Location __________________________
Chassis No. ____________________________
Capacity of fuel tank _____________________
_________Petrol________ Diesel
Number _______________________________
Location ______________________________











To be completed for each vehicle in the local fleet:

Vehicle Make/Model ____________________________ Engine No. _____________________
Registration No. _______________________________ Chassis No. ____________________

Report for the Month of ___________________________________

Start Odometer Reading __________________________________
Finish Odometer Reading _________________________________
Total Monthly Mileage: ____________________________________
Total Fuel Consumption (litres) _____________________________
Oil changed/added and quantity _____________________________

Maintenance frequency and Summary:

Repair frequency and Summary:

Was the vehicle involved in any accidents during the month? __ Yes __ No
If yes, attach copy of accident report.


Other Comments or Remarks:

Report Submitted By: _____________________________________ Date: ________________


To be completed for each vehicle requiring spare parts Consolidated orders should only be prepared by a technical expert or workshop manager.

Requesting Office:


Prepared by:


(Name and address)





Contact No.:


Req'd Delivery Date:


Date Prepared:


Vehicle Make/Model: ___________________

Year of Manufacture: ___________________


Engine No.: __________________________



Chassis No.: _________________________


Identify Catalogue

Use of parts:

Item No.

Part No.

Detailed Description of part


Unit Price



Card No. ______

ITEM: ___________________________________________________________________
Description: _______________________________________________________________
Min. Quantity: _________________ Catalogue Ref. No. ____________________________
Units/Wt per package: ____________ Catalogue: _________________________________









Item: ____________________________________ Stack No.: __________________








Stack Record Card (reverse)





TO: ______________________________________________ Project Ref: _______
I have inspected the store at (location) ____________________________________
on (date) ______________ at (time) _______________, and my findings are shown below.




(print name)



Weather at the time of inspection*: raining/dry sunny/overcast windy/calm

Degree of loading*: full/75%/50%/25%/empty

Total volume/capacity of the store: _____________ cu. metres, __________ MT

Condition of Building*: G/F/P (good/fair/poor)

* Circle word letter witch applies.

Explain: _____________________________________________________________

Repairs Needed:






















Other (specify)



Are there any live insects on the walls or floor? What? Where? _________________

Is there any evidence of rats, mice or birds inside the building? Rats or mice outside the building? e.g. signs of gnawing, rat or mouse holes, droppings?

Are there any other matters which need attention? e.g. security of stores, access, condition of site, damaged equipment?



Quantity in store at the time of inspection

Length of time in store
(Date Rec'd)

Signs of Damage, Insect infestation, Rodents, Mould & Degree

If items are not in good condition, give the apparent reasons why. (E.G. the rice is being eaten by insects, the cans of oil are leaking, the tents have mildewed.)

Record of pest control treatments: ________________________________________


Release order
Ref. No. ________________________________________ Date ________________

FROM: (consignor) ________________________________________________________________

TO: (consignee) __________________________________________________________________

Please receive the goods detailed below:

Material/Commodity Description

Shipping Quantity



No. of Units

The quantities and descriptions shown above have been checked and are in accordance with the quantities and materials/commodities supplied.

Please sign and return one copy of this document to the consignor immediately upon safe receipt of the items detailed above.

You will be responsible for notifying the requisitioner that you have received these supplies.

Received by the shipping agent or consignee's agent:




CONSIGNEE: I acknowledge receipt of the materials/commodities listed above.

______________________________________ Date: ________________________

Copy 1 - consignor
Copy 2 - consignee
Copy 3 - returned to consignor


To convert from units in the first column to the equivalent number of units in the second column, multiply by the figure shown. For example:

10 kilometres

= 10 x 0.6214 miles

= 6.214 mi

8 feet

= 8 x 0.305 metres

= 2.44 m

5 kilograms

= 5 x 2.205 pounds

= 11.01 lb


1 kilometre (km)

= 0.6214 miles (mi)

1 km

= 1,000 m

1 metre (m)

= 1.0936 yards (yd) = 3.28 feet (ft)

1 m

= 100 cm

1 centimetre (cm)

= 0.394 inches (in.)

1 cm

= 10 mm

1 mile (mi)

= 1.609 kilometres (km)

1 mi

= 1,760 yd

1 yard (yd)

= 0.914 metres (m)

1 yd

= 3 ft

1 foot (ft)

= 0.305 metres (m) = 30.48 centimetres (cm)

1 ft

= 12 in.

1 inch (in.)

= 2.54 centimetres (cm)


1 square km (km2)

= 0.386 square miles (sq mi)

1 km2

= 100 ha

1 hectare (ha)

= 2.471 acres

1 ha

= 10,000 m2

1 square metre (m2)

= 1.196 square yards (sq yd) = 10.76 square feet (sq ft)

1 m2

= 10,000 cm2

1 square cm (cm 2)

= 0.155 square inches (sq in.)

1 square mile (sq mi)

= 2.59 square km (km2) = 259.0 hectares (ha)

1 sq mi

= 640 acres

1 acre

= 0.405 hectares (ha)

1 acre

= 4,840 sq yd

1 square yard (sq yd)

= 0.836 square metres (m2)

1 sq yd

= 9 sq ft

1 square foot (sq ft)

= 0.093 square metres (m2)

1 sq ft

= 144 sq in.

= 930.0 square cm (cm2)

1 square inch (sq in.)

= 6.54 square cm (cm2)


1 cubic metre (m3)

= 1.307 cubic yards (cu yd)

1 m3

= 1,000 litres

= 35.32 cubic feet (cu ft)

1 cubic cm (cc)

= 0.061 cubic inches (cu in.)

1 cubic yard (cu yd)

= 0.765 cubic metres (m3)

1 cu yd

= 27 cu ft

1 cubic foot (cu ft)

= 28.32 litres

1 cu ft

= 1,728 cu in.

