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close this bookTechnical Guide for SMEs in the Dairy Industry (CDI, 1999, 74 p.)
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View the documentFOREWORD
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Open this folder and view contentsPART 2 - THE DAIRY
Open this folder and view contentsANNEXES
View the documentTHE CDI's ACP ANTENNAE NETWORK
View the documentTHE CDI'S EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONAL NETWORK
View the documentBACK COVER

(introduction...)

GUIDE
SERIES TECHNOLOGY NR. 13



Centre for the Development of Industry
ACP-EU

52 Avenue Herrmann Debroux
1160 BRUSSELS
BELGIUM
Tel: +322679.18.11
Fax: +32 2 675.26.03
Telex: 61427 cdi b
e-mail: director@cdi.be
internet website: www.cdi.be

This document has been established on the basis of information obtained through bibliographical research and communicated by the various bodies and companies that are the subject of this publication. Although every effort has been made to verify and update these data, the Centre cannot be held responsible for any inaccuracies or omissions in the information in question. The fact that an organisation or a company has been included in this publication does not imply any obligation for them to provide any of the services described under the corresponding heading.

Since it was formed in 1977, the Centre for the Development of Industry (CDI) has acquired substantial technical and commercial know-how in the service of the creation, development and rehabilitation of small and medium-sized enterprises in ACP countries (Africa, Caribbean and Pacific), particularly through the setting up of lasting partnerships with companies in the European Union.

With the publication of the “Practical Guides” collection, the CDI is responding to a clearly expressed need among ACP promoters and EU entrepreneurs wishing to establish industrial cooperation with these countries. The guides are aimed at allowing them to adapt to the particular technical, commercial, financial, administrative and legal environment of the different local contexts. Designed to offer concrete assistance in this task - in simple practical terms - in a specific field or on particular aspects of their activities, they are aimed above all at providing an effective tool in the service of the manager.

In preparing these guides, the CDI calls upon the services of consultants, researchers and practitioners - in the ACP countries and/or the European Union - with extensive experience of the field concerned and of the practical problems encountered by entrepreneurs, along with the solutions to be applied. When circumstances allow it, the CDI teams up with a co-publisher (consultancy, research body, specialised institution, etc.) in order to ensure that the guides have the widest possible circulation.

This guide has been prepared by two experts:

· Professor Papa El Hassan Diop, veterinarian, for the “Dairy Farming” section,
· Jean-Luc Voisin, food engineer, for the “Dairy” section.

Under the supervision of Chf TourCDI sectoral coordinator.

Coordination:

Tour./Adenaike B., CDI


Nijborg G., CDI

© 1999 CDI, Brussels, first edition.
This volume of the CDI Guides is a CDI publication.
May not be sold by persons other than the CDI and its official distributors.
Value: 20 Euro.
Reproduction permitted with mention of the source, except for commercial purposes.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

· °D

Dornic Degree

· Al

Artificial Insemination

· D

Day

· DM

Dry Matter

· DNS

Digestible Nitrogenous Substance

· FSH

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

· H

Heat

· IU

International Unit

· MFU

Milk Fodder Unit

· Na

Sodium

· PG

Prostaglandin

· PI

Pose Implant

· PMSG

Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadropin

· PP

Polypropylene

· PS

Polystyrene

· PVC

Polyvinyl chloride

· Rl

Retarit Implant

· rpm

revolutions per minute

· TDN

Total Digestible Nutrients

· UDM

Useful Dry Matter

· UHT

Ultra high temperature

FOREWORD

This brochure aims to promote the development of the dairy industry in the ACP region. It follows several missions to evaluate this industry in 1997 and 1998 at the initiative of the CDI in fifteen ACP countries (especially in East Africa and Southern Africa). It is mainly intended for company heads, farmers and/or processors operating on a small to medium scale, i.e. with processing capacities of between 1 000 and 50 000 litres of milk per day.

With a production level of 11 000 000 tonnes of milk, Africa produces only 2% of the world’s milk from a herd representing 14% of the world’s total dairy herd. This milk is intended for a young and growing population set to increase from 500 million in 1990 to 1.5 billion in 2025.

Within the last ten years, driven by the liberalisation of the economy, milk production and processing has really taken off in many countries. Around fifty new dairy companies have been created in the last few years on this continent.

The CDI has been called upon to intervene by studying new projects (feasibility), helping companies in their start-up stage, financing experts, training production managers or company heads in Europe in specific technologies and introducing quality-improvement programmes.

However, for many dairy entrepreneurs this is only the beginning of the path that they have embarked upon and many different problems are encountered in each company.

This guide is therefore designed as another stone in the edifice that is being constructed in numerous countries in the ACP region; it tackles problems relating to milk production and collection and the technological aspects of the most common dairy products in this region and offers advice on cleaning and disinfecting. Finally, a list of specialised manuals and publications is given, to enable each dairy industrialist to build up an essential library to answer the countless questions arising every day for the people working in this industry, along with useful addresses of different suppliers.

I.1. LIVESTOCK

The area of Africa is 30 000 000 km2. Stock-farming is present only in 3 000 000 km2 of forest and 15 000 000 km2 of savannah. In the latter, 8 000 000 km2 are free of tsetse flies and have a density of 17.5 head/km2, which is even higher in the high plateaux areas due to the climate and the abundant pasture. This density falls to 2.5 head/km2 in the 7 millions km2 infested with tsetse flies. These areas are unfavourable for the development of stock-farming.

African stock-farming consists of 192 180 000 cattle, 197 169 000 small ruminants, 13 815 000 camels and 3 200 000 buffaloes. The African bovine breeds fall into 3 groups:

- the taurine group
- the zebu group
- the group consisting of various crosses.

The taurine breeds are essentially trypanotolerant breeds, the most widespread of which are still the Ndama, originating from the region of Fouta Djallon in Guinea, followed by the Baoulthe Somba, the Kapsiki and the Kouri in Chad.

Zebus are in the majority, and are essentially found in the Sahel and in the savannah. We could mention in particular the Gobra zebu in Senegal, Moorish zebu in Mali and Mauritania, the Azawak zebu in Niger, Chad, and Burkina Faso, the Goudali zebu in Cameroon and the Ankolebu in East Africa (Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo), the Afrikaner breed in Southern Africa and the Boran breed in East Africa.

I.2. PRODUCTIVITY

The indigenous African breeds are not very productive: 1 to 2 kg of milk during the rainy season and 0.4 a 1 kg in the dry season, i.e. 150 to 300 kg per lactation of 200 days. The best, like the Azawak, can produce 2 to 4 kg/day, i.e. 600 to 800 kg per lactation of 250 days.

To make up for this low productivity, exotic milk-producing breeds have been introduced, mostly in East Africa and Southern Africa. The main breeds are still the Holstein, the Jersey and the Alpine Brown. The average production of this group is 6 to 15 kg/day, i.e. 1 500 to 5 000 kg per lactation of 200 to 250 days. This type of stock-farming is usually intensive.

This analysis reveals a number of constraints, the main ones being:

- the shortage of feed,
- the low genetic potential of the local breeds,
- animal health problems,
- the organisation and fluctuation of trade flows,
- the poor organisation of stock-farmers.

The problems are much more acute in West and Central Africa, whilst most countries in East and Southern Africa tend to be self-sufficient in milk.

(introduction...)

The study on the reproduction of cattle will be focused on the female.

II.1. FROM THE ZOOTECHNICAL POINT OF VIEW

The indigenous breeds reach puberty at 26 months on average, whereas it takes only 10 to 11 months for the exotic breeds. The variation factor is the feed, although a female is considered to have reached puberty when its weight is 2/3 of the weight of the adult.

The age at which cows first calve is 3 years 9 months for local breeds and 24 months for exotic breeds. The interval between calvings, an important factor in fertility and productivity, is 473 days for local breeds and 360 days for exotic breeds. This interval depends on several factors, namely:

- Return to heat: this takes an average of 45 days for milk cows, and 60 to 90 days for suckler cows;

- Average number of inseminations per impregnation: 1.25 for heifers and 2.24 for cows;

- Interval between calving and first insemination: 56 days ± 28.

Consequently, these are factors that depend on farming practice and herd maintenance, and therefore the post-calving period.

II.2. FROM THE SEXUAL POINT OF VIEW

During her genitally active period, the female experiences a number of structural modifications which occur in the same order at periodic intervals: these constitute the sexual cycle or oestrous cycle. These activities are only interrupted by gestation or certain gynaecological problems.

The length of the cycle is 21 days for cows and 20 days for heifers.

The cycle is subdivided into 3 stages:

- pro-oestrus, which corresponds to the stage of follicle growth,

- oestrus

- and post-oestrus. The follicle, which has ovulated, turns into a corpus luteum with a stage of formation, functioning and dehiscence.

The most important element for the farmer is oestrus. This is the only visible element. It is marked by the arrival of the female’s heat and, above all, acceptance of coupling. It is therefore the favourable period for artificial insemination or covering, and subsequently impregnation.

It is essential for this strategic period to be identified.

There are several identification methods:

- Direct observation by the farmer, which can be continuous for 24h/24h or discontinuous for 20 minutes an hour.

- Indirect observation with the help of markers placed either in the male (ink system) or the female (paste placed on the sacrum, which is rubbed off during coupling).

Direct observation produces better results than indirect observation, which can be misleading due to unproductive couplings.

The duration of the heat is very short for native breeds: 10 to 13 hours, whilst it is 12 to 24 hours for exotic breeds.

Signs of a cow being on heat comprise:

- A major sign is acceptance by the cow in question of coupling with one of her fellow creatures,

- secondary signs such as:

· emission of cervical mucus
· congestion of the vulva
· tonus of the uterine horn
· extreme mobility on the part of the cow

III. 1. OBJECTIVES

Controlling reproduction allows animal production to be improved and rationalised, namely:

- planning the birth of calves at favourable periods, but also planning milk production;

- limiting the periods when cows are unproductive;

- large-scale use of biotechnological tools such as artificial insemination and the transfer of embryos.

(introduction...)

Controlling reproduction is based on the use of hormones, namely progesterone and its derivatives and a reproductive substance, prostaglandin.

III.2.1. Progesterone

Progesterone is secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary, but its synthetic derivatives are 100 times more active and constitute the group of progestogens. They are used in cows that have not had cycles and can cause oestrus 2 to 3 days after the treatment is stopped. In general, these progestogens are used in conjunction with a prostaglandin 2 days before the progestogen treatment is stopped; the day on which it is stopped, a substance called PMSG is administered to the cow, which stimulates the ovarian follicle. The two most common progestogen METHODS are the vaginal coil and the subcutaneous implant.

· The vaginal coil is a coil made of a silicon elastomer impregnated with 2.3 g of progesterone, which is released continuously at regular intervals, remaining in the cow’s vagina for 12 days. The coil has a capsule containing 10 mg of oestradiol benzoate which is released on the day on which it is inserted, destroying any existing corpora lutea. It is recommended to carry out a double insemination 48 and 72 hours after removal of the coil (diagram No. 1).

· The subcutaneous implant. This contains 3 mg of Norgestomet. It is fitted underneath the skin at the base of the cow’s ear. When the implant is fitted, the cow is given an intramuscular injection of a 2 ml solution of Norgestomet and oestradiol valerate to destroy the existing corpora lutea.

The implant remains in place for 9 days and double insemination is carried out 48 hours and 72 hours after it is removed (diagram No. 2).


Diagram No. 1: Diagram showing the use of the coil


Diagram No. 2: Diagram showing use of the implant

III.2.2. Prostaglandin

This is used above all in cows with cycles, i.e. coming on heat regularly and having an active corpus luteum. Its action destroys the corpus luteum and encourages the start of a new cycle 2 to 3 days after the treatment.

A dose is injected at intervals of 11 days. It is generally after the second injection that the cow comes on heat. Insemination is then carried out 72 hours and 96 hours after the second injection.

From a practical point of view, progestogens are used to trigger off a cycle in cows with prolonged anoestrus, i.e. more than 60 days for milk-producing cows and 90 days for suckler cows, whilst prostaglandins are reserved for cows whose insemination periods it is wished to group together.

(introduction...)

Artificial insemination (Al) is a reproduction method allowing the use on a large scale of bull’s semen collected beforehand by artificial means, to impregnate females during their fertile period.

The bull producing the semen must be suitable on two levels:

- zootechnical: in terms of its genetic quality;

- health: it must be free of all legally contagious diseases.

By means of dilution and preservation techniques, especially through freezing, artificial insemination has an action that is both spatial (1 diluted ejaculate allows 300 -700 cows to be inseminated) and temporal (liquid nitrogen makes it possible to save almost indefinitely the semen of a bull that disappeared several years previously).

The semen is collected by means of an artificial vagina. It is then examined in the laboratory and diluted. The fresh semen can be kept in a refrigerator at +5°C for 2 to 3 days, whilst the semen for freezing must be diluted with glycerol.

