|Tackling Hunger in a World Full of Food: Tasks Ahead for Food Aid (WFP)|
The document was prepared by WFP in response to a request from the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) for a background paper on food aid for the World Food Summit to be held in Rome in November 1996. It builds on WFP's Mission Statement and on recent discussion within WFP's Governing Body.
Food security is about people. Hunger on a global scale reminds us of the unfinished task of achieving sustainable food security for everyone, everywhere. Adequacy of food at a national level does not rule out hunger. The important goal of raising agricultural productivity is only one part of the solution. The attainment of food security involves eliminating current hunger facing hundreds of millions of people today, and reducing the risks of future hunger.
This paper argues that hunger is unacceptable in a world of plenty. Every effort must be taken to address both the symptoms and causes of hunger among the 800 million people who are undernourished today. The precise number of today's hungry people who can best be helped through targeted food aid remains to be determined. Nevertheless, this paper identifies three main categories of hunger in which food aid can play a principal role in helping households attain food security.
The first category comprises people facing acute hunger-victims of conflict and natural disasters. To people such as these, survival supersedes thoughts of long-term development; there is no longer term solution without first a short-term solution. Action against acute hunger is therefore the first priority in addressing food insecurity; hungry people cannot wait for longer-term gains in productivity to resolve their problems.
Secondly, there are people with critical needs at special times of the life cycle, including the new-born, infants, and child-bearing/lactating women. Those yet to be born suffer a lack of nutrients if their mothers are themselves malnourished since the "programming" of chronic diseases among adults starts with malnutrition among women during pregnancy. If constraints at birth are compounded by a continued lack of food, the danger of mortality is great. Children who survive severe malnutrition early in their lives are likely to become disadvantaged adults prone to remain poor, food insecure, and the probable victims of future emergencies. Actions taken to address the current hunger of mothers and young children therefore have significant outcomes on food security in the longer-run.
The third group, which partly overlaps with the first two, includes people with low and variable income, limited assets, few marketable skills, deficient purchasing power, and a lack of powerful advocates-the chronically undernourished. Hunger among such people is not just a manifestation of poverty, it is also a cause of their poverty. Removing current hunger is thus the first threshold to be crossed in eradicating poverty and establishing food security.
All three forms of hunger are universal. Recent tragedies in eastern Europe and former Soviet states show that no part of the globe is immune to hunger if conditions lend themselves to massive failures in access to food and health. However, the above three categories of hunger tend to be concentrated in more remote parts of the developing world that are served by poorly-functioning markets and have low agricultural productivity, high fertility rates, and a risk of natural disaster. These are the very regions where limited economic returns tend to discourage capital investments, and which governments and donors find the most difficult to reach. The structural problems of such regions are increasingly compounded by humanitarian emergencies associated with armed conflict.
Currently, most hungry people are found in Low-Income Food Deficit countries, particularly in southern and eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The latter region poses particular cause for concern, since over 40 percent of its population is chronically undernourished and it has recently faced an upsurge in conflict emergencies. As armed conflict has taken over from drought as a primary cause of famine, Africa has come to account for most of the world's refugees and internally displaced people. It is often the same people who face the chronic and/or life-cycle risks that are first and most at risk when battle is engaged.
Food aid is an essential resource for saving and sustaining life in emergencies, as well as for addressing the other forms of hunger. However, today's food aid is different from that of the past:
Given that food aid is becoming an increasingly scarce resource, its uses and targeting will need to be refined in coming years. The guiding principles of food aid must be that of reaching the people who need it most, primarily in food-deficit countries, at times when they need it most, and in ways that achieve lasting impact as well as short term help. Thus, the first claim on scarce food aid resources should be targeted actions that address the major dimensions of current hunger.
First, food aid must be available to save lives. A direct transfer of food is often essential to ensure survival-the most fundamental of human rights. Yet, saving life with food is not an end in itself. Since food security is about sustaining people, relief actions are not just momentary palliatives against starvation. For millions of people, relief is the essential first step toward sustainable food security. But this first step must be followed by actions aimed at post-crisis rehabilitation of affected households and at sustainable livelihoods. Greater attention needs to be paid to the establishment of improved preparedness mechanisms against future disasters and appropriate investments aimed at reducing vulnerability to crises.
Second, food aid must be focused on key areas of human development, particularly on addressing debilitating hunger among women and children at critical times of their lives. Individuals have special needs at certain periods of their life; most notably babies in the womb, children under the age of five, and child-bearing or lactating women. If not met, early problems of food insufficiency lead to damaged health, nutritional status, mental vigour and labour productivity. Often such damage can never be repaired. Since there is no such thing as 'retroactive' feeding, nutritional losses of today cannot easily be made up for tomorrow. Food insufficiencies must be tackled head on, complemented by efforts in areas such as nutrition, health, education, skills training, reproductive health, asset creation and income-generation. Breaking the negative cycle of inter-generational hunger by investing in people, not just in their lands or their crops, has benefits that last across generations.