1 cubic inch (cu in.)

= 16.39 millilitres (ml)

Liquid Capacity:

1 litre (l)

= 0.22 UK gallons (UK gal)

1 litre

= 1,000 ml

= 1.76 UK pints (UK pt)

= 1,000 cc

= 0.26 US gallons (US gal)

= 2.11 US pints (US pt)

1 millilitre (ml)

= 0.0675 fluid ounces (fl oz)

1 ml

= 1 cc

1 UK gallon (UK gal)

= 4.55 litres (l) = 1.20 US gallons (US gal)

1 UK gal

= 8 UK pt

1 US gallon (US gal)

= 3.79 litres (l) = 0.83 UK gallons (UK gal)

1 US gal

= 8 US pt

1 UK pint (UK pt)

= 0.568 litres (l)

1 UK pt

= 20 fl oz

1 US pint (US pt)

= 0.473 litres (l)

1 US pt

= 16 fl oz

1 fluid ounce (fl oz)

= 28.41 millilitres (ml)


1 metric ton (MT)

= 0.984 long (UK) tons

1 MT 1 Kg

= 1,000 Kg = 1,000 g

= 1.102 short (US) tons

= 2,204.0 pounds (lb)

1 kilogram (Kg)

= 2.205 pounds (lb)

= 35.27 ounces (oz)

1 gram (g)

= 0.035 ounces (oz)

1 long (UK) ton

= 1,016.0 kilograms (Kg)

1 UK ton

= 2,240 lb

1 short (US) ton

= 907.1 kilograms (Kg)

1 US ton

= 2,000 lb

1 long (UK) ton

= 1.12 short (US) tons

1 pound (lb)

= 0.45 kilograms (Kg) = 453.6 grams (g)

1 lb

= 16 oz

1 ounce (oz)

= 28.35 grams (g)

Weight of water (at 16.7°C, 62°F):

1 litre
1 UK gal
1 US gal
1 cu ft

= 1 Kg
= 10 lb
= 8.33 lb
= 62.31 lb



= -17.8°C

To convert from Centigrade (°C to Fahrenheit (°F):


= 0°C

subtract 32 and then multiply by 1.8 (or 9/5).


= 10°C


= 20°C

To convert from Fahrenheit (°F) to Centigrade (°C):


= 36.9°C

multiply by 0.555 (or 5/9) and then add 32.


= 40°C


= 100°C



Assisting in Emergencies, a resource handbook for UNICEF, Geneva, May, 1986.

Food Storage: Handbook on good storage practices, World Food Programme, prepared by Tropical Stored Products Centre, Ministry of Overseas Development, Rome, 1979.

Food Storage Manual, 2nd Edition, World Food Programme, prepared and revised by the Tropical Development and Research Institute, Rome, 1983.

Guide to Incoterms (Publication No. 354, 1980), ICC Publishing Corporation Inc., New York.

ICRC Handbook for Donors, ICRC Relief Division, Geneva, 1983.

Policies and Procedures in the Programme for Afghan Refugees, North-West Frontier Province, prepared by OCAR/NWFP, UNHCR/SOP and WFP/SOP, January, 1988.

Red Cross Cargo, 2nd version, International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, January, 1987.

UNHCR Essential Drug Policy, prepared by TSS, Geneva, 1988.

UNHCR Guide to In-Kind Contributions in Refugee Emergencies, prepared by the Emergency Unit, Geneva, 1986.

UNHCR Guide to Supplies and Food Aid, 1st Issue, UNHCR, Geneva, December, 1987.

UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies, UNHCR, Geneva, 1982.

UNHCR Manual, originally published in 1983 and subsequent revisions, Geneva.


Field Motor Vehicle Standards Catalogue, published periodically by the UNDP Inter-Agency Procurement Services Unit, and available from SFAS, Geneva.

Heavy Vehicles-Trucks Catalogue, published periodically by the UNDP Inter-Agency Procurement Services Unit, and available from SFAS, Geneva.

Specifications Catalog, UNHCR Supplies and Food Aid Service, 2nd Edition, November, 1987.

UNIPAC Catalogue, published by UNICEF Procurement and Assembly Centre in Copenhagen. Available from SFAS. Published periodically.


"Aspects of Logistics in the Somalia Refugee Relief Operation," a report of the International Disaster Institute, London, June 1983.

"Evaluation of the Food Storage Situation in Refugee Camps in Eastern Sudan," a report by Hendrikson Associierte Consultants GmbH, Eschborn, Khartoum, September 1987.

"Food/Nutrition Assessment Mission: Somalia (15 February - 20 May 1987)," a TSS Mission Report, 87/13, Geneva, 1987.

"Logistics Operation in South Sudan," a case study presented by Abid Zareef Khan, UNHCR/Islamabad, at a UNHCR regional emergency management seminar in 1987.

"Mission to Costa Rica (Procurement Exercise, 6-18 December 1987)," a report prepared by Bill Michalopulos, SFAS.

"Mission to Honduras (Purchasing/Logistical Issues, 3-21 August 1987)," a report prepared by Bill Michalopulos, SFAS.

"Mission to Somalia: (24 March - 15 April 1987)," a report prepared by E. Wyss, SFAS.

"Mission to Somalia: (8-20 December 1987)," a report prepared by J. van Boetzelaer, Shipping and Insurance Officer, SFAS.

"Report of the Joint WFP/UNHCR Mission to Pakistan in April/May 1987 to Assess the Food Aid Requirements for Afghan Refugees," WFP/UNHCR Mission Report, Pakistan.

"Report of the Joint WFP/UNHCR Mission to Somalia in July/August 1986 to Assess the 1987 Food Aid Requirements for Refugees," WFP/UNHCR Mission Report, Rome, 1986.