Regardless of the type of semen, it is mostly stored in straws of 0.25 ml or 0.50 ml These straws are identified beforehand in accordance with an international nomenclature giving information on the breed, the bull’s identification number, the insemination centre, etc. The frozen straws are immersed in tanks of liquid nitrogen, where they are stored at a temperature of -196°C

From a practical point of view, a weekly check must be made of the level of liquid nitrogen in the tank. This level must not fall below 1/3 of the total volume of the tank. At a level lower than that, there is a risk of endangering the lives of the spermatozoa.

a) Method

The frozen straw must be thawed out in warm water at 35°C for 15 to 20 seconds. It is then inserted in an insemination gun called a Cassou gun. The upper part is sectioned and the whole of the gun is covered with a protective sheath. The insemination technique used is the recto-vaginal method, i.e. the gun is inserted into the vagina and the uterus with one hand whilst the other grips the cervix to ease it through the cervical folds.

Insemination is carried out 12 hours after the cow first comes on heat. Generally, the “morning-evening” rule is applied, i.e. a cow coming on heat in the morning is inseminated in the evening, whilst one coming on heat in the evening is inseminated the following morning. It should be remembered that ovulation occurs 24 hours after the cow starts to come on heat and the spermatozoid must be at the fertilisation site at least 2 hours before the ovum descends to this site.

b) Results

The results obtained with artificial insemination are very good indeed. The success rate varies from 60% to 70%, which is comparable to results with natural coupling. However, this rate can vary according to the state of health of the cow, its feeding level, the moment of insemination and the insemination technique used.

(introduction...)

Embryonic transplantation is a reproduction technique using hormonal treatment which allows numerous embryos to be produced in what is called a donor cow. These embryos are then taken out and transferred individually to another category of cows called recipient cows.

a) Advantages

· From the genetic point of view:

This technique allows the efficiency of the selection system to be improved by multiplying the number of offspring with a smaller number of mother bulls.

· From the zootechnical point of view:

- Possibility of using cows of low genetic value as recipients;

- The great advantage of making maximum use of the genetic qualities of an exceptional cow.

The different stages in embryonic transplantation are as follows:

- in the donor cow: there is

- superovulation


- and collection

- in the recipient cow, there is

- synchronisation of the heat


- and the transfer of embryos

b) Superovulation

This is a hormonal treatment based on the principle of stimulating the production of ova. The substances used are FSH, which is a hormone from the pituitary gland, PMSG, which is a hormone secreted by the endometrium of a pregnant mare.

FSH is administered twice-daily for 4 days, whilst PMSG is administered in a single dose. The cows are generally inseminated 48 hours and 72 hours after administration of the PG.


Diagram 3: General treatment applied to donor/recipient cows

Seven days after insemination, the ovaries of the cows are examined, and only cows with at least 4 corpora lutea are used for collection.

c) Collection of embryos

This is mainly done by the non-surgical method, i.e. via the cervix. A catheter is placed in the uterine horn, allowing the collecting liquid to be injected and recovered along with the embryos. The latter are examined and classified in the laboratory according to the rules of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS).

d) Synchronisation of the heat in recipient cows

This is done by means of progestogens or prostaglandins. The basic rule is that the recipient cow that is to receive the embryo must be at the same physiological stage as the donor cow, because when the embryo changes site it must find identical nutritional conditions. An asynchronism of 24 hours is tolerable.

The synchronisation must be organised so that donor and recipient come on heat at the same time.

e) Transfer of embryos

This takes place 8 days after the recipient cow comes on heat. As with collection, transfer of the embryo is essentially carried out via the cervix, with the help of a special Cassou gun. The embryo is deposited as far forward as possible in the uterine horn whose ovary has the largest corpus luteum.

f) Results

The results obtained offer a success rate of 60% to 70% for fairly experienced teams.

(introduction...)

The objective of milking is to extract the maximum amount of milk of good organoleptic and bacteriological quality. This is an extremely important stage in dairy farming because it is here that the fruit is reaped of all the work carried out upstream, i.e. genetic improvement, feed, health and habitat. There are two sorts of milking:

- milking by hand, reserved for small scale farming,

- machine milking, reserved for large herds. It has become very common and has even led to the selection of cows for their suitability for machine milking.

IV.1. ANATOMY OF THE UDDER

The udder consists of 4 independent quarters. Each quarter comprises the gland in the upper part and the teat in the lower part. The gland secretes alveolar milk (75% of total milk), which is extracted by triggering a neuro-hormonal reflex. The starting point is a local mechanical or thermal stimulus. This excitation gives rise to a discharge of oxytocin from the pituitary gland. This substance is then carried by the blood to the udder, where it causes the muscles around the alveoli to contract. This action leads to expulsion of the milk from the alveoli towards the cisterna and the teat. The internal mammary pressure increases and the udder becomes hard and the teats erect. The amount of time between excitation and the discharge of oxytocin is 25 seconds. The oxytocin act for 8 to 12 minutes. This discharge can be inhibited by stress, noise or pain.

The milk in the cisterna represents 30% of the total milk. It is extracted by a purely mechanical action.

IV.2. MILKING RULES

There are 5 basic rules:

· Milking must be carried out in calm surroundings, at the same time and in the same place if possible.

· The udder must be well prepared, i.e. washed and massaged.

· Milking must be carried out quickly in order to benefit from the action of the oxytocin.

· Milking must be complete, to optimise the useful matter in the milk. However, there is a residual rate of 15 to 20%.

· Milking conditions must be clean: animal, dairyman and milking machine.

IV.3. MILKING BY HAND

Technique for milking by hand: pressure and slight massage to bring out the milk.

- full-hand milking

- milking with the thumb

- teat pinched between fingers and thumb

(introduction...)

Machine milking uses the same principle as sucking by the calf, which alternately sucks and massages by moving its tongue.

· During the suction stage, there is a depression in the milk chamber. All around the teat there is a vacuum system. This depression causes dilation of the tissue which is drawn towards the rigid cup, leading to the opening of the sphincter and making the milk flow.

· Massage stage: this corresponds to restoring atmospheric pressure. When the sheath of the cup grips the teat, pressure is established and the milk stops flowing: this is the rest stage.

IV.4.1. Standards

- Pulse frequency: 50-60 cycles/min.

- Milking depression 38 cm of Hg = 50 Kpa = ½ bar


IV.4.2. Parts of the milking machine

These can be divided into 3 categories:

· Parts creating and directing the “vacuum”, i.e. the vacuum pump and its accessories, the switch, the regulator and the pressure gauge

· Pulsator: its role is to receive the milking vacuum and cause an alternation, putting the pulsation chamber successively in communication with the milking vacuum and atmospheric pressure

· Teat cup cluster: this is a unit comprising 4 cups, 2 short tubes per cup and 1 collector unit which is a sort of crossroads where the milk flows and the pulsation arrives separately. The volume of the collector unit is 150 - 250 ml. It is made of plastic or stainless steel.

a) Milking in the cowshed

· Installation with a milking bucket: the milk flows from the milking cluster into a container close to the animal; the container (on the ground or suspended) is connected to the vacuum system.

· Installation with milk pipeline: the milk is carried along a special pipeline towards a milk storage room. The milk pipeline may be made of stainless steel or plexiglass.

b) Milking parlours

Milking parlours are used in conjunction with the loose housing system. The milking parlour is incorporated in a milking block comprising a waiting area and a milk storage room.

The waiting area is designed to organise and facilitate access for the animals to the milking parlour, with the storage room being used to keep the milk afterwards.

Using milking parlours offers several advantages:

· The work of the dairymen is made easier by having a milking pit allowing them to work standing up at a suitable height in relation to the cows’ udders.

· It allows better control over hygiene.

· Possibility of automating certain milking operations.

There are two types of milking parlour:

· Milking parlour with fixed stalls: in this, the cow is placed in a stall and it is the dairyman who moves from one place to another. This is the most widespread method, and there are several types.

· Milking parlour with mobile stalls: for large herds. The cows are placed on a sort of mobile stand.

(introduction...)

The protocol comprises 3 stages:

- preparation of the udder
- fitting of the cups
- end of milking operation

a) Preparation of the udder

The objective is twofold: hygiene (producing milk of good bacteriological quality) and physiology (instilling a good milk ejection reflex).

Preparation consists of washing and massaging of the udder.

- Washing is by means of a solution of warm antiseptic followed by wiping to prevent dripping. It is even recommended to use an individual cloth or sponge and to wipe the udder with a disposable towel.

- Massaging is carried out at the same time as washing. Massaging in warm water constitutes the physiological preparation.

Preparation for milking is completed by extracting the first jets of milk into a jar with a black base so that any mastitis or blood in the milk can be detected and the bacteriological quality of the milk can be improved.

b) Fitting the cups

This must be done immediately after preparation. It is easy in the case of individual milking, but with batch milking the dairyman tends to do the preparation for all the cows in the batch and then to fit the cups.

c) End of milking

The main operation at the end of milking is stripping. The purpose of this is to obtain complete milking. The need for stripping is explained by the milking cups climbing up the teats, causing the obstruction of communication between the lactiferous sinus and the papillary sinus and, consequently, stopping the flow of milk, which causes creeping.

The dairyman’s hand pulls the claw downwards for about 20 seconds, whilst the other hand massages the 4 quarters.

Milking finishes with disinfection of the teats. For this, soaking is recommended, consisting in soaking each teat in a cup containing an iodine solution.

IV.4.5. Cleaning and maintenance of the milking machine

Milk is an excellent culture medium for germs; it is therefore essential to clean the milking equipment systematically after each use.

The best-known technique is to wash first in cold water and then with a solution of hot water and a detergent, followed by a rinsing with potable water.

The teat cup liners must be massaged and the regulators dusted.

The power of the pulsators must be checked once a week, together with all parts in rubber. Any cracked part must be replaced immediately.

Once a year, a specialist must check that the machine is working properly, with several surveys revealing that there is a high percentage of badly adjusted machines.

a) Cow-related incidents

· The cow retains her milk. Possible causes:

- Poor preparation of the udder
- Cow used to taking concentrate
- Cow is ill, on heat, stressed
- Preparation water too cold
- Intervals between milking too short and irregular
- Cow used to stripping (by hand or mechanically)
- Long milking, the effect of the oxytocin has worn off

· The cow is too nervous and kicks. Possible causes:

- Primiparous cow
- Painful teats
- Mastitis
- Unskilled dairyman
- Too many flies or mosquitoes disturbing her
- The cow wants more concentrate
- Pulsator out of order
- Milking dry

· Milking takes a long time. Possible causes:

- Flow of milk too slow
- Teat too long
- Sphincter closed
- Cup liner worn and too loose
- Partial vacuum level too low
- Claw in wrong position

· Cow that does not empty her 4 quarters at the same time. Possible causes:

- Teat suffering from an old mastitis
- Teat or sphincter injured
- Liner twisted in cup
- Milk tube affected
- Leak in the milk line or pulsation line
- Teat folded in the liner
- Pulsator out of order

· Cow with hard blue teats after milking. Possible causes:

- Teats too tender (primiparous cow)
- Oedema in the udder
- Milking dry
- The pulsator’s massage time is too short
- High vacuum level
- Teat cup liner worn and deformed

· Cow with hard skin on teats. Possible causes:

- Milking with a vacuum level too high and lasting too long
- Pulsator out of order
- Milking dry (over-stripping)
- Diameter of the liners does not correspond to the teats
- Milk flow too slow

· Difficult cow. Precaution:

- Let primiparous cows get used to the machine
- Do not rush cows
- Switch on and off quickly
- Attach the teat cluster from the rear, between the cow’s legs, in the milking parlour
- Use a stifle grip, hock grip or a rope around the feet
- Do not give concentrate

· Cows with 3 teats. Precaution:

- Close or fold a cup
- Close the vacuum inlet

· Cow with an udder that is too low. Precaution:

- Grasp the milk pipeline, then fit the cups one by one (the two rear teats first, then the front two)

· Cow with teats pointing outwards. Precaution:

- Milk two at a time or fold over the short milk pipelines and pulsation lines

· Milking of freshly calved cows. Precaution:

- Do not completely empty the cow during the first days of milking (risk of milk fever)

- Do not mix with the rest of the milk for at least 4 days.

b) Machine-related incidents

· The machine does not produce enough vacuum. Possible causes:

- The pump is not running fast enough (worn belt)
- Blades stuck or jammed
- interceptor cover open
- Vacuum valve open
- Pressure gauge out of order (broken)

· The machine produces too much vacuum. Possible causes:

- Regulator valve stuck
- Regulator badly fitted

· The pulsator does not work. Possible causes:

- Pulsator cracked
- Hole in the membrane
- Pulsator jammed
- Not enough vacuum

· Number of pulsations too high or too low. Possible cause:

- Pulsator out of order or poorly maintained

c) Dairyman-related incidents

Poor milking can cause mastitis (the udder is hard, red and painful, and the milk changes structure and colour).

Treatment in the event of mastitis:

- Drain the quarter well into a separate bucket. Repeat this operation several times over the course of the day. If there is no improvement, call the veterinarian.

- Take hygiene measures to prevent contamination of the other cows.

- Leave the cow with mastitis until the end of the milking.

- Disinfect the teats.

(introduction...)

Feed represents 60 to 80% of production costs on the dairy farm. Quality feeding stuffs are required to produce good milk. Consequently, the transformation of feed into milk must be as efficient as possible.

V.1. PRINCIPLES

The feed received by the cow must cover two types of needs: sustenance corresponding to a vital minimum and production requirements, i.e. gestation, growth and lactation.