What is more, food aid often reaches women and children more effectively than other kinds of assistance and supports an immediate improvement in their productivity. Feeding children through schools in poorest regions of food-deficit countries has a pay-off in addressing current hunger as well as promoting longer-term human growth and productivity. Similarly, transferring food aid directly to women places a valuable, empowering resource in the hands of the person in the household most responsible for domestic food security. Women are more likely than men to use any additional income for ensuring a better diet for their family. The potential for food aid to bring assistance directly to needy women is large. Food aid often reaches hungry women where other resources do not. Food provided as wages or incentives often reaches women in food insecure households that may be 'crowded out' of projects offering cash resources.
Third, food aid must support actions against chronic hunger in regions where food insecure households are by-passed by mainstream development initiatives and where markets are weak. Hundreds of millions of people suffering chronic undernutrition need assistance to overcome their current hunger, but in ways that allow them to become active participants in development. Deficiencies in household purchasing power and productivity can be addressed simultaneously through labour-intensive works programmes that transfer an income to food insecure households while building infrastructure or enhancing soil and water management. Thus, food aid is the ally not only of the hungry people of the world, but also of the productive activities and markets on which the hungry ultimately depend.
Targetted food aid is the premier resource for addressing the current hunger of many millions of people in food-deficit countries. But, for food aid to adequately address today's hunger, the level of targeted aid reaching hungry people needs to be enhanced and protected from fluctuations in global supply, particularly in years of high world food prices.
For victims of humanitarian crises, survival is the priority
Eradication of malnutrition would reduce children' deaths from infectious diseases by 50 per cent
The longer hunger persists, the harder it becomes to resolve
Hunger perpetuates poverty
People must survive to contribute to development
Acute hunger is increasingly found where there is political instability
Better preparedness against crises is essential in the war against hunger
Saving lives, saving livelihoods
Damage inflicted on children by hunger is often irreversible
Food aid for the needy is declining when it is needed most
Food is a preventative medicine
Shifting current food aid allocations from less-poor recipient countries to wards most needy cases (least-developed and low-income food deficit coun tries, of which there were 88 in the developing world in 1995);
Targeting a greater portion of food aid towards poorest regions of those countries, avoiding unsustainable national-level programmes.
Ensuring that food resources are effectively delivered into the hands of people who have most responsibility for household food security; typically women.
Achieving greater stability in food aid supplies, at least for interventions designed to help the most hungry, particularly in years of volatile world food prices.
|Year||World||Sub-Saharan Africa||Latin America||Asia||Other||Ex-USSR/Yugo as % of Other|
|Source: FAO Agrostat and FAO Food Outlook, Aug./Sept.1995|
|NB: This and all subsequent tables present data on cereal food aid only.|
|Non-cereal food aid has been increasing in importance over the past decades. As a percentage of food aid in cereals it grew from some 6 percent in the 1970s, approximately 8 percent in the 1980s to some 12 percent in the 1990s. To arrive at the approximate total volume of food aid, the above figures for cereal food aid might be multiplied by a factor 1.06 for the 1970s, 1.08 for the 1980s and 1.12 for the 1990s (FAO Agrostat and WFP INTERFAIS).|
|In terms of its value for most of the past food aid accounted for around 10 percent of total Official Development Assistance (WFP/CFA Food Aid Reviews).|
|*/ WFP/CFA, Review of Food Policies and Programmes, 1978/82|
|**/ WFP, Food Aid: Flows-Directions-Uses, 1987/88/89|
|***/ WFP INTERFAIS, Food Aid Flows, 1995|
|Year||All Donors||U.S.A||EU||Canada||Japan||Australia||Other Donors|
|Minimum Annual Contribution|
- FAO Agrostat and FAO Food Outlook, Aug./Sept. 1995
- Food Aid Convention 1995 and Food Aid Committee, Estimated Shipments in 1993/94
|Year||Food Aid to LIFD Countries||Share of Global Food Aid||Share of LIFD Food Imports|
|Source: FAO Agrostat and FAO Food Outlook, Aug./Sept. 1995|
|YEAR||Export Price Wht USNo2HW||Global Cereal Food Aid||Exp. Price (Y+1)/Y||Global F.Aid (Y+1)/Y||LIFD F.Aid (Y+1)/Y||Progr. F.Aid (Y+1)/Y||Multilt F.Aid (Y+1)/Y|
- FAO Agrostat and FAO Food Outlook (all data except on mulitlateral food aid)
- WFP/CFA Review of Food Aid Policies and Programmes, 1981/84/88 and WFP INTERFAIS
*/ Not included are some 20 million refugees and displaced people in countries without chronic hunger.
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Revised: March 19, 1998
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