"Report No. 1 of the Logistics Officer, Branch Office Djibouti from 1 August to 31 December 1987."

"Review of UNHCR Food Aid Management," Dawson, March 1986.

"Sixth Annual Report of Operations, 1986 ELU/CARE - Somalia," submitted to UNHCR, Mogadishu, August 1987.

"Survey on the Relief Fund Transportation and Distribution System in Respect of the Refugee Programme in Pakistan," a final report by UNICONSULT for World Food Programme, Rome, June 1986.

"Survey on the Situation Concerning Maintenance and Repair of UNHCR-owned Vehicles in the Sudan," a draft report by Hendrikson Associierte Consultants GmbH, Khartoum, 1987.

"Technical Mission to Somalia (3 May - 3 June 1987)," a TSS Mission Report 87/24 on storage and workshop facilities, Geneva, 1987.

"The Role of Vehicles in UNHCR Operations," a TSS Mission Report 87/10 on vehicles used by UNHCR offices and implementing agencies, Geneva, 1987.

UNHCR Memoranda:

"Strengthening UNHCR/WFP Collaboration," UNHCR IOM/44/85/FOM/45/85, from the High Commissioner, 29 August 1985.

"Revision of Existing Procedures," UNHCR IOM/46/86/FOM/42/86, from the High Commissioner, 4 June 1986.

"The Operational Role of UNHCR," UNHCR IOM/62/86/FOM/54/86, from the High Commissioner, 2 July 1986.

"Procedures to be Followed When Taking Delivery of Goods," UNHCR IOM/86/86/FOM/73/86, from the Head, SFAS, 10 November 1986.

"Warehouse Improvement Programme (WIP)," UNHCR IOM/66/87/FOM/60/87, from the Deputy High Commissioner, 19 August 1987.

"Updating Project Submissions and Preparation of the 1988 Obligation Plan," UNHCR IOM/75/87/FOM/68/87, from the Head, PMS, 17 September 1987.

"New EEC Regulation on Mobilisation of EEC Food Aid," UNHCR IOM/84/87/FOM/77/87, from the Head, SFAS, 6 October 1987.

"Reporting on UNHCR Activities in 1987-88 and Programming for 1988-89," UNHCR IOM/112/87/FOM/103/87, from the High Commissioner, 18 December 1987.

"Guidelines on Management of Food Aid," UNHCR IOM/14/88/FOM/12/88, from the Head, PMS and the Head, SFAS, 29 February 1988.

"Costs for Insurance and Inspection for Goods Procured by the Supplies and Food Aid Service in 1988," UNHCR IOM/35/88/FOM/31/88, from the Head, SFAS, 9 March 1988.



in the logistics operation, 5.12.14
vehicle, 6.6.5, 6.7.17 - 6.7.19, 6.8.17, Annex XXIV
vehicle insurance for, 6.6.9 - 6.6.11

Administrative supplies, 1.3.24 - 1.3.25

Air freight, 5.8.6 - 5.8.7

Air shipments, 1.7.9, 4.1.3, 4.2.4

Air transport, 5.8.1 - 5.8.7, 5.J

Aircraft, charter, 5.8.8 - 5.8.13, 5.K

Airlifts, 5.8.1

Airports, 5.8.2 - 5.8.4, 5.J


identification of needs, 1.3.15 - 1.3.21
storage, 7.2.5

Assessment of needs, 1.2.1 - 1.2.5, 1.B

Bagging operations, 1.4.5

Bank guarantee. See Letter of Guarantee.

Beneficiaries, identification of, 8.2.12, 8.3.1 - 8.3.4

Bid comparison. See Suppliers, bids.

Bill of Lading, 4.2.6 - 4.2.7, 4.4.1 - 4.4.5, 4.6.7, 4.11.13, 4.11.15, 4.B, 4.G, 8.1.4, Annex XV

See also Shipping documents.


convoy vehicles, 5.5.8
servicing vehicles, 6.8.24


donor funding, 1.2.10
logistics operation, 5.12.9
purchasing, 1.8.1 - 1.8.7
replacement vehicles, 6.9.2, 6.9.5 - 6.9.6
storage/warehousing, 7.1.4
vehicles, 6.2.1, 6.5.1

Bulk shipments, 1.4.5

Cargo containers

for emergency storage, 7.2.10
port handling, 4.6.10
use of, 1.4.6, 1.G


for supply specifications, 1.D
for vehicle spare parts, 6.8.13
IAPSU Field Motor Vehicle Standards Catalogue, 1.D, 6.3.2
IAPSU Heavy Vehicles - Truck Catalogue, 1.D, 6.3.2
WFP commodity price list, 2.3.5

Charter party, 1.7.7

Chartered aircraft. See Aircraft, charter.


identification of needs, 1.3.22
pest control, 7.6.5 - 7.6.9
See also Dangerous goods.


vehicles, 6.7.13, Annex XXIII
warehouses, 7.4.2 - 7.4.3, 7.6.8, 7.I, 7.P

Clearing agents. See Forwarding agents.

Cold chain, 1.3.17

Committee on Contracts (UNHCR)

lead-time, 1.6.4
locally constituted, 3.3.16
submissions to, 3.3.12 - 3.3.15, 3.G


exchange of, 2.6.7, 2.8.2
prevention of infestation, 7.6.7
price list, 2.3.5
weight/volume relationships, 7.B
See also Food aid, Supplies.

Commodity management plan, 5.12.6, 5.M, 7.5.1

Communications. See Telecommunications.

Computers, hardware/software requirements, 1.3.8 - 1.3.11

Construction, of storage facilities, 7.2.8 - 7.2.9, 7.D

Containerized cargo. See Cargo containers.

Contingency planning, logistics, 5.3.4

Contract Committee. See Committee on Contracts.

Contracting. See Purchasing.