V.2. NATURE OF NEEDS

There are 5 main needs, namely:

V.2.1. Energy

This constitutes the animal’s primary need. It is necessary for the functioning of the organism through the production of new milk tissues. It is achieved through carbohydrates, fats or proteins.

V.2.2. Nitrogenous substances

These are essential for the metabolism, tissue growth and the secretion of milk. They are obtained in the form of proteins.

V.2.3. Minerals

Elements such as salt, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium are essential for the formation of the skeleton and for milk production.

V.2.4. Vitamins

These contribute towards proper functioning of the cells. The animal does not synthesise them, with the exception of vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight. The importance of vitamin A is undeniable in protecting young animals from diarrhoea. Transmission is via the clostridium and the mother’s milk.

V.2.5. Water

This is involved in all nutritional exchanges. It plays a vital role in the secretion of milk and control of body temperature. It represents 70% of the animal’s weight. Adults can consume up to 100 litres of water a day.

V.3. FEEDING DAIRY CATTLE

Feeding dairy cattle depends on a knowledge of a number of factors such as the live weight of the animal, its age, its stage of gestation, its daily milk output and the food value of the fodder that the farmer has.

During the course of its reproductive life, a cow can calve 5 to 7 times and have lactation periods of 7 to 10 months followed by a rest period (drying up) of 2 months. The lactation curve passes through a maximum of 1 to 2 months after calving and falls to 10% every month until drying up.

Consequently, the farmer has to feed 3 categories of cows: cows at the start of lactation (rising production), cows in the middle of lactation (decreasing period) and cows that are drying up.


Figure 1: Lactation curves

V.3.1. Needs as regards energy and nitrogenous substances

Energy needs can be expressed in milk fodder units (UFL*) whilst needs in proteins are expressed in digestible nitrogenous substances (MAD***) in grams. Sustenance requirements are expressed by means of the following formulae:


MAD = 0.6 X live weight

As far as production needs are concerned:

0.43 UFL and 60 g DNS
are required per litre of milk

The table below summarises the daily requirements of a milk cow for both sustenance and production.

Table No. 1: Daily of dry matter (DM), UFL and MAD requirements

L of milk with 4% DM**

Cow of 500 kg

Cow of 600 kg


Kg DM

UFL

g MAD

Kg DM

UFL

g MAD

8

11-12

7.8

780

13-14

8.4

840

16

13-14

11.3

1,620

15-16

11.9

1,320

24

15-16

14.7

1,740

17-18

15.3

1,800

32

18-19

18.1

2,220

20-21

18.8

2,280

* UFL (Unitourrag Lait) as used by INRA/FRANCE
** Dry Matter
*** MAD = Matis Azot Digestible as used by INRA/FRANCE

However, there are other ways of measuring energy, such as TDN (Total Digestible Nutrients) and starch equivalents.

V.3.2. Diet

The milk cow’s diet comprises:


a basic diet preferably in the form of fodder (greenstuff, hay) and available byproducts (harvest residues). This basic diet must meet sustenance, growth and gestation requirements and part of milk production requirements.


A supplementary diet comprising balanced concentrates either bought in or produced on the farm. These are agro-industrial by-products (cake made of groundnut, cotton, palm-kernel, rice bran, wheat, molasses, pulp, etc.).

In practical terms,

· For cows at the start of lactation, the energy concentration of the diet must be gradually increased by giving 8 to 12 kg of concentrate a day.

· In the middle of lactation: the quantities of concentrates must be rectified, reduced to 4 to 5 kg a day.

· For dried-up cows: the diet must cover sustenance requirements plus production requirements for 5 litres of milk a day for the first month.

· During the second month, the diet must cover sustenance requirements plus production requirements for 10 litres of milk a day.

Whatever the cow’s output, she must have a mineral supplement with added vitamins to correct the basic diet.

V.4. FEEDING COWS IN FIRST LACTATION

It is noticed that after calving, cows are lighter and have a smaller appetite than adult cows, even though they have growth needs; they must put on 50 to 60 kg after calving at the age of 2 years and 20-30 kg after calving at the age of 3. To take these two phenomena into account, the diet must be increased by the equivalent of 6 kg of milk if calving takes place at 2 years of age and 3 kg of milk if calving is at the age of 3.

V.5. FEEDING BULLS FOR SERVICE

In general, bulls for service are delivered to farmers during the full growing stage. On average, a young bull of 400 kg with an average daily weight gain of 500 g must receive:

- 30 kg of greenstuff
- 4 kg of hay
- 3 kg of concentrate

When the bull is in full sexual activity, the diet must be increased by 30 to 50%.

(introduction...)

The choice of species and varieties depends on several factors such as climatic conditions, the type of soil, the fodder storage system and water requirements. There are essentially two categories of fodder crops:

- grasses: maize, sorghum, oats, barley. Ray grass, Pannicum and Pennisetum melinis,

- legumes: lucerne, Stylosanthes and beans

The amount of fodder stored must take account of both the need to feed the animals all year round and the fact that 60% of fodder crops are produced in less than 3 months.

After the harvest, the fodder can be stored either in the form of hay or as silage.

a) Hay

Hay is a dried fodder, but its quality can be assessed:

- by sight, by its green colour and the presence of leaves,
- by smell,
- by touch: the hay must be flexible.

The reaping period is:

- for grasses, when they are in the ear,
- for legumes, at the start of flowering.

The dried hay must retain 80-85% of dry matter. This stage is reached when sap cannot be drawn from the stems by pressing with the fingernails.

b) Ensilage

This is a fermentation process consisting in storing green fodder while it is wet. The fodder is cut when young for good digestibility and a good DNS content. The cutting period is the same for hay. The fodder is stored away from the air in silos, of which there are various kinds.

(introduction...)

The accommodation must provide relaxing conditions for the cow and comfortable working conditions for the farmer.

VI.1. BASIC DESIGN

Temperature

A comfortable temperature, for imported cows especially, is between -5 and +25°C; relative humidity should be between 60 and 80% and the air flow less than 1 m/sec. There should be sufficient ventilation to eliminate harmful gases.

VI.2. STALL-BARN SYSTEM

In this principle, the cow is tethered. There are two types of stall:

- the long stall, where the length is greater than that of the cow; it has been abandoned now;

- the short stall, where the length is slightly less than that of the cow. It is used for large units. There are several tethering systems (American, Dutch, etc.). In this system, the excrement is removed to a platform, usually automatically.

VI.3. LOOSE-HOUSING SYSTEM

This has several advantages, namely:

- It is easier to monitor cows coming on heat
- Reduction in the frequency of foot and mammary diseases
- Flexibility in follow-up.

In practice, there are 3 different areas:

- an area with straw for resting or sleeping: 4 to 5 m2/cow
- an exercise area: of concrete or hard-packed earth: 5 m2/calf
- a feeding area: of concrete: 2 m2/cow

There is also a loose-housing system with compartments. Here, the sleeping area is divided up into individual sections or compartments.

CONCLUSION

In practice, dairy farming is a delicate process. The cow and the feed are the major elements. In effect, the cow only yields what you put into her.

The best exotic dairy cow, if poorly fed, will produce a quantity of milk comparable to that from indigenous breeds. A good diet is required, adapted to the cow’s output.

Dairy-farming policy is synonymous with genetic improvement programme, where the biotechnological tools have a select place.

Finally, a close watch must be kept on the cow’s environment, since the slightest disturbance acts as an inhibiting factor on milk secretion.

I.1.1. Payment by density

The density is always measured with temperature correction using an abacus; densities are expressed in g/l at 20°C.

Payment by density can be done in two ways:

· Reduction or increase in the quantity delivered; e.g. if the basis is 1028 a producer delivering 50 litres of milk at 1024 will only be paid 50 X 1024/1028 = 49.8 l.

· Penalty or bonus on the basic price.

Price = basic price base X D density of the milk.

I.1.2. Payment by composition (Fat and Protein)

Generally speaking, the price paid to producers according to the composition of the milk is the result of the application of a so-called “differential” calculation method expressed by the formula:

P = Po + X.DTB + Y. DATP

in which:

P

Is the price of milk paid to each producer for a litre or a kilogram;

Po

Is the basic price determined in accordance with the technical (fat and protein content) and economic data relating to the administrative region, part of the region or collection area of the establishment;

X

Is the nominal value of the differential gram of fat;

Y

Is the nominal value of the differential gram of protein;

DTB

Is the difference between the average fat content of the milk delivered by the producer and the content used to fix the Po price;

DTP

Is the difference between the average protein content of the milk delivered by the producer and the content used to fix the Po price.

Others pay for the useful dry matter by using a so-called “unit” method instead of the “differential”. All the useful fat has the same value, in effect, unlike the differential system. The unit method, although little used in fact, is expressed as follows:

P = X.TB + Y.TP

In the case of payment by useful dry matter, the unit values (X and Y) given to the fat and protein are the same: X = Y.

Normally, for each producer, the fat and protein content used for payment of the milk is equal to the average of the rates observed in the samples of milk taken during the month, after these rates have been weighted in accordance with the quantities of milk delivered on the day of sampling (3 samplings a month).

Unlike payment by fat content, which was fairly widespread, payment for milk by protein content is more difficult to apply in view of the analytical equipment that it requires.

I.1.3. Payment by quality of the milk

At the end of the month, the milk delivered by the producers is placed in three categories (A, B and C) according to the marks obtained during the month for all the checks, which take account of the microbe level in the milk. The marks are awarded on the basis of the following scale:

- 1: milk containing over 200 000 germs/ml;
- 2: milk containing between 100 000 and 200 000 germs/ml;
- 3: milk containing less than 100 000 germs/ml.

Comment: payment by quality generally also takes account of:

· the cell level (average of three samples a month):

3

< 300 000 cells/ml

2

300 to 450 000 cells/ml

1

> 450 000 cells/ml

· Presence of inhibitors: no payment for the collection concerned.

a) Mixing in the collecting tanks of refrigerated milk and milk in non-refrigerated churns

On collection, for two and sometimes four milkings, milk in churns is often mixed with refrigerated milk in tanks. This is a major cause of poor quality milk in the tanks.

Non-refrigerated milk or milk cooled only to a temperature of over 4°C must be collected every day.

b) Adding milk of very poor bacteriological quality to the milk-collection tank

It has been amply demonstrated that the poor quality of milk in tanks is often a result of small quantities of milk of very poor quality being added.

Separating good and poor quality milk on collection, by means of different tanks or tanks with two compartments, is very useful to avoid mixing the milk.

c) Length of collection rounds

When the collection tanks are properly cleaned and disinfected, virtually no microbial multiplication is observed during transport in the case of rounds not exceeding two hours.

The generalised use of thermally insulated tanks does not seem to be indispensable, given the cost of insulating them, provided that the rounds do not exceed two hours. However, it is recommended to insulate the trailers used at times of high production during the hot season if they remain stationary in summer before being taken to the dairy.

I.2.2.1. Cooling

a) Purpose and bacteriological aspects of cooling

The purpose of cooling is to maintain the initial quality of the milk until it is used or processed. In no way, therefore, can it improve the quality of milk collected in mediocre conditions.

It is necessary to cool quickly to a temperature of less than 15°C to prevent the development of mesophilic acidifying bacteria.

In practice, it is recommended to cool the milk to 12°C less than an hour after milking. In this way, one can avoid a multiplication to more than 100 times the initial number of germs and remain at 10 000 germs/ml at the farm; 1 000 000 germs/ml at the factory. Cooling must start right after milking; it is even more effective if the milk has few germs. The length of time between collection and utilisation of the milk must be taken into consideration; the longer this is, the more energetic the cooling must be.

b) Technical aspects

There are numerous types of equipment on the market, so it is easy to find one suitable for the particular operating conditions concerned. The choice usually depends on economic conditions: price, water availability, electrical installation, payment of milk by quality, etc.


Cooling in running water is generally the only method on small farms. For this to be effective, fresh water (temperature around 10-15°C) must be available in sufficient quantities, something that is difficult to come across in most countries in the ACP area.


Artificial cooling is used in various types of equipment:

- cooling in the churn:

· Immersion tank cooled directly by a cooling hose;

· Spraying of chilled water by means of a spray unit placed between the churns, with a collar attached to each churn, or a sprinkler. The water can come from an adjoining refrigerator; after use, it is collected by a pump and returned to the coolant;

· Formation of milk ice: part of the milk is frozen in blocks of 5 kg between two milkings; one block is added to 15 litres of warm milk;

· Cold store (cooling is very slow);

· Immersible cooler.

- cooling in bulk:

· Running water cooler;

· Chilled tank.

The advantage of artificial refrigeration is that it safely allows just one collection a day to be made or, in very favourable conditions, even a collection every other day. Reducing the frequency of an expensive operation is to the advantage of the dairy and, ultimately, the producer too. Usually it is at the prompting of the milk factory that the practice of cooling milk becomes more widespread.

The chilled tank is the most commonly used equipment in the bulk milk collection system. The more sophisticated models consist of a stainless steel tank with double walls between which the coolant flows. These tanks range from 200 to several thousand litres.

Milk stored in a tank must be of very good bacteriological quality when it is obtained; cooling must quickly bring the temperature of the milk down to less than 4°C; the tank and its accessories must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. The proliferation of psychrophilic germs is to be feared, generating bad smells during prolonged storage, if these rules are not observed.