Contribution Advice Form (CAF)

preparation, 2.5.9, Annex IV
reporting requirements, 2.7.3, 3.9.2, 8.6.3, Annex XXVII


moving people, 5.13.1 - 5.13.3, 5.O, 5.P
moving supplies, 5.5.7 - 5.5.8
radio communications, 6.4.9


of inland transport, 5.3.7
of supplies, 1.8.1 - 1.8.7

Cost and Freight (C&F), 1.7.2, 3.4.1 - 3.4.2, 4.1.2, 4.6.7, 5.1.2, Annex III

Crowd control, 8.4.2, 8.F

Currency of expenditure, 1.8.6

Customs, exemption and clearance, 4.3.1 - 4.3.4, 4.D

Damaged goods

disposal of, 7.7.1 - 7.7.2, 7.7.4 - 7.7.8
storage of, 7.4.9, 7.5.9
See also Loss/damage.

Dangerous Goods

general precautions, 1.3.22 - 1.3.23
labelling, 1.H
pesticides, 7.6.4 - 7.6.6, 7.6.9, 7.P
storage of, 7.2.6, 7.4.2

Delivery, inland

costs, 5.3.7
fleet capacity/utilization, 5.3.11, 5.D
monitoring, 5.3.8, 5.15.1 - 5.15.3
record keeping, 5.9.7
to refugee distribution centres, 8.2.10
turnaround time, 5.3.6
vehicles, 6.6.12 - 6.6.13

Demurrage. See Detention.

Detention, 4.6.4 - 4.6.5, 4.6.8

Direct delivery, 4.6.5

Dispatch, from the port, 4.6.1, 4.6.5 - 4.6.6, 4.6.13, 5.4.7


of donations, 2.5.12, 7.7.3 - 7.7.4, 7.8.5
of packaging materials, 7.8.1 - 7.8.7, 7.Q
of stores, 7.7.1 - 7.7.8, Annex XXV
of vehicles, 6.9.1 - 6.9.6, 6.K, Annex XXV
use of sales proceeds, 5.11.6, 7.7.7, 7.8.3 - 7.8.4


day, 8.4.1 - 8.4.3, 8.F
identification of beneficiaries, 8.3.1 - 8.3.4
monitoring, 8.5.1 - 8.5.5, 8.G
special, 8.4.4 - 8.4.5
to refugees, 8.2.1 - 8.2.17, 8.B, 8.C, 8.D

Distribution centres, 7.2.9, 8.2.1, 8.2.4 - 8.2.7, 8.4.1 - 8.4.5

Distribution reports

for donors, 8.6.1 - 8.6.4, Annex XXVII
from distribution centres, 5.14.6, 8.2.16, 8.4.3, 8.E


assessment of, 2.5.6 - 2.5.8, 3.9.3 - 3.9.4
cash, 3.9.1 - 3.9.2
checklist, Annex V
disposal or sale of, 2.5.12, 7.7.3 - 7.7.4
food aid, 2.2.6, 2.5.1 - 2.5.8
loss/damage claims, 4.11.7
reporting, 8.6.1 - 8.6.4, Annex XXVII
shipping, insurance and inspection, 2.5.10, 2.7.1 - 2.7.8, 4.10.2, 4.10.10
special appeals, 1.3.26, 3.1.1, 3.9.1
vehicles, 6.3.3, 6.6.4


accidents, 6.7.17 - 6.7.19, Annex XXIV
responsibilities, 5.5.10, 6.7.11 - 6.7.16, 6.8.6
rules, Annex XXII
safe driving, 6.8.5
vehicle inspection and cleaning, Annex XXIII

Drugs. See Medicines.

Dunnage. See Pallets.


food aid, 2.9.1 - 2.9.3
optional sources of supply, 1.3.26
planning, 1.2.11
responding, 1.3.26 - 1.3.27, 1.E
storage facilities, 7.2.10, 7.4.10

Employees. See Personnel.


for distribution centres, 8.2.7
handling, 5.3.6, 5.8.4, 5.E, 7.3.6
inspection of, 1.5.3
repairs, 1.3.11
specifications, 1.3.8 - 1.3.10

European Community (EC), 2.5.4, 2.7.4 - 2.7.8, Annex VI

Executive Committee, 1.2.7 - 1.2.8

FIFO (First In, First Out), 7.4.5, 7.5.9


identification of needs, 1.3.22
See also Dangerous goods.

Field Motor Vehicle Standards Catalogue, 1.D, 6.3.2

First aid kit, 6.4.12 - 6.4.15, 7.3.5

Fleet utilization. See Vehicles.

Food aid

assessment of needs, 2.3.1 - 2.3.5, 2.B, 2.C, 2.D
borrowing or exchange, 2.6.7, 2.9.1
donations, 2.5.1 - 2.5.8
European Community, 2.7.4 - 2.7.8
inspection, 1.5.3, 2.5.10, 2.6.5, 2.7.6 - 2.7.7, 2.8.4
organizational liaison, 2.6.4, 2.A
planning, 2.4.1 - 2.4.10
preservation of quality, 7.6.1 - 7.6.2
purchasing, 2.8.1 - 2.8.5
sale or disposal of, 2.5.12, 2.8.2, 7.7.1 - 7.7.8
sources, 2.1.4, 2.4.2 - 2.4.3, 2.5.2 - 2.5.8, 2.B, 3.1.1 - 3.1.2, 3.A
UNHCR responsibilities, 2.2.1 - 2.2.6, 2.5.1
World Food Programme, 2.2.4 - 2.2.6, 2.3.1 - 2.3.2, 2.6.1 - 2.6.7
See also Commodities, Distribution, Nutrition, Storage, Warehouses.