Case of collective coolers: in regions where individual production is low, where the producer cannot equip himself with a cooling system, it may be advantageous to set up a centre to gather milk together in an inhabited area (milk brought in); the centre can also be supplied by a double collection in a small zone.

I.2.2.2. Collection

a) General conditions

It is preferable for transport to be carried out on the responsibility of the processor. The independent transport operator does not have the same interest in the quality of the goods; for him, it is the quantity that counts above all. The collection equipment must be appropriate for this purpose and the personnel aware of the care required when handling and transporting milk. They must be able to recognise defective supplies by their appearance and smell and have the authority to refuse milk of poor quality.

Collection must be regarded as a “race against time”, especially with the conventional method. The organisation of rounds is a delicate business. The duration of the transport process must be as short as possible. But it is essential to take account of certain practical necessities: not all the milk collection rounds can reach the factory unloading bay at the same time; they must follow each other according to the collection diagram.

Milk must never leave the coolest building on the farm until it is taken over by the transport operator. Leaving milk at the roadside is a practice that should be banned.

b) Collection in churns

This is a classic method, with churns generally containing between 20 and 40 litres. They are made of either aluminium or plastic (lighter); the aluminium churn is the most widespread but its main drawback is corrosion by acidic or chlorinated detergents.

Collection in churns has the advantage of allowing the individualisation of supplies until reception. For the producer it is a favourable factor. Inspection and weighing of the milk are carried out at the factory, which facilitates sampling for payment by quality. The milk can be sorted. It is worth keeping evening milk and morning milk separate.

It is preferable for the factory to have its own churns and to carry out the cleaning in a machine, which successively rinses, washes in a very hot detergent solution (75°C) and sterilises with steam.

Returning by-products to the farm in milk churns is a dangerous practice.

Transport in churns has several serious disadvantages:

- heavy weight of the containers;

- upkeep of a host of containers requiring a repair shop and a large and expensive washing machine.

- practical impossibility of refrigerated transport. During a round of 3 to 6 hours, milk that has been well cooled by the producer and other milk quickly end up at the same temperature.

c) Collection in tanks:

The most rational collection method is that using a cooled tank at the farm and a cooled or refrigerated tank on the collection lorry.

Lorries carry up to 18 000 litres of milk. This method requires a certain uniformity of milk supplies, because it makes sorting difficult. It is only profitable with fairly high production on each farm.

I.3.1. Information for farmers

There are several aspects to be developed by the company as regards information for milk producers:

· Results of inspections for payment of the milk

· Information on the quality of the milk collected

· Information on milk purchasing policy, company results ® cooperative system

· Information on and training in improving milk production

· Introducing a quality challenge for producers and a quality assurance system for milk production

· Information and services on various retrocessions.

I.3.2. Farm liaison agent

Employed by the company, this agent has the task of monitoring milk producers and providing them with assistance and information so as to improve the quality of the milk delivered and to maintain relations between the company and milk producers;

The position of farm liaison agent is very varied and calls for good diplomatic, technical and legal qualities, whilst gaining the respect of the partners in the sector, producers and other internal factory departments.

II.1.1. Raw milk

In Africa, milk is often sold directly to the consumer without any form of treatment. Untreated milk does not undergo any standardisation or heat treatment and must not contain any chemical preservative. Most of the time, it is produced directly at the farm or after filtration. It is packaged and brought down to 4°C; Use-by date = 2 days.

II.1.2. Pasteurised milk

Pasteurisation is a heat treatment that is capable of destroying the agent that transmits tuberculosis (Koch bacillus). It is done by means of equipment with plates or tubes.

In practice, the treatment is carried out at a temperature much higher than that required to destroy the Koch bacillus: 75°C - 85°C for a time of between 15 and 30 seconds. It can be checked that this degree of heat treatment has been attained by looking for an enzyme: phosphatase (destroyed at that temperature).

The storage life between packaging and consumption is seven days maximum at +4°C.

Manufacturing process (see plate 1).

II.1.3. Sterilised milk

This is a processed milk - sterilised after packaging in a hermetically sealed container, made impervious to liquids and microorganisms by heat, which destroys enzymes and pathogenic microorganisms. Sterilisation is carried out at a temperature of 120°C for about twenty minutes. More and more, milk undergoes bulk pre-sterilisation (142°C for 2 seconds) to reduce the sterilisation treatment (117°C for 5 minutes) and thus avoid browning. Containers used: glass or polyethylene bottle, aluminium lined bag, metal can.

Manufacturing process (see plate 1).

II.1.4. UHT milk

This is a heat-treated milk, to destroy enzymes and pathogenic microorganisms. The milk is then packaged aseptically in a sterile, hermetically sealed container impervious to liquids and microorganisms (“tetra brik” type container or multilayer plastic bag).

The heat treatment can be either direct (steam injection) or indirect. It is carried out at 135°C - 150°C for about 2 to 5 seconds.

Manufacturing process (see plate 1).


Plate 1: manufacture and inspection of different milks

II.2.1. Fermented milks

Fermented milks are certainly the most widespread milk products in the world; one only has to mention the many different names that they are given in each region: Skyr in Iceland, Naja or Naya and Mladost in Bulgaria, Miciurata in Yugoslavia, Zivda or Zivdah in Israel. In Turkey, they have Eyran, a sort of diluted yoghurt. In the Middle East, they eat Zabady and Leben (or Labban), which is obtained by churning acidified milk. There are also alcoholic fermented acidified milks (Koumiss and Kefir) in Russia. In Eastern Europe, there is Karmdinska in Poland and Biokys in Czechoslovakia. In the United States, as well as yoghurt, there is another type of fermented milk that is very popular. Cultured Buttermilk which, unlike its name suggests, is not produced from buttermilk but from skimmed milk.

In Asia we find Iranian Dough and Indian Dahi (or Dadhi).

In Africa they have fermented or curdled milk going under different traditional or commercial names such as Lacto in Zimbabwe, Mala in Kenya or Leito Dormido in Cape Verde. It is appreciated above all for its digestive qualities, its price and the fact that it keeps better than pasteurised milk.

II.2.2.1. Definition (by the international club of yoghurt manufacturers)

“Yoghurt or yogurt is a fermented milk obtained by multiplication in the milk of two associated specific lactic bacteria: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These lactic bacteria are cultivated on previously pasteurised milk, in order to eliminate most if not all of the pre-existing microbial flora. After fermentation, the yoghurt is cooled to a temperature of between 1°C and 10°C, to the exclusion of any other heat treatment. It is then ready to be consumed”.

II.2.2.2. Technology

There are two types of yoghurt:

· Traditional or set or incubated yoghurts which ferment in pots, (often plain and flavoured yoghurts).

· Stirred yoghurts plus liquids, which ferment in a vat before being packed in containers, (plain yoghurt with fruit). There are several stages in the manufacture of yoghurt:

a) Preparation and treatment of the milk

To increase the dry extract of the milk, one can either add milk powder (2% to 3%) or concentrate the milk to reach a final skimmed dry extract of about 12%.

The enriched milk is then pasteurised at 90-95°C (held for 3 to 5 minutes) or sterilised (a few seconds at 135-140°C); during the pasteurisation process, the milk is homogenised (250 atmospheres at 85-90°C) in order to stabilise the fat. For low-fat yoghurts, the milk can also be homogenised two or three times, which improves its consistency (effect on the casein).

b) Development of fermentation

This stage consists of the sowing and incubation phase.

Sowing is the inoculation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in a Strepto/Lacto ratio of 1.2 to 2/1 (for plain yoghurt) or even up to 10/1 for yoghurts with fruit. The minimum sowing required varies according to the vitality of the cultures, from 0.5% to 1%, up to a maximum of 5-7%. It is essential not to exceed these values because otherwise the amount of lactic acid and curdled milk may be too great (risk of grainy texture) and acidification may be too quick.

It is after sowing that the particular technologies differ for sweated yoghurts and stirred yoghurts. In the case of traditional yoghurts, the mixture of milk/bacteria is drawn off and packed in pots (it is when the mixture is drawn off that the fruit and sugar is added in the case of flavoured yoghurts) which are sweated (in hot air) where the acidity develops. In the case of stirred yoghurts, the cultured milk is acidified in vats.

The incubation phase corresponds to the development of acidity in the yoghurt; it depends on two factors: temperature and duration; a temperature is chosen close to the optimum temperature for the development of Streptococcus thermophilus, i.e. 42-45°C rather than a temperature close to the optimum for Lactobacillus bulgaricus (47-50°C), because it is preferable for the Streptococci to trigger off the lactic fermentation.

c) Stopping fermentation

When the acidity reaches a certain level (70-80°D in the case of sweated yoghurts, 100-120°D in the case of stirred yoghurts), it is necessary to stop acidification by inhibiting the development of lactic bacteria by cooling. This cooling phase is carried out in ventilated cold rooms or cooling tunnels before being stored in a cold store at +2/+4°C for sweated yoghurts, whilst stirred yoghurts are cooled by passing over exchangers-coolers with plates, tubes or even a grooved surface.

d) Packing:

This is the final manufacturing stage. The yoghurts are generally packed in plastic pots with a heat-sealed aluminium closure. For small production speeds (less than 5000 pots an hour), the packing machines use pre-formed pots (PS or PP) whilst for high-speed production the machines are of the “form, fill and seal” type using PVC type film.

e) Stirring of stirred yoghurts

This stirring is what makes the product unctuous; it is carried out by the lamellation technique (passing gel through a filter or sieve), by mechanical agitation (screw or turbine agitator), or by homogenisation at low pressure (less than 50 bars) for drinking yoghurt because the product is more liquid with this technique.


Plate 2: Yoghurt manufacture

II.3.1. Fresh cheeses

In all countries of the world, “fresh cheese” accounts for a significant proportion of cheese uses of milk. These cheeses:

· Moulded fresh cheese, where the curd keeps its individuality in the block or grain state (cheese basket or country type);

· Fresh cheese with a homogenous structure:

- with a low dry extract content and an oily texture, like beaten or smoothed fresh cheese,

- with a higher dry extract content and a spreadable texture like “petits suisses”

It is possible to include in this classification various products manufactured in other regions of the world:

· Quark or Tworog in Western and Eastern Europe,

· Mascarpone and Ricotta in Italy,

· Baker’s Cheese, Neufchatel Cheese and, above all, Cottage Cheese in the Anglo-Saxon countries,

· Labneh in the Middle East (based on thermophilic ferments).

Fresh cheeses have developed substantially over the last twenty years in new countries but also in those countries which traditionally produce them: in Germany, for example, annual per capita consumption rose from 4.4 kg in 1970 to 6.6 kg in 1986; in France over the same period, consumption increased from 3.5 to 5.7 kg, and was 8 kg in 1996, an annual increase of 3.5%.

This worldwide development can be explained by a combination of a number of favourable factors:

- high nutritional aspect as a protein concentrate;

- high hygienic quality: firstly, because of the design of the production and packaging lines and, secondly, due to the positive role played by the lactic species contained in the cheese;

- varied and inexpensive packaging, ranging from the individual portion to the drum of several kg;

- high yield in terms of the milk used: the new techniques (thermo-quark process, ultra-filtration) produce a whey with a low protein content;

- simple process, generally continuous and requiring little labour,

- possibility of manufacture not only from natural milk but also, for countries with an insufficient milk production, from milk powder and butter oil;

- general development of cold chains in the distribution trade;

- lends itself to ranges of products in small portions: with fruit, jam, herbs; culinary preparations (sauces, pastries); processed cheese; use of individual portions rapidly developing;

- development and dynamism of major national and international brands.

II.3.2. Moulded and smoothed fresh cheeses


Plate 3: Fresh cheeses

II.3.3. Pressed cheeses

Pressed cheeses are quick-curdling cheeses (2 hours), where draining is accelerated by mechanical and thermal action.

a) Maturation: the milk is put into a vat, heated to 32-35°C and then sown with 0.2% to 1% of lactic bacteria. The maturation period depends on the initial acidity of the milk. Pressed cheeses can be manufactured using pasteurised milk (72°C -20 s) or heat-treated milk (63°C - 20 s). Maturation will then be 1 hour at 32°C, sown with 1% acidifying mesophilic bacteria.

b) Rennet is added at the same temperature as maturation, at the rate of 30 ml per 100 litres of milk (force 1/10 000). 20 to 100 minutes is sufficient for the curds to reach the requisite consistency. The setting time is about 10 to 15 minutes and the hardening time 5 to 10 minutes. The higher the acidity and the temperature of the milk when the rennet is added, the shorter the coagulation time.

c) Working in the vat: this makes it possible to separate the whey from the curds and consists of four stages:

- Breaking up of curds: the finer the grain, the drier the cheese.

- Stirring for 5 to 10 minutes: this makes the grain size uniform. For milks that are too acidic, whey is removed to make the cheese softer (10% to 20% of the whey is replaced by 5% to 15% pasteurised water).

- A slight heating by stirring, to make the grain firmer if it is too soft. (34-35°C for uncooked cheeses, 39°C for semi-cooked cheeses and more for cooked cheeses).