Food rations, 2.1.2 - 2.1.3, 8.2.10 - 8.2.14, 8.4.1 - 8.4.2

Forwarding agents

contracting with, 4.5.1 - 4.5.7, 4.E, 5.4.6
for vehicles, 6.6.2
insurance claims, 4.11.2
reporting requirements, 4.6.14, SFAS/FH-2
shipments in transit, 4.7.1 - 4.7.6

Free on Board (FOB), 1.7.3, Annex III

Fuel and lubricants

consumption, 5.5.5, 5.H
control of, 6.7.9
storage, 6.7.10, 7.2.6
supplies of, 1.3.14, 5.3.5, 5.5.4, 6.4.2 - 6.4.5

Fumigation. See Pest control.

Functional objective

food aid, 2.1.1
logistics, 5.1.1
supplies and food aid, 1.1.1, 1.A

General average, 4.10.5

Global food plan, 2.4.2, 2.5.1

Handling equipment. See Equipment, handling.

Hazardous materials. See Dangerous goods.

Heavy Vehicles - Truck Catalogue, 1.D, 6.3.2

Helicopters, 5.8.12 - 5.8.13, 5.L

IT5H (Internal transport, storage and handling), 2.4.5 - 2.4.8, 2.6.6, 4.6.13

Implementing instruments, food aid, 2.4.9 - 2.4.10

Implementing partners

as forwarding agents, 4.5.7, 4.F
assessment of needs, 1.2.4
customs exemption for, 4.3.2
end-use of supplies and food aid, 8.1.1 - 8.1.5, 8.A
fleet management, 6.7.1 - 6.7.5
purchasing by, 3.8.1 - 3.8.4, 3.J
transport, storage and insurance, 4.10.11, 5.11.3, 7.1.5
vehicles for, 6.2.2, 6.6.7 - 6.6.11, 6.9.1, 6.9.5 - 6.9.6
vehicle workshop, 6.6.3

Importing, Inspection Certificate for, 1.5.2

Incoterms, 1.7.1, Annex III

Infestation. See Pest control.

Inland transport. See Transport, inland.

Insects, 7.6.1, 7.6.4 - 7.6.10, 7.M, 7.N, 7.O, 7.P


contracting for services, 1.5.1 - 1.5.4, 1.I, 3.3.21 - 3.3.22, Annex II
for loss/damage, 4.J
on receipt of stores, 7.5.5 - 7.5.7
of distributions, 8.5.2
of food aid, 1.5.3, 2.5.10, 2.6.5, 2.7.6 - 2.7.7, 2.8.4, 4.G
of medicines, 1.3.20
of port activities, 4.5.3 - 4.5.5, 4.6.7
of storage facilities, 7.5.12, 7.6.2, 7.M, 7.O, Annex XXVI, SFAS/FH-9
pre-delivery (of vehicles), 6.6.1 - 6.6.3


claims, 4.8.1 - 4.8.2, 4.11.1 - 4.11.8, 4.K, 4.L, 5.11.4
donations, 2.5.10, 2.7.5
for local/regional shipments, 4.10.6 - 4.10.9, 4.I, Annex XVII
for shipments in transit, 4.7.5, 6.6.12
inland transport and storage, 5.11.1 - 5.11.6
shipping, 3.4.2 - 3.4.4, 4.10.1 - 4.10.11, 4.H, 4.I, 5.11.4
vehicles, 6.6.9 - 6.6.11, 6.6.12
warehouse, 5.11.5, 7.3.9

International Emergency Food Reserve (IEFR), 2.6.2

International shipments

"in bond", 4.7.1 - 4.7.2
port clearance, 4.6.1 - 4.6.15, 4.G
receipt and clearance checklist, SFAS/FH-1
receiving, 4.1.1 - 4.1.8
receiving report, 4.8.1 - 4.8.2, Annex XIII
See also Shipping, Shipping documents.


of storage facilities, 7.1.4
of suppliers, 3.3.4 - 3.3.6, 3.E

Inventory control

in warehouses, 7.5.2 - 7.5.11, 7.K, SFAS/FH-7, SFAS/FH-8, SFAS/FH-10
of spare parts, 6.8.10, 6.8.21, 6.8.25 - 6.8.27
of vehicles, 6.7.6, SFAS/FH-3

Inventory, physical, 7.5.11, 7.K

Issue voucher, 7.5.10, SFAS/FH-10


storage facilities, 7.E
vehicles, 6.6.13

Labelling, 1.4.10, 1.4.13

cancellation of donor labels, 7.8.5

Land shipments, 1.7.10, 4.2.4


for trucks, 6.3.11 - 6.3.12
for vehicles, 6.5.2 - 6.5.3
planning, 1.6.1 - 1.6.9, 1.J

Letter of Guarantee, 4.4.4, Annex XVI

Letter of Regret, 3.3.19, Annex XI

Liner out terms, 1.7.6, 4.6.7

Local Purchases, 3.7.1 - 3.7.5

advantages/disadvantages, 1.8.5, 3.I
of medicines, 1.3.18
of vehicles, 6.5.3, 6.G
shipping and receiving, 1.7.4, 3.4.3 - 3.4.4, 4.9.1 - 4.9.6, 5.1.3
shipping insurance and claims, 4.10.6 - 4.10.10, 4.11.8, 4.I, Annex XVII
See also Purchasing.

Log Book, Vehicle, 6.7.7, SFAS/FH-4


accountability, 5.14.1 - 5.14.7, 5.Q
fleet management, 6.7.1 - 6.7.5
functional management, 5.12.1 - 5.12.16, 5.M
monitoring, 5.15.1 - 5.15.3
moving people, 5.13.1 - 5.13.3, 5.O, 5.P
planning, 5.2.1 - 5.2.9, 5.3.1 - 5.3.11, 5.B, 5.C, 5.D
storage facilities, 5.9.1 - 5.9.7, 7.1.1 - 7.1.6, 7.2.1 - 7.2.10, 7.A, 7.B, 7.C
system components, 5.1.1 - 5.1.3, 5.A
telecommunications in, 5.10.1 - 5.10.5
warehouse operations, 7.5.1 - 7.5.12, 7.K, 7.L, 7.M


causes in stores/warehouses, 7.1.3
during port clearance, 4.6.10 - 4.6.11, 4.6.15, 4.G
inspection for, 4.11.3 - 4.11.4
local/regional consignments, 4.9.2, 4.9.5, 7.5.5 - 7.5.8
See also Damaged goods, Insurance.

Lubricants. See Fuel and lubricants.

Maintenance and Repair

equipment, 1.3.11
local facilities for, 5.3.5
technical kit for vehicles, 6.4.11, 6.E
vehicle spare parts, 6.8.7 - 6.8.15, 6.H, SFAS/FH-6
vehicle workshops, 6.8.16 - 6.8.31
vehicles, 6.8.1 - 6.8.7

Markings, vehicle, 6.6.4

Material assistance. See Food aid, Supplies.

Medical supplies

identification of needs, 1.3.15 - 1.3.21
storage, 7.2.5


identification of needs, 1.3.15 - 1.3.21
storage, 7.2.5


distribution, 8.5.1 - 8.5.5, 8.G
logistics operations, 5.15.1 - 5.15.3
purchasing, 1.9.3, 3.6.3 - 3.6.4, 4.8.3

Needs identification

supplies and food aid, 1.B, 2.3.1 - 2.3.5, 2.B, 2.C, 2.D
vehicles, 6.1.1 - 6.1.6, 6.A

Notify Party, 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.6, 4.4.1, 4.7.3 - 4.7.6

Nutrition, 2.1.2, 2.B, 2.C

Offers. See Suppliers, bids.

Official vehicles. See Vehicles.


alternate uses, 1.4.4, 7.8.1 - 7.8.7, 7.Q
standards, 1.4.1 - 1.4.9, 1.F, Annex I
suitability of, 4.1.6, 8.6.4
vehicle spare parts, 6.8.15
See also Cargo containers, Labelling.


for shipments, 1.4.7
in warehouses, 7.3.6 - 7.3.8, 7.4.4, 7.G


for local purchases, 4.9.4
of port handling costs, 4.6.7 - 4.6.8, 4.7.5
to suppliers, 1.8.6, 3.5.1 - 3.5.3


distribution monitoring staff, 8.5.3 - 8.5.4
distribution workers, 8.2.4, 8.2.8, 8.C, 8.D
logistics staff, 5.12.5 - 5.12.8, 5.M, 5.N
storekeeping staff, 7.3.1 - 7.3.4, 7.F
stress, 6.8.17

Pest control, 7.6.1 - 7.6.10, 7.N, 7.O, 7.P


distributions, 8.2.9 - 8.2.14, 8.3.2, 8.F
lead-time, 1.6.2
logistics system, 5.2.1 - 5.2.9, 5.B
needs identification, 1.2.1 - 1.2.6, 1.B, 1.C
purchases, 1.2.9
warehouse storage plan, 7.4.1, 7.H
See also Commodity management plan, Food aid, Project, submissions, Scheduling supply deliveries, Supplies.

Port clearance

by implementing partner, 4.5.7, 4.F
constraints, 5.4.5
handling charges, 4.6.7 - 4.6.8, 4.7.5
identification of loss or damage, 4.6.15
of vehicles, 6.6.1
priorities, 4.6.11
record keeping, 4.6.13 - 4.6.14, SFAS/FH-2
responsibilities, 4.6.10, 4.G
shipments in transit, 4.7.1 - 4.7.5
See also Forwarding agents, Notify Party, Port congestion.

Port congestion, 4.1.6, 4.6.11 - 4.6.12, 5.4.4 - 5.4.5

Port facilities, 5.4.1 - 5.4.7, 5.E


budgets, 3.9.1 - 3.9.2
submissions, 1.2.7 - 1.2.10, 1.C, 2.3.4 - 2.3.5
vehicles. See Vehicles.

Property Survey Board, 6.6.8, 6.9.5, 7.7.4, Annex XXV

Protest Letter, 4.11.15, 4.K, 4.L, Annex XVIII

Purchase authorization, 3.2.1 - 3.2.4, 3.C

checklist, 3.B
for implementing partners, 3.8.1
international purchases, 3.6.1 - 3.6.4, Annex VII
local purchases, 3.7.1
shipping insurance, 4.10.2, 4.10.6 - 4.10.7

Purchase Authorization Status Report, 3.6.3

Purchase Order, 3.3.17 - 3.3.18, Annex X

Purchase Order Status Report, 3.6.3

Purchase request, 1.9.1 - 1.9.3, 1.L


air freight services, 5.8.5 - 5.8.7
by implementing partners, 3.8.1 - 3.8.4, 3.J
charter aircraft, 5.8.9, 5.K
checklist, 3.D
commercial trucking, 5.5.2, 5.F, 5.G
consolidation of requirements, 3.8.2 - 3.8.4, 3.K
contracts with forwarding agents, 4.5.2 - 4.5.7
file, 3.3.18, 3.H
in the logistics operation, 5.12.9
international, 3.6.1 - 3.6.4
local/regional, 3.7.1. See also Local purchases.
local shipping contracts, 5.7.3 - 5.7.5
plan, 1.2.9
process, 3.3.1 - 3.3.22
spare parts, 6.3.13, 6.8.8 - 6.8.15, 6.H, SFAS/FH-6
vehicles, 6.3.11 - 6.3.12, 6.5.1 - 6.5.3, 6.G
workshop tools and equipment, 6.8.23

Quotation Request, 3.3.7 - 3.3.9, 3.F, Annex VIII

Quotations. See Suppliers, bids.

Radio network. See Telecommunications.