- Pressing in whey to facilitate the binding of the grains.

d) Moulding: to make moulding easier, as much whey as possible is removed. The curds are placed in moulds with a cloth and covered with a lid.

e) Pressing: this takes place in the manufacturing room, and three parameters must be met to make this stage successful: the ambient temperature at 18-20°C, the weight put on the cheese and the duration of pressing (from 4 to 12 hours); the longer the pressing, the drier the cheese will be. After 15-20 minutes, the cheeses are turned over to give them a regular shape. When pressing has been completed, draining continues in the mould for 12 hours. When the pH is between 5 and 5.5, the cheeses can then be removed from the moulds.

f) Salting: this can be done either by adding salt directly (1% to 2%) or by soaking for 6 to 24 hours in brine. The brine is prepared from boiled water saturated with salt and possibly acidified by adding boiled whey. During soaking, the brine is kept at a temperature of 12 to 15°C and an acidity of 35 to 40° Dornic. The salting can be completed by spraying with mould to encourage the develop of the rind.

g) Drying and ripening: drying is usually carried out in the ripening room, at a temperature of 12-14°C and a hygrometry of 98%.


Plate 4: Pressed cheese technology

II.4.1.1. The different creams

· Light cream: minimum milkfat content of 12% to be mentioned on the packaging, pasteurised or sterilised, ideal for tea or coffee.

· Normal cream: minimum milkfat content of 30%, used in cooking or pastries. Untreated or pasteurised, cream is sown with lactic or aromatic bacteria which produce diacetyl and viscosity; acidity is 80-100° D in the non-fatty stage. The addition of sucrose (<15%) is possible. Stabilisers (carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium carragheenate and sodium alginate) are permitted in sterilised cream only.

· Pressurised cream comes in airtight containers containing pure nitrogen protoxide (for foaming and preservation of the cream). One can add a stabiliser, gelatine in a maximum dose of 0.1%, or carboxymethyl cellulose (stabiliser and thickener) in a dose of 1 g/kg.

· Whipped cream is expanded by incorporating air (expansion rate <3.5). Matured creams are not suitable for whipping. One can add: sucrose, lactic acid bacteria, aromatics, spices, natural flavouring substances, fruit, fruit pulp or juice, honey, cocoa, chocolate, permitted colorants, stabilisers (<1% max.) or milk proteins (<3%).

· Chantilly cream is a whipped cream with a minimum of 15% sugar, to which natural flavouring substances may be added.

· Fresh cream or fresh light cream is a pasteurised cream packaged less than 24 hours after pasteurisation.

II.4.1.2. Microbiological criteria

Untreated cream:

- faecal coliform bacteria/g: 100
- absence de Salmonella in 25 g
- phosphatase +

Pre-packaged pasteurised cream:

- aerobic microorganisms 30°C/g: 30 000
- coliform bacteria 30°C/g: 10
- faecal coliform bacteria/g: 1
- absence de Salmonella in 25 g
- phosphatase -
- A°D <25

Matured cream:

- coliform bacteria 30°C/g: 10
- faecal coliform bacteria/g: 1
- absence de Salmonella in 25 g
- phosphatase -
- A°D > 40

Sterilised cream:

> must remain stable until the best before date.

· Use-by date 7 days for untreated creams, 30 days for pasteurised creams

· Best before date 4 months for UHT sterilised creams, 8 months for sterilised creams.

II.4.2.1. Preparation of creams

The different treatments consist, in order, of:

a) Standardisation

This preliminary operation consists in fixing the fat content of the cream at between 35% and 40% for traditional manufacture and 40% to 45% for continuous manufacture.

b) Deacidification

This is necessary when one wants to pasteurise left-over creams whose acidity could pose problems in the heating equipment. Two techniques allow the acidity level of the non-fat matter to be reduced by 15 to 20° Dornic: washing the cream or adding neutraliser.

c) Pasteurisation

In the case of creams of good quality, the temperatures applied are between 90°C et 95°C for 15 to 20 seconds. In the opposite case, it may be necessary to reach 105°C to 110°C in order to inactivate the microbial lipases.

d) Degassing

Very widely used in industry, this operation takes place in two stages:

· First degassing: this is carried out before pasteurisation at 70-75°C, in a depression of 70 cm of mercury in order to remove dissolved gases from the cream and thus reduce the risk of clogging up the heating equipment.

· Second degassing: carried out after the cooler section of the pasteuriser at a temperature of 90-95°C and in a depression of 40 cm of mercury in order to limit any taste of cooking from the cream after it has been heated to a high temperature. The cream is then cooled to the maturation temperature.

e) Physical maturation

After pasteurisation, the fat globules are in liquid form and physical maturation will lead to it becoming partially solidified by causing directional crystallisation of the triglycerides. The objectives, therefore, are:

- to give the butter the proper consistency in view of the variability of the composition of the butterfat,

- to ensure appropriate yields by limiting losses in the buttermilk,

- to optimise the butter-making machinery utilisation rate,

- to lower the basic moisture content of the butter to allow re-injections.

The solid fat/liquid fat ratio allows better control over the maturation of creams, as shown in the table below:


LIQUID FAT

SOLID FAT

Soft butter

85%

15% (crystals with a high melting point)

Hard butter

55%

45% (crystals with a high and a low melting point)

Butter with good spreading properties

65% to 78%

22% to 35 %

f) Biological maturation

· Conventional system: forced biological maturation (3% to 6% lactic acid bacteria) allowing pH levels of 4.7 to 4.8 to be attained. The drawback to this technique is that the product does not keep as well, with a greater risk of oxidation and the development of a metallic taste. Lowering the pH, on the other hand, makes it possible to reduce fat losses in the buttermilk.

· Improved system: moderate sowing with lactic ferments after crystallisation, completed by re-injections during mixing using lactic acid bacteria enriched with dry extract or lactic acid bacteria concentrate, so as to:

- adjust the dry non-fat matter to meet the legal standards (economic interest),

- lower the pH so that the product keeps longer,

- develop the flavour of the butter (lactic ferments rich in diacetyl).

The most commonly used strains are Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus cremoris, Leuconostoc lactis and Streptococcus diacetilactis.

II.4.2.2. Butter-making in a churn (discontinuous technique)

The traditional churning technique may seem a little outdated compared to the performances achieved from the new generations of butter-making machines, yet it does have the great advantage of being able to be adapted for small capacities (20 to 2000 litres of cream). This traditional technology is shown in figure 2 below:


Figure 2: traditional churning


Plate 5: Comparison of butter-making technologies (conventional method and NIZO method)

II.5.1.1. Preparation of the mix

Sugar syrup is mixed in with the other raw materials - milk and cream, to which is added a very small amount of stabiliser in vats with a fast agitator and a heating jacket (the mix dissolves better at 50-60°C). Before pasteurisation, the acidity may be corrected to avoid any sticking, which would be even more harmful if the product was viscous and flowed poorly through the pipes. Usually, the acidity is neutralised by adding sodium bicarbonate.

II.5.1.2. Pasteurisation

Low pasteurisation (63-66°C for 25/30 minutes in vats) or high pasteurisation, (85-90°C for a few seconds)

II.5.1.3. Homogenisation

The pasteurised mixture is then homogenised to 150/200 kg/cm2 at 65-70°C, which causes the fat globules to burst and disperse in the mass. This operation is essential to make the ice cream homogenous and to give it a good taste and better unctuosity (to promote a subsequent operation: swelling).

II.5.1.4. Cooling of the mix

The mixture is brought down to + 4°C through heat exchangers with tubes or plates or through spray coolers.

II.5.1.5. Maturing

This corresponds to storing the mix. It is done in sanitary tanks with a slow agitator at 0°C to 4°C for 4 to 6 hours (24 hours maximum). There is an increase in viscosity due to the fact that ice forms in the liquid phase and the protids are hydrated. The stabilisers are completely hydrated, swelling and maintaining the structure of the ice cream.

It is at this stage that the flavours are added.

II.5.1.6. Chilling or pre-freezing

This process has two essential functions: to solidify the mix and to bring in air to obtain the requisite swelling and texture.

Chilling is done in a freezer, which the mix moves through. It goes in at a temperature of 0-4°C and the ice cream comes out at a temperature of -2°C to -7°C (adjusted according to shaping requirements).

Chilling is a complex operation which ensures simultaneously and continuously:

- quick cooling of the mix,
- crystallisation of 30% to 70% of the water,
- homogeneous distribution of fine crystals,
- emulsion of air in the product (until the finished product is twice the volume).

II.5.2. Shaping

The ice cream, still malleable when it comes out of the freezer, is given its final shape before freezing in two different ways:

· moulding: the product is poured into metal or plastic moulds, reusable or disposable, and then extracted when it is frozen.

· direct filling of retail packages: this is what happens in the vast majority of cases (pots, cones, etc.).

II.5.3. Freezing or hardening

There are three possible methods:

· Immersion: water-tight moulds. Brine at -40°C, which is stirred vigorously to ensure that the exchange gradient between the medium and the mould is kept constant.

· Contact: this consists in squeezing the products between two hollow plates, inside which there is a partial ammonia vacuum at -40°C.

· Tunnel hardening: an insulated chamber through which a air is passed at -40°C at speeds varying from 3 to 8 m/s. A conveyor moves the freezing products from the entrance to the exit of the tunnel, 45 minutes to 4 or 5 hours depending on the volume (small pots). The quicker the operation, the quicker the temperature falls and the quicker the formation and the smaller the size of the ice crystals.

II.5.4. Ice cream lollies and choc-ices

Fully integrated lines are used, where shaping, freezing, removal from the mould and any subsequent treatment are all carried out at the same time.

The cream leaves the freezer at -2°C to -4°C and is distributed in metal moulds by a metering injector. The filled moulds move through a brine bath where freezing takes place. When the consistency is right, wooden or plastic sticks are inserted automatically by a synchronised mechanism. The pass through the brine lasts between 3 and 8 minutes.

The moulds leaving the brine are then sprayed with hot water to ensure that the article comes out cleanly. Arms with grabs then extract the frozen products and dip them into the chocolate covering if required. The finished products are then conveyed to a bagging or wrapping machine.


Plate 6: Ice cream technology

II.6.1. Fermenting agents

· Fermenting agents are used in the dairy industry to perform the following functions:

- lowering the pH (coagulation, draining),

- producing the taste (known aromatic: diacetyl),

- changing the texture and opening up the structure of cheeses (proteolysis and production of gas),

- formation of rind (maturing flora).

· There are four main groups of fermenting agents (see table 2).

Table 2: The different microorganisms used in the dairy industry

Type

Usual name

Taxonomic name

Moulds:

- Penicillium candidum

- Penicillium caseicolum


- Penicillium album

- Penicillium camenberti


- Geotrichum candidum

- Geotrichum candidum


- Fusarium solani

- Fusarium solani

Yeasts:

- Kluyveromyces lactis

- Kluyveromyces lactis


- Debaryomyces hansenii

- Debaryomyces hansenii

Flavouring and maturing ferments:

- Micrococci

- Micrococcus varians


- Red ferment

- Brevibacterium linens


- Surface ferment

- Arthrobacter globiformis

Lactic acid bacteria:

Mesophiles



- Streptococcus lactis

- Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis


- Streptococcus cremoris

- Lactococcus lactis ssp cremoris


- Streptococcus diacetylactis

- Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis var diacetylactis


- Leuconostoc cremoris

- Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp cremoris


Thermophiles:



- Bifidobacterium longum

- Bifidobacterium longum


- Lactobacillus acidophilus

- Lactobacillus acidophilus


- Streptococcus thermophilus

- Streptococcus salivarius ssp thermophilus


- Lactobacillus helveticus

- Lactobacillus helveticus


- Lactobacillus bulgaricus

- Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp bulgaricus


- Lactobacillus lactis

- Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp lactis


- Lactobacillus delbrueckii

- Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp delbrueckii.


Plate 6 Ice cream technology

II.6.2.1. Definition

a) Rennets:

These are extracts from the abomasum of young bovids fed on milk and having an active chymosin mass/active bovine pepsin mass ratio of ³ 1.38.

b) Bovine pepsin:

This is the liquid extract from the rennet stomach of adult bovines, having an active chymosin mass/active bovine pepsin mass ratio of £ 0.154.

c) Mixture of rennet and bovine pepsin:

2/2 mixture of extracts of rennet and bovine pepsin = liquid extract with an active chymosin mass/active bovine pepsin mass ratio of 0.33.

3/1 mixture = liquid extract obtained by mixing rennet extract with bovine pepsin extract having an active chymosin mass/active bovine pepsin mass ratio of 0.66.

d) Mixture of rennet and pig pepsin:

This coagulant is no longer used in cheese-making.

e) Acid proteases of fungal origin for cheese-making:

Coagulating enzymes extracted from Endothia parasitica, Mucor pusillus and Mucor Miehei can be produced and used in cheese-making, without any limits in time.

II.6.2.2. Strength of coagulating enzymes

Usually, the strength given is 1/10 000th, i.e. 520 mg of active enzymes per litre of coagulant. This means that one litre of coagulant curdles 10 000 litres of milk at 35°C in 40 minutes. Strengths of 1/75 000th and 1/150 000th (powdered rennet) are also found.