Ration cards, 8.2.12, 8.3.3


deliveries by rail, 5.6.2, 5.6.5
deliveries by truck, 5.5.11
deliveries by water, 5.7.5
donations/food aid, 2.7.3, 2.6.5, 2.7.7
international shipments, 4.1.1-4.1.8, SFAS/FH-1
local/regional consignments, 4.9.1 - 4.9.6
port activities, 4.6.1 - 4.6.15, 4.G
stores, 7.5.2 - 7.5.8, 7.K, 8.2.15, 8.E
use of forwarding agents, 4.5.1 - 4.5.7
vehicles, 6.6.1 - 6.6.13, Annex XXI

Receiving agent, 4.6.8 - 4.6.10, 4.G

See also Forwarding agents.

Receiving Report

from inland consignee, 4.7.6
international shipments, 4.8.1 - 4.8.2, Annex XIII
local purchases, 4.9.4 - 4.9.5

Record keeping

deliveries/storage, 5.9.7, 7.5.2 - 7.5.12, 7.K, 7.L, SFAS/FH-7, SFAS/FH-8, SFAS/FH-9, SFAS/FH-10
disposals, 7.7.4, 7.7.8
in the logistics operation, 5.12.10, 5.14.1
port handling and dispatch, 4.6.13 - 4.6.14, SFAS/FH-2
vehicle workshops, 6.8.28 - 6.8.31
vehicles, 6.7.6 - 6.7.8, SFAS/FH-3, SFAS/FH-4, SFAS/FH-5

Regional purchases, 3.7.1

See Local purchases.


of refugees, 8.2.12, 8.3.1 - 8.3.4
of vehicles, 6.6.5 - 6.6.8

Release order

as Takeover Certificate, 8.1.4, 8.A
issue voucher, SFAS/FH-10
stores, 7.5.9 - 7.5.10

Rodents, 7.6.1 - 7.6.3, 7.M


in distribution monitoring, 8.5.2
of food aid, 7.6.2, 7.N

Scheduling, supply deliveries, 5.9.5 - 5.9.6

Scooping, 8.2.7


crowd control, 8.F
in distribution centres, 8.2.5
in the logistics operation, 5.12.12 - 5.12.16
of warehouses, 7.2.4, 7.3.3, 7.3.5, 7.C, 7.E

Selection guidelines

for storage warehouses, 7.2.1 - 7.2.10, 7.A, 7.B, 7.C
for vehicles, 6.3.1 - 6.3.16, 6.B, 6.C, Annex XX
vehicle options and accessories, 6.4.1 - 6.4.10, 6.D

Service manuals, 6.8.3, 6.8.13


air, 1.7.9, 4.1.3, 4.2.4
land, 1.7.10, 4.2.4
notification, 4.1.9, 4.2.2, 4.A, Annex XII
sea, 1.7.5 - 1.7.8, 4.1.2
See also Bulk shipments, International shipments, Shipping, Waybills.


costs, 1.8.3
donations, 2.5.10
inland destinations, 1.7.8. See also Transport, inland.
instructions, 1.7.1 - 1.7.10, 1.K, 3.4.1
lead-time, 1.6.6
medical supplies, 1.3.21
notification, 3.4.2, 4.2.2

Shipping advice telex, 4.2.2, 4.A, Annex XII

Shipping documents, 4.2.1 - 4.2.7, 4.B

for donations, 2.7.2
for port authorities, 4.3.3, 4.6.4, 4.D
importance of, 4.2.6, 4.C
local/regional consignments, 4.9.3
shipments in transit, 4.7.5
transmittal memorandum, Annex XIV

Shipping insurance. See Insurance, shipping.

Shipping/Insurance Advice and Receiving Report, 4.2.3, 4.8.1 - 4.8.2, 4.10.10, Annex XIII

Shipping Insurance Request, 4.10.6 - 4.10.8, 4.I, Annex XVII

Shipping marks, 1.4.11 - 1.4.13, 1.H

Shipping Status Report, 3.6.3, 4.8.3

Shortlanding Certificate, 4.11.4, 4.K, 4.L

Spare parts, vehicles

catalogues, 6.8.13
control of, 6.8.25 - 6.8.27
identification of needs, 1.3.13
packing, 6.8.15
planning, 5.3.5, 6.8.4 - 6.8.5, 6.8.8 - 6.8.10, 6.H
purchasing, 6.3.13, 6.8.11 - 6.8.14, SFAS/FH-6


"generic", 1.3.2
impact of errors, 1.3.1
packing, 1.4.8 - 1.4.9
storage warehouses, 7.2.1 - 7.2.10, 7.A, 7.B, 7.C
standard items, 1.D
vehicles, 6.3.1 - 6.3.16, 6.4.1 - 6.4.10, 6.C, 6.D, Annex XX


in warehouses, 7.4.4 - 7.4.10, 7.J
of packaging materials, 7.8.1


facilities, 5.9.1 - 5.9.4, 7.1.1. - 7.1.6
for vehicle spare parts, 6.8.15, 6.8.25 - 6.8.27
in the port, 4.6.2, 4.6.4
insurance coverage, 4.10.3 - 4.10.4, 5.11.5
monitoring, 5.15.1 - 5.15.3
practices, 7.4.1 - 7.4.10, 7.H
rail terminal, 5.6.2
record keeping, 4.9.6, 5.9.7, 5.14.6
requirements, 7.2.1 - 7.2.10, 7.A, 7.B, 7.C
See also Logistics, Warehouses.

Subsidies, ITSH, 2.4.5 - 2.4.8, 2.6.6

Superintendence. See Forwarding agents.

Supplementary feeding, 2.1.2, 8.2.17


bids, 3.3.8 - 3.3.11, Annex IX
contact with, 3.3.20
lead-time, 1.6.3, 1.6.5
Letter of Regret. 3.3.19, Annex XI
medical, 1.3.19
payments to, 3.5.1 - 3.5.3
selection of, 3.3.4 - 3.3.15, 3.E
unsuccessful bidders, 3.3.19, Annex XI
See also Purchasing.


logistics planning for, 5.2.1 - 5.2.9, 5.B
sources of, 3.1.1 - 3.1.2, 3.A
storage of dangerous goods, 7.2.6
stacking, 7.4.4 - 7.4.10, 7.3
weight/volume relationships, 7.B

Survey Report, 4.11.6 - 4.11.7, 4.K, 4.L, Annex XIX

Takeover Certificate, 2.7.3, 8.1.4 - 8.1.5, 8.A

Taking-over Certificate (EC), 2.7.8, Annex VI

Tax exemption

local purchases, 3.7.3, 3.I
vehicles, 6.5.3, 6.G

Technical assistance

fleet acquisition and maintenance, 6.3.6
food aid, 2.2.4, 2.3.1
infestation and pest control, 7.6.2, 7.6.6
logistics, 5.12.3
special purpose vehicles, 6.3.16
specifications, 1.3.3, 1.3.8
vehicle workshops, 6.8.16 - 6.8.19, 6.I
vehicles, 6.2.1
warehouse construction, 7.2.8


equipment, 1.3.4 - 1.3.7, 5.10.2 - 5.10.5
in logistics operations, 5.10.1 - 5.10.5, 5.12.15, 5.12.16
mobile radios, 5.5.6, 6.4.9 - 6.4.10, 6.7.3

Tires, 6.4.6 - 6.4.8


distribution workers, 8.2.8
first aid, 6.4.14, 6.F
logistics operations, 5.N
storekeepers, 7.3.1, 7.F
vehicle drivers, 6.7.14
vehicle workshops, 6.8.22, 6.J

Transport, inland

assessment, 5.3.1 - 5.3.11, 5.C
by air, 5.8.1 - 5.8.7, 5.J
by rail, 5.6.1 - 5.6.5, 5.I
by road, 5.5.1 - 5.5.12
by water, 5.7.1 - 5.7.4
capacity, 5.D
charter aircraft, 5.8.8 - 5.8.13
checkpoints, 5.12.15
commercial trucking, 5.5.2, 5.F, 5.G
insurance, 5.11.1. - 5.11.4
monitoring, 5.15.1 - 5.15.3, 6.7.16
port facilities, 5.E
record keeping, 5.14.4 - 5.14.6, 5.Q
See also Subsidies, ITSH.

Treatment, pest control, 7.6.6 - 7.6.10, 7.P

Trucks, 5.5.1 - 5.5.12

commercial fleets, 5.5.2, 5.F, 5.G
moving people, 5.O
See also Vehicles.

Turnover of supplies and food aid. See Takeover Certificate, Taking-Over Certificate.


identification of needs, 1.3.15 - 1.3.21
storage of, 7.2.5

Vehicle Accident Report, 6.7.19, Annex XXIV


disposal, 6.9.1 - 6.9.6, 6.K, Annex XXV
equipment options and accessories, 6.4.1 - 6.4.10, 6.D
first aid kit, 6.4.12 - 6.4.15
fleet utilization, 5.D
needs identification, 1.3.12, 5.5.1 - 5.5.3, 6.1.1 - 6.1.6, 6.8.1, 6.A
purchasing, 6.3.11 - 6.3.12, 6.5.1 - 6.5.3, 6.G
receipt, registration and insurance, 6.6.1 - 6.6.13, Annex XXI
responsibilities for, 6.2.1 - 6.2.2
selection guidelines, 6.3.1 - 6.3.16, 6.B, 6.C, Annex XX
technical kit, 6.4.11, 6.7.14, 6.E
use of, 6.7.1 - 6.7.19
See also Drivers, Fuel and lubricants, Maintenance and repair, Tires, Workshops, vehicle.


bonded, 4.3.1, 4.6.12
disposal of packaging. 7.8.1 - 7.8.7, 7.Q
disposal of stores, 7.7.1 - 7.7.8, Annex XXV
inspection, 7.5.12, 7.M, Annex XXVI, SFAS/FH-9
insurance coverage, 5.11.5, 7.3.9
operations, 7.5.1 - 7.5.11, 7.K, 7.L, SFAS/FH-7, SFAS/FH-8, SFAS/FH-9, SFAS/FH-10
personnel, 7.3.1 - 7.3.4
regional/district, 5.9.2
selection guidelines, 7.2.1 - 7.2.10, 7.A, 7.B, 7.C
tools and equipment, 7.3.5 - 7.3.7, 7.G
See also Logistics, Pest control, Storage.


air, 5.8.7
rail, 5.6.4 - 5.6.5
truck, 5.5.9 - 5.5.11

Weigh scales

for trucks, 5.5.9
in distribution centres, 8.2.4
verification of, 8.5.2

Workshops, vehicle

mobile workshops, 6.8.24
need for , 5.5.4, 6.8.16 - 6.8.19, 6.I
personnel, 6.8.19 - 6.8.22, 6.J
record keeping, 6.8.28 - 6.8.31
storage and inventory control, 6.8.25 - 6.8.27
tools, 6.8.23

World Food Programme (WFP)

as a source of food aid, 2.1.2, 2.4.3, 2.5.2 - 2.5.3, 2.6.1 - 2.6.7
commodity price list, 2.3.5
delivery of food aid, 2.4.6, 2.6.5
disposal of packaging, 7.8.4
emergency assistance, 2.9.2
food aid needs assessment, 2.3.1 - 2.3.2, 2.B
infestation and pest control, 7.6.2
liaison with, 2.2.4 - 2.2.6, 2.6.4, 2.A
logistics, 5.3.2
monitoring food distributions, 8.2.3
storekeeping practices, 7.1.6
See also Subsidies, ITSH.