II.6.2.3. Practical conditions for adding rennet to milk

a) “Lactic coagulation” products (fresh cheese type)

Rennet is used more for the draining properties that it offers than for its coagulating action properly speaking. Low doses of rennet are therefore used (1.5 to 5 ml of rennet to 1/10 000 for 100 litres of milk) at a fairly low temperature (15-20°C).

b) “Rennet coagulation” products (Cantal, Gruy, Emmental type)

Large quantities of rennet are added to non-acidic milk (15 to 30 ml for 100 litres of milk) at a higher temperature (30 to 35°C). Curds form after 30 to 60 minutes. These curds must have highly pronounced “rennet” characteristics: flexible, elastic and compact. This allows them to withstand mechanical draining and thermal draining (as in the case of Gruy).

c) “Mixed coagulation” products (Camembert, Carre I’Est type)

A fairly large quantity of rennet is always used (15 to 25 ml for 100 litres of milk, strength 1/10 000th). Acidification is earlier than with the previous products, because the temperature applied allows optimum development of the mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (28°C to 32°C).

II.6.3. Sodium chloride: properties and utilisation in cheese-making

a) Salting of cheeses

Various methods are used to salt cheese:

· dry salting, by hand, using a sieve or a machine allowing the desired amount of salt to be fixed on the wet surface of the cheese,

· salting in brine, usually saturated. In this case, the difference in concentration between the aqueous phase of the cheese and the brine causes diffusion of the salt into the cheese and inverse migration of the aqueous phase into the brine. This is the most commonly used system in industry,

· salting in the curds before moulding for certain cheeses, such as Cantal or Cheddar,

· dissolving salt in the milk, a method used for some types craft cheeses produced in the Middle East. Use of this technique is still limited by difficulties in the coagulation of salted milk.

b) Brining

Cheese-making brine consists of water and sodium chloride. However, as it is used it gradually becomes richer in various substances brought in by the cheese (fragments of casein, soluble proteins, lactose, lactic acid, mineral salts) or the water used in the preparation of the baths, or even by the salt itself (if it is not pure), along with microbes, whether pathogenic or not.

Precise physicochemical (brine concentration, temperature, turbidity, acidity) microbiological checks must be frequently carried out.

II.6.4. Other additives

· Calcium chloride (CaCl2): added to milk for cheese-making when it arrives, for cheeses of an elastic nature. The dose is 0.1 ml (solution of 520g CaCl2/l) for 1 litre of milk, i.e. 0.05g CaCl2

· Lysozyme and potassium nitrate (KNO3): using these makes it possible to avoid butyric swelling, but they are not permitted in all countries. KNO3 is used at a dose of 10 to 50 g for 100 litres of milk. The lysozyme dose is 30 ml for 100 litres of milk; it is more expensive, however.

(introduction...)

In the ACP countries, the processing capacity of milk installations varies from 1 000 litres a day for the smallest to 50 000 for the biggest; in Europe, the average size is well over 200 000 litres a day, with the largest sometimes being over 1 million litres.

In terms of equipment, therefore, this is a constraint because it becomes difficult to find machinery suitable for small capacities; below, we examine three types of dairies able to produce 2 000 litres, 10 000 litres and 30 000 litres a day respectively; the finished products selected for each capacity are often those best suited to both the nominal capacity of the plant and to ACP markets.

These lists of equipment obviously correspond only to the investment in machinery; for an overall approach to the total investment, the following costs should be added:

· land,
· buildings,
· cost of transporting equipment and import taxes,
· cost of assembly and commissioning,
· vehicles (collecting milk and distributing finished products),
· furniture,
· small equipment,
· pre-investment expenses (feasibility study, notary’s fees, etc.),
· preliminary costs,
· initial operating costs.

To give a general idea, it can be considered that for 1 Euro invested in machinery, the total investment in the project will be 2 Euro. (1 Euro = 1.15 US$ approximately).

The choice of product(s) will depend on:

a) The quantity of milk to be processed (it should be noted that if the local raw milk supply is insufficient, it is possible to add milk powder or to diversify the range of products with traditional drinks (ginger juice, bissap juice, etc.) or fruit juices using the same heat treatment and packaging equipment as for milk.

b) The market: In most ACP countries, the market comprises a minority of consumers with a high income, to whom the dairy must offer top-of-the-range products similar to those found in Europe (cheese, pasteurised or UHT milk in brick cartons, cream, butter, fruit-flavoured yoghurt, etc.) and a large majority of consumers with low incomes, to whom it must offer products in individual portions as cheap as possible and as close as possible to their consumption habits (curdled milk in a cheap container, such as polyethylene bags of 100 to 200 ml).

c) The financial possibilities of the investor: manufacturing UHT milk calls for an initial investment about 8 times higher, for the same capacity, as pasteurised milk.

The prices indicated in this chapter reflect 1998 values which should be checked through consultations with the different respective suppliers.

III.1. Dairy of 2 000 litres a day

Nominal production capacity (2 shifts a day for 13.5 hours of actual production)

· 1000 litres of sweetened curdled milk in polyethylene bags of 200 ml

· 500 litres of stirred yoghurt (flavoured and sweetened) in plastic pots of 125 ml (with aluminium heat-sealed closure)

· 450 litres of whole pasteurised milk in plastic bags of ½ and 1 litre

No.

ITEM

Qty

EQUIPMENT

CAPACITY

Unit Price

Total in Euros

1

Milk collection






11


100

Aluminium milk churns

20 l

46

4600

12


1

Scales for churns

100 kg

3000

3000

13


10

Milking pails

20 I

15

150

2

Reception






21


2

Refrigerating tanks

2000 I

13000

26000

22


1

Pump + filter

2000 l/h

1600

1600

3

Treatment






31


1

Elect. pasteuriser

300 l/h

27000

27000

32


1

Open-bowl creamer

300 l/h

3000

3000

33


1

Homogeniser

300 l/h

15000

15000

4

Pasteurised milk






41


1

Storage tank

500 I

3000

3000

42


1

Centrifugal pump

2000 l/h

1250

1250

43


1

Bagging machine

1500/hr

24000

24000

5

Yoghurt/curdled milk






51


2

Maturation tank

1000 l

15000

30000

52


1

Yoghurt packager

700 pots/h

22000

22000

53


1

Bagging machine

ditto 43



6

Butter






61


1

Pasteuriser

20 I/batch

750

750

62


1

Electric churn

32 l

900

900

63


1

Manual moulder

250 g

1000

1000

7

Utilities






71


1

Chilled water unit

10.000 Kcal/h

9000

9000

72


1

Air compressor

30 Nm3/h

3000

3000

73


1

Generator set

40 KVA

12300

12300

74


1

Electrical equipment


12000

12000

75


1

Connecting pipes


10000

10000

76


1

Electric water heater

500 l

1500

1500

8

Additional equipment






81


1

Laboratory equipment


3000

3000

82


1

Toolkit


1500

1500

83


1

Small dairy equipment


2000

2000

84


1

Set of spare parts



10000











Total Ex-works


Euros

227 550

III.2. Dairy of 10 000 litres a day

Nominal production capacity (2 shifts a day for 13.5 hours of actual production)

· 4000 litres of pasteurised milk in glass bottles of 0.75 litre with crimped aluminium top

· 2000 litres of stirred yoghurt (flavoured and sweetened) in plastic pots of 125 ml (with aluminium heat-sealed closure)

· 2000 litres of milk processed into St Paulin type pressed cheese, 5 kg (36 cheeses/day)

· 2000 litres of milk processed into smoothed fresh cheese in plastic pots of 500 g with lid (800 pots/day)

ITEM

Qty

EQUIPMENT

CAPACITY

Unit price

Total in Euros

1

Milk collection/reception






11


1

Transport tank

1000 l

30000

30000

12


1

Milk reception unit

5000 l/h

9000

9000

13


3

Refrigerating tanks

5000 l

25000

75000

2

Treatment






21


1

Pasteuriser

2000 l/h

45000

45000

22


1

Homogeniser

2000 l/h

32000

32000

23


1

Creamer

2000 l/h

17000

17000

3

Pasteurised milk






31


1

Insulated tank + pump

5000 l

12000

12000

32


1

Bottle washer

800 b/h

15000

15000

33


1

Bottling unit

800 b/h

25000

25000

4

Pressed cheese






41


1

Manufacturing tank

1000 I

30000

30000

42


1

Pre-pressing vat


6000

6000

43


60

St Paulin moulds

5 kg

60

3600

44


1

Pneumatic press


8000

8000

45


2

Brine vat

2 m3

3000

3000

46


1

Vacuum packager


10000

10000

47


1

Air-conditioning unit


15000

15000

5

Fresh cheese






51


1

Manufacturing tank

2000 I

12000

12000

52


1

Transfer pump

1000 l/h

3000

3000

53


80

Curd bags

50 l

50

4000

54


2

Drainage tables


1500

3000

55


1

Smoother

300 l/h

10000

10000

56


1

Cream mixer

300 l

12000

12000

57


1

Semi-automatic filler

600 pots/hr

15000

15000

6

Utilities & add. equip.






61


1

Chilled water unit


40000

40000

62


1

Air compressor

100 Nm3/h

10000

10000

63


1

Generator set

200 KVA

30000

30000

64


1

Steam boiler

1 T/h

40000

40000

65


1

Electrical equipment


40000

40000

66


1

Connecting pipes


35000

35000

67


1

Cleaning unit


50000

50000

68


1

Set of spare parts



30000

69


1

Laboratory equipment


10000

10000




TOTAL EX-WORKS


Euro

679 600

III.3. Dairy of 30 000 litres a day

Nominal production capacity (2 shifts a day for 13.5 hours of actual production)

· 29 000 litres of standardised UHT milk with 3% fat, presented in plastic bags of ½ litre (5-layer type film for long preservation: 3 months)

· 300 kg of butter packed in slabs of 250 g (aluminised paper)

No.

ITEM

Qty

EQUIPMENT

CAPACITY

Unit price

Total in Euros

1

Milk reception






11


1

Churn weighing unit

500 ch/hr

30000

30000

12


1

Exchanger/cooler

10.000 l/h

10000

10000

13


3

Insulated milk storage tank

15.000 l

23000

69000

14


1

Churn washing machine

500 ch/h

20000

20000

15


1

Pump unit

10 m3/h

3000

3000

2

Treatment






21


1

Pasteuriser

5000 l/h

65000

65000

22


1

Automatic creamer

5000 l/h

38000

38000

23


2

Insulated storage tanks

20000 I

25000

50000

24


1

Cream storage tank

1000 l

15000

15000

3

UHT milk






31


1

UHT steriliser

3000 l/h

250000

250000

32


1

Aseptic packager

5000 bags/h

370000

370000

33


1

Homogeniser

3000 l/h

55000

55000

4

Butter






41


1

Cream pasteuriser

250 l/h

35000

35000

42


1

Electric churn

300 l

12000

12000

43


1

Butter vat + trolley


3000

3000

44


1

Semi-automatic moulder

500 slabs/h

7500

7500

45


1

Moulding table


2000

2000

5

Utilities and add. equip.








1

Chilled water unit

120000 Kcal/h

50000

50000



1

Air compressor

200 Nm3/h

20000

20000



1

Generator set

300 KVA

40000

40000



1

Steam boiler

2 T/h

60000

60000



1

Water cooling tower

20 m3/h

25000

25000



1

Electrical equipment


50000

50000



1

Connecting pipes


35000

35000



1

Cleaning unit


60000

60000



1

Set of spare parts



65000



1

Laboratory equipment


15000

15000



1

Toolkit


5000

5000











TOTAL Ex-works


Euros

1 454 500

IV. 1. GOOD HYGIENE PRACTICES

Manufacturing healthy products that constantly meet bacteriological standards and preventing contamination detrimental to successful manufacture are essential objectives. Strict hygiene is the way in which to attain these objectives, which means:

- a determination on the part of the producer,

- a hygiene-oriented attitude,

- a constant effort, sometimes difficult to maintain because it is repetitive, in everyday working practices,

- a concern to ensure hygiene in every link of the chain, from milk production to selling the finished products, including all the intermediate stages.

The hygiene and quality chain:


Figure 3: Hygiene in the dairy

IV.2.1. Raw milk

Table 3: Standards applicable to the production of raw milk (maximum permitted contents per millilitre of milk)


COW’S MILK

GOAT’S MILK, EWE’S MILK


Intended for the production of heat-treated drinking milk, fermented milk, milk with added rennet, jellied milk, flavoured milk and creams

Intended for the manufacture of products “with raw milk”

Intended for the manufacture of other milk- based products

Intended for the manufacture of products “with raw milk”

Intended for the production of heat-treated milk or the manufacture of products based on heat-treated milk

Came into effect on

1/1/94

1/1/94

1/1/94

1/1/98

1/1/94

1/1/94

Content in germs per ml at 30°C

100 000

100 000

400 000

100 000

500 000

1 000 000

Content in somatic cells per ml

400 000

400 000

500 000

400 000

-

-

Staphylococcus aureus







- normal level

-

500

-

-

500

-

- tolerance for 2 samples out of 5

-

2 000

-

-

2 000

-

The residues of medicinal substances must not exceed the permitted tolerance levels.

IV.2.2. Cheeses

Table 4: Microbiological standards for cheeses (maximum permitted levels per gram of cheese)

Type of cheese

Microorganisms

Cheeses

Raw cow’s milk consumed as it is (per ml)



Hard cheeses

Other cheeses


Compulsory criteria

Monocytogenic listeria

Absence in 1 g
n = 5
c = 0

Absence in 25 g
n = 5
c = 0


Pathogenic germs

Salmonella spp

Absence in 25 g
n = 5
c = 0

Absence in 25 g
n = 5
c = 0

Type of cheese


Cheeses with raw milk and heat-treated milk

Soft cheeses from pasteurised milk

Fresh cheeses


Analytical criteria: germs revealing hygiene shortcomings

Staphylococcus aureus

m = 1 000
M = 10 000
n=5
c = 2

m = 100
M = 1 000
n = 5
c = 2

m = 10
M = 100
n = 5
c = 2

m = 100
M = 500
m = 5
c = 2


Escherichia coli

m = 10000
M = 100 000
n = 5
c = 2

m = 100
M = 1 000
n = 5
c = 2



Indicator germs

Total coliform bacteria number/ml at 30°C


m = 1 000
M = 100000
n = 5
c = 2




Total germs/ml at 30°C (21°C for pasteurised milk)




50 000

n = number of sampling units making up the sample

m = threshold value for the number of bacteria: the result is considered to be satisfactory if all the sampling units have a number of bacteria less than or equal to m

M = limit value on the number of bacteria: the result is considered to be unsatisfactory if one or more sampling units have a number of bacteria equal to or higher than M

c = number of sampling units in which the number of bacteria can be between m and M. The sample is considered to be acceptable if the other sampling units have a number of bacteria lower than or equal to m.

Compulsory criteria: If the levels given in the standards are exceeded, the products must be withdrawn from the market and declared unfit for human consumption.

· List of some trade reviews and magazines for the dairy industry

(only the most common have been selected)

Revues/magazines

Address - Tel Fax

Country

Food Marketing & Technology

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH
D-90328 Ng
Fax: +49911 2018 100
Email: ueofood@aol.com

Germany

Dairy Industry International

Wilmington House, Dartford, Kent DA2
7EF
Tel: +44 1322 277788
Fax: +44 1322276474
Email: 106111.47@compuserve.com

United Kingdom

Food Engineering International

201 King of Prussia Road,
Radnor, PA 19089
Fax: +1-610-964-4100

USA

Revue de l’Industrie Agro-alimentaire RIA

8, Citaradis. 75493 Paris cedex 10
Tel: 1 40 22 70 60
Fax: 1 40 22 70 70

France

Process Magazine

B.P 6359,35063 Rennes Cedex
Tel: 02 99 32 21 21
Fax: 02 99 32 14 17

France

Milk Industry International

Published by the National Dairymen’s
Association London
Tel: 0171 9354562
Fax: 0171 4874734

United Kingdom

Milchwissenschaft

Volkswirtschaftlicher verlag Kederbacher
stasse 50 D-81377 M
Tel: +49 89 714 1013
Fax: + 49 89 719 2753

Germany

Lebensmittelindustrie und Milchwirtschaft

Postfach 701920,
Kederbacher Strasse 50D-81377 M
Tel: +49 89 7141013
Fax: +49 89 7192753

Germany

Le Lait

Editions Elselvier
29 rue Buffon
F-75005 Paris
Tel + 33 1 47 07 11 22
Fax: + 33 1 43 36 80 93

France

La Revue Laiti Franse

Editions laitis franses
19, quai de Juillet F-14300 Caen

France

Le Producteur de Lait

Centre d’Affaires Europ 9, rue
Grandcoing F-94200 Ivry sur Seine
Tel: + 33 0 1 45 73 33 00
Fax: + 33 01 46 72 86 33

France

Latte

Tecniche Nuove Srl Via Ciro Menotti 14
I-20129 Milano
Tel: +39275701
Fax: +39276 10351

Italy

· List of some specialised manuals for the dairy industry (bibliography)

List of some manuals in French and English

TITRE/TITLE

EDITEUR/EDITOR

AUTHOR

COMMENTS

Annuaire des industries laitis

Lavoisier
11, rue Lavoisier 75384
Paris cedex 08


Professional yearbook covering the whole sector from producers and processors to distributors-dealers, trade bodies and suppliers of equipment and auxiliary raw materials in France

La fabrication du fromage de che fermier

Institut technique de
l’vage Ovin et
Caprin 149, rue de Bercy
75579 Paris

J.C. Le Jaouen


La fromagerie

Lavoisier
11, rue Lavoisier 75384
Paris cedex 08

J.L. Evette


Le fromage

Lavoisier
11, rue Lavoisier 75384
Paris cedex 08

A. Eck


Laits et produits laitiers Vol. 1

Lavoisier
11, rue Lavoisier 75384
Paris cedex 08

F.M. Luquet

Milks and the dairy sector

Laits et produits laitiers Vol. 2

Lavoisier
11, rue Lavoisier 75384
Paris cedex 08

F.M. Luquet

Milk products Processing and technologies

Laits et produits laitiers Vol. 3

Lavoisier
11, rue Lavoisier 75384
Paris cedex 08

F.M. Luquet

Quality-Energy and composition tables

La production laiti

Nathan
France

Jean Metge


L’industrie du lait

Logiques
Economiques
L’harmattan

Frans Vatin


ISO 9000

Jouve 18, rue St Denis
75001 Paris

James L. Lamprecht


Milk cooling at the farm and transport organisation

FAO, Via delle Terme
di Caracalla 00100
Rome Italy

F. Weber


Production de ferments lactiques dans I’industrie laiti

Lavoisier
11, rue Lavoisier 75384
Paris cedex 08

C. Champagne

Indispensable work for the industrialist, giving precise information and comments on the priorities to be adopted in order to obtain profitable industrial results.

Sciences du lait

Editions SEPAIC
42, rue du Louvre
75001 Paris

C. Alais

Principle of dairy techniques

Butter & cheese making

Prism press
Chalmington,
Dorchester, Dorset
UK.

V. Cheke & A. Sheppard


Cheese making Practice

Applied Science
Publishers LTD
Ripple road, Barking
Essex UK.

R. Scott

This practical guide for cheese-makers also has a theoretical part.

Cheese making-Science & technology

Lavoisier 11,
rue Lavoisier 75384
Paris cedex 08



Dairy Chemistry & Physics

Willey Interscience
Publication Nw York
USA

Pieter Walstra & Robert Jenness


Dairy Microbiology

Elsevier Science
Publishing CoGrown
House, Linton Road,
Barking, Essex I G 11
8JU UK.

R. K. Robinson


Dairy Technology in the tropics & subtropics

Pudoc Waningen88
P.O. Box 4, 6700 AA
Wageningen
Nederland

J.C. Vanden Berg


Food Hygiene, Microbiology and HACCP

Lavoisier
11, rue Lavoisier
75384 Paris cedex 08


Practical information on hygiene, food microbiology, quality assurance (HACCP) and the factory and its equipment.

HACCP User’s manual

This comprehensive manual provides specific guidance on how to implement the HACCP concept in a quality control/food processing system.

D. Corlett
Lavoisier
11, rue
Lavoisier
75384 Paris
cedex 08


Milking machines

Pergamon Press
24, rue des Ecoles
75240 Paris

F.R. Lowe
Lavoisier 11, rue Lavoisier
75384 Paris
cedex 08


Modern Dairy Technology

Elsevier Science
Publishing CoGrown
House, Linton Road,
Barking, Essex 1 G 11
8JU UK.

R.K.
Robinsonn
Lavoisier
11, rue
Lavoisier 75384 Paris
cedex 08


Modern Dairy products

Chemical Publishing
Company Inc.
New York USA

Lincoln M.
Lamport
Lavoisier
11, rue
Lavoisier
75384 Paris
cedex 08


Standard Methods for the examination of Dairy Products

American Public
Health Association
Washington D.C.

Lavoisier
11, rue
Lavoisier 75384 Paris
cedex 08


Yoghurt Science & Technology

Pergamon Press
24, rue des Ecoles
75240 Paris

A.Y.
Tamine &
R.K.
Robinson
Lavoisier
11, rue
Lavoisier 75384 Paris
cedex 08

This manual covers all aspects of yoghurt manufacture (microbiology, fermentation, nutritional and therapeutic properties, installations and equipment, hygiene and quality control.

· Some suppliers of equipment and medicines for the dairy industry

This list gives only a few suppliers with whom the CDI has already cooperated or companies which have considerable experience in the ACP region


1) Artificial insemination and embryo transfer equipment


IMV
10 rue Clnceau
BP 81
61302 L’AIGLE Cedex, France
Tel. 33 2 33 34 64 64
Fax: 33 2 33 34 11 98

ELEXPORT
4 rue des Epic
25640 Roulans France
Tel: 33 381 63 28 28
Fax: 33 381 63 23 23 23

AIR LIQUIDE DIFFUSION MATERIEL CRYOGENIQUE
Parc Gustave Eiffel
8 Rue Gutemberg Bussy Siant Georges
77607 Marne la VallCedex 3
Tel: 33 164 76 15 00
Fax: 33 164 76 16 99


2) Veterinary medicines


SANOFI
SantNutrition Animale
Z.I. de la Ballastidi
BP 126
33501 LIBOURNE Cedex, France

INTERVET INTERNATIONAL
PO Box 31
5830 AA BOXMEER, Hollande
Tel.: 31 485 58 76 00
Fax: 31 485 57 73 33


3) Semen - Embryos


BRITISH LIVESTOCK
P.O. Box 44
MK6 1AX Milton Keynes
Tel 44 1908 677 577
Fax 44 1908 692 856

VEEPRO HOLLAND
B.P. 454
6800 Al Arnhem
Tel 31 26 389 8740
Fax 31 26 389 8744

SAVENSK AVEL
NSRO S-53294 SKARA, Sweden
Tel.: 46 511 267 00
Fax: 46511 267 07

SWEDISH SEMEN
S - 631 84 ESKILSTUNA, Sweden
Tel.: 46 16 163 400
Fax: 46 16 212 18

SERSIA
25, rue du Gral Foy
75008 PARIS, France
Tel.: 33 1 44 90 38 00
Fax: 33 1 44 90 38 23

DANSIRE
UDKOERSVEJ 15 SKEJBY - DK-8200
AARHUS N, Danemark
Tel. 4586 10 90 88
Fax: 4586 10 94 13

COOPEX MONTBELIARDE
25640 Roulans - France
Tel: 33 381 63 28 27
Fax: 33 381 63 28 29
Email: export@coopex.com
Internet: http:/www.coopex.com

· Some suppliers of dairy equipment, fermenting agents and enzymes

This list gives only a few suppliers with whom the CDI has already cooperated or companies which have considerable experience in the ACP region

1) Milk refrigeration units


PACKO INOX nv
Torhoutsesteenweg 154
B-8210 Zedelgem - Belgique
Tel +32 50 20 96 21
Fax + 32 50 20 07 52

SERAP
Route de Fougs
53120 Gorron - France
Tel + 33 02 43 08 49 49
Fax + 33 02 43 08 66 19


2) Homogenisers


BERTOLI
Via Martini della Liberazione, 12
43040 Vicofertile, Parma, Italie
Tel +39 521 29 15 16
Fax + 39 521 29 37 04

STORK
Ketelstraat 2, P.O. Box 759
1000 AT Amsterdam - Hollande
Tel +31 20 634 89 11
Fax + 31 20 636 97 54
E-mail: info@stock-food-dairy.com


3) Creamers


SCREMAC
Via della Mecanica 7
36016 Thiene-Italie
Tel: +39 445 36 15 97
Fax: + 39 445 36 39 45

WESTPHALIA SEPARATOR
Werner habig Strasse 1
P.O. Box 59302, Oelde, Allemagne
Tel + 49 25 22 770
Fax + 49 25 22 77 24 88
E-mail: wesagttpc@aol.com


4) Heat treatment


ELECSTER OYJ
Sontulantie 382
P.O. Box 39, 37 801 Toijala, Finland
Tel + 358 3 541 211
Fax +358 3 541 2400
E-mail: sales@elecster.fi

ROSSI CATELLI
Via traversetolo 2/A
43100 Parma, Italie
Tel: +39 521 24 03 45
Fax: +33521 24 26 90


5) Vats


ARSOPI
P.O. Box 10
Vale de Cambra, Portugal
Tel +315 56 422 511
Fax +315 56 422 592

PIERRE GUERIN
179, Grand’ Rue, BP 12
79210 Mauze - France
Tel +33 549 26 30 58
Fax +33 549 26 34 84


6) Complete lines for dairies


ALFA LAVAL
P.O. Box 39 S-147 21 Tumba - Sweden
Tel +46 8 530 660 00
Fax +46 8 530 339 30
E-mail: soren.lundin@mail.alagri.com

APV UK Ltd
P.O. Box 4, Gatwick Road, Crawley
West Sussex, RH10 2 QB - UK
Tel +44 1293 527 777
Fax +44 1293 55 264

GEA
Dorsterner Strasse 484
44 809 Bochum, Germany
Tel +49 234 9800
Fax +49 234 980 1238
E-mail: pr@geg-ag.com

SORDI
20075 Lodi (Ml) - Viale trento Trieste, 37
Italy
Tel: +39 371 424 024/5/6/7
Fax: +39 371 424283


7) Cheese-making equipment


ALPMA
Alpenland-maschinenbau Hain & Co
83540 Rott am Inn, Allemagne
Tel +49 8039 401 0
Fax +49 8039 401 201

CHALON MEGARD
BP19, ZI
01460 Montreal la Cluse, France
Tel +33 474 76 11 55
Fax + 33 474 76 21 13


8) Fermenting agents and enzymes


CHR HANSEN
Boge All0-12
2970 Horsholm, Danemark
Tel 00 45 45 76 76 76
Fax 00 45 45 76 56 33

TEXEL
ZA de Buxis, BP 10
86220 Dangt Romain
Tel 0033549 1971 00
Fax 00 33 549 1971 10

9) Packaging and bottling machinery and equipment for dairies

See the CDI guide to packaging and bottling for fruit juices and non-carbonated drinks.


CENTRE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY

A TOOL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN ACP COUNTRIES

The Centre for the Development of Industry (CDI) is an ACP-EU institution financed by the European Development Fund (EDF) under the Lomonvention bringing together the European Union and the 71 ACP countries (Africa, Caribbean and the Pacific). Its objective is to encourage and support the creation, expansion and restructuring of industrial companies (mainly in manufacturing and agro-industry) in the ACP countries. To this effect, it promotes partnerships between ACP and European companies which may take various forms: financial, technical or commercial partnership, management contracts, licensing or franchise agreements, subcontracts, etc.

The CDI’s services are easily accessible and are subdivided into 4 facilities (see table) to support the different stages in the creation, expansion and rehabilitation of industrial companies. In this framework, the CDI intervenes free of charge by providing its own expertise or making a non-reimbursable financial contribution. The CDI does not finance the investment of the project but helps with finance search and advice on appropriate financing packages.

The requests for assistance submitted to the CDI are evaluated on the basis of the financial viability and technical feasibility of the projects and their contribution as regards the development of the country concerned. All dossiers submitted to the CDI are treated confidentially. The total amount invested in these projects, or the value of the assets in the case of existing companies, must normally be between EURO 200,000 and EURO 10 million. Smaller companies may be accepted in certain cases: pilot projects, grouping together of several companies with a view to joint assistance, priority industrial sectors, etc. By “project”, the CDI means an industrial unit or group of units in the process of being created or undergoing expansion, diversification, rehabilitation or privatisation.

_________________

CENTRE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY (ACP-EU LOME CONVENTION)
Avenue Hermann Debroux 52, B-1160 Brussels. Belgium
Tel.: +32 2 679 18 11 - Fax: +32 2 675 26 03
E-mail: director@cdi.be - Internet Website:www.cdi.be



CDI FACILITIES

THE CDI OFFERS: FOUR “FACILITIES” TO ACP PROMOTERS AS WELL AS TO DEVELOPMENT, PROMOTION AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. THESE FACILITIES AIM AT ENCOURAGING THE CREATION, EXPANSION, DIVERSIFICATION, REHABILITATION OR PRIVATISATION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN ACP COUNTRIES


FACILITY 1

FACILITY 2

FACILITY 3

FACILITY 4

TYPE OF OPERATION

Identification of company projects and potential partners
(Preliminary studies by country or by sector, business contacts)

Operations prior to implementation of the project
(Search for partners, assistance in first contact, feasibility studies, market surveys, diagnoses, expertise)

Structuring the project
(Assistance in assembling the financial and legal package, search for financing and support in contacts with financial institutions)

Project start-up and development
(Help in setting up the project, technical and start-up assistance, assistance in training, management and marketing)

BENEFICIARIES

Development, promotion and financial institutions

Promoters and/or companies in an ACP country or an European Union member country wishing to become involved individually or jointly in an industrial project in an ACP country

TYPE OF CONTRIBUTION

Advice, technical assistance and/or subsidy

AMOUNT

Case by case

Max. EURO 150,000 per project per year
(The aggregate amount of all contributions to the same project/company must not exceed EURO 300,000 and must be less than 20% of the total investment, except in the case of pilot projects.)

LIMITS OF CDI CONTRIBUTION

Maximum 50% of the total cost

Maximum 2/3 of the total cost
(Beneficiary promoters/companies must contribute at least one third of the cost.)

WHERE SHOULD REQUESTS BE SUBMITTED?

Applicants may approach the CDI directly or contact one of the correspondents in the CDI’s ACP network or one of the member institutions of the CDI’s European Union network, a list of which is available on request

HOW SHOULD REQUESTS BE PRESENTED?

Companies and promoters must clearly define the assistance they request from the CDI.
A brochure entitled “How to benefit from the CDI facilities” is also available on request. It describes in detail the way in which to present dossiers requesting assistance, a summary of which is given below.

SUBSTANCE OF THE REQUEST

In general, the information to be provided is as follows:

FACILITY 1:
Identification of industrial projects and potential partnerships

· description of the organisation presenting the proposal and, if applicable, the companies on whose behalf this identification process is being conducted,

· description of the proposed activity,

· detailed timetable for execution of the specific operations,

· detailed budget proposal.

FACILITY 2:
Operations prior to implementation of the project

· description of the company or promoter presenting a proposal, including information on their financial situation,

· description of the project under consideration,

· preliminary financing plan for the investment or development project,

· working plan covering the operations to be carried out,

· breakdown of the budget for the proposed operation.

FACILITY 3:
Structuring the project

· description of the existing company and/or investment envisaged (sector, size, financial projections, etc.),

· project feasibility study from the technical, economic and financial points of view,

· description of the proposed financial and legal structure,

· working programme and detailed budget proposal.

FACILITY 4:
Project start-up and development

· description of the company, including its financial position,

· description of the technical assistance and training,

· working programme; main assistance objectives,

· detailed budget proposal.

· Expected impact of the assistance

THE CDI's ACP ANTENNAE NETWORK

WEST AFRICA REGION

BENIN

· CENTRE DE PROMOTION ET D’ENCADREMENT
DES PETITES ET MOYENNES ENTREPRISES - CEPEPE
T: +22931 44 47/45 39
Fax: +229 31 59 50

BURKINA FASO

· MINISTE DU COMMERCE DE L’INDUSTRIE ET DE L’ARTISANAT
DIRECTION GALE DU DELOPPEMENT INDUSTRIEL - DGDI
T: +226 31 88 73/76
Fax: +226 31 88 72

CAPE VERDE

· INSTITUTO DE APOIO AO DESENVOLVIMENTO EMPRESARIAL - I.A.D.E.
T: +238 61 44 44/63 13 95
Fax: +23861 2434

COTE D’IVOIRE

· CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE ET D’INDUSTRIE DE CE D’IVOIRE - C.C.1.
T: +225 33 16 00
Fax: +225 32 39 42

· APPUI ET SERVICE AUX ENTREPRISES A.S.E.
T: +225 32 20 12/15
Fax: +225 32 20 14

GAMBIA

· MANAGEMENT ADVISORY AND SPECIALIST SERVICES MASS LTD
T: +220 49 57 70/75 70
Fax: +220 49 75 70/22 42 12

GHANA

· GHANA INVESTMENTS PROMOTION CENTRE - G.I.PC.
T: +233 21 66 51 25/29
Fax: +233 21 66 380 1

GUINEA

· OFFICE DE PROMOTION DES INVESTISSEMENTS PRIV - O.P.I.P.
T: +224 44 49 85/69 58
Fax: +224 41 31 61/4985

GUINEA - BISSAU

· DIREAO GERAL DA INDTRIA - DGI
T: +245 22 22 75
Fax: +245 20 11 71

LIBERIA

· SUBAH-BELLEH ASSOCIATES
C/O LIBERIA MISSIONARY SUPPLY COMPANY INCORPORATED
T: +231 22 15 19
Fax: +231 22 62 62

· VENTURE DEVELOPMENT INCORPORATED
T: +231 22 5229
Fax: +231 22 52 17

MALI

· CENTRE NATIONAL DE PROMOTION DES INVESTISSEMENTS - C.N.P.I
T: +223 22 80 85/22 79
Fax: +223 22 80 85

MAURITANIA

· FATION DES INDUSTRIES ET DES MINES - FIM
T +222 2 539 74/51990
Fax: +222 2 595 83

· ASSOCIATION PROFESSIONELLE PROMOTION DE LA PHE
ARTISANALE ET DU CRIT MARITIME MUTUEL EN MAURITANIE
T +222 2 460 30
Fax: +222 2 460 03

NIGER

· MINISTE DU COMMERCE ET DE L’INDUSTRIE
T: +227 72 34 67
Fax: +227 73 21 50

· AGENCE DE FINANCEMENT ET D’ENCOURAGEMENT DE LA LIBRE ENTREPRISE AU NIGER - AFELEN
T: +22774 1821/33
Fax: +227 74 18 12

NIGERIA

· NIGERIA DEVELOPMENT INDUSTRIAL BANK - N.I.D.B.
Tel.: +234 1 66 34 70/95
Fax: +234 1 26 67 33/70 74

· NEW NIGERIA DEVELOPMENT CO LTD - N.N.D.C
Tel.: +234 62 20 02 50/57
Fax: +234 62 354 82/23 07 70
+234 23 73 11/35 79

· G. ODIA AND ASSOCIATES
Tel.: +234 1 82 27 12
Fax: +234 1 266 23 15/452 10 84

· MITECS LTD
Tel.: +234 1 83 41 08
Fax: +234 1 261 44 96

SENEGAL

· FONDATION SECTEUR PRIVBR>Tel.: +221 821 00 00
Fax: +221 822 00 06

SIERRA LEONE

· AJUA CONSULTANTS LIMITED
Tel./Fax: +232 22 24 20 34
Fax: +232 22 24 46 18/9680

TOGO

· CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE D’AGRICULTURE &
D’INDUSTRIE DU TOGO - CCAI
T: +228 21 20 65/7065
Fax +228 21 47 30

CENTRAL AFRICA REGION

BURUNDI

· B.N.D.E.
T: +257 22 28 88/39 72
Fax: +257 22 37 75

CAMEROON

· BETA CONSEIL
T: +237 43 25 85
Fax: +237 43 16 91

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

· SOFIDE
T: +243 12 256 19/224 35
Fax: s/c+243 12 210 39

· C.T.E.
T: +243 12 454 99/491 75
Fax: +212 376 92 59 (via U.S.A.)

· CONGO C.T.E. S/C EARTH
T +32 81 56 88 40/69 88
Fax: +32 81 56 98 97

CONGO - BRAZZAVILLE

· B.D.E.A.C,
T +242 83 02 21/0126
Fax: +242 83 02 66

· CODIS CONSULT
T/Fax: +242 83 71 35

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

· CONSULTEC
T/Fax: +240 9 20 07

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

· C.C.I.M.A.
T: +236 61 16 68/15 76
Fax: s/c+236 61 38 37

· KODE CONSEIL, SARL
T: +236 50 15 55
Fax: +236 61 71 68

RWANDA

· ASSOCIATION DES INDUSTRIELS DU RWANDA - A.I.R.
T: +250 780 02
Fax: +250 780 02

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE

MINISTIO DE ECONOMIA E FINANS
T: +239 12 227 47/228 03
Fax: +239 12 221 82/218 43

EAST AFRICA REGION

COMORES

· BANQUE DE DELOPPEMENT DES COMORES
T: +269 73 08 18/01 54
Fax: +269 73 03 97

· ASSOCIATION POUR LA PROMOTION DU SECTEUR PRIVE - APSP
T: +269 73 03 38/39
Fax: +269 73 03 13

DJIBOUTI

· BANQUE DE DELOPPEMENT DE DJIBOUTI
T: +253 35 33 91
Fax: +253 35 50 22

ETHIOPIA

· MR ASHENAFI SHIFFERAW
T/Fax: +251 1 55 33 30

· ZEWDE & ASSOCIATES PLC
Tel./Fax: +251 1 61 53 86

KENYA

· 4M ENTERPRISES LIMITED
T: +254 2 74 49 55
Fax: +254 2 44 27 95

MADAGASCAR

· SOCID’UDE ET DE RLISATION POUR LE DELOPPEMENT INDUSTRIEL - SERDI SA
Tel.: +261 20 22 213 35
Fax: +261 20 22 296 69

· MME GENEVIE DE SAN
c/o Dgation UE
T/Fax: +261 20 22 427 37

MAURITIUS

· CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE ET D’INDUSTRIE DE MAURICE - CCIM
T: +230 208 33 01
Fax: +230 208 00 76

UGANDA

· UGANDA INVESTMENT AUTHORITY
T: +256 41 25 18 54/55
+256 41 25 15 62/66
Fax: +256 41 34 29 03

· ACE QUAUTY ASSURANCE CONSULTANTS (U) LTD
T: +256 41 25 99 68
Mob.: +256 75 75 99 66
Fax: +256 41 53 18 32/25 41 88

· MR ALFRED ODOY-ASOKA
T: +256 41 24 29 62 (office)
+256 41 54 07 20/21 (home)
Fax: +256 41 24 55 97/80

SEYCHELLES

· MINISTRY OF INDUSTRIES AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
T: +248 22 50 60
Fax: +248 22 50 86

SUDAN

· SUDAN DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
T: +249 11 47 21 58/67
Fax: +249 1147 21 48

TANZANIA

· INTERNATIONAL SERVICES & SUPPLIES LTD - ISS
T: +255 51 15 32 53/97
Fax: +255 51 15 32 97

· SMALL INDUSTRIES DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION - SIDO
T: +255 51 15 19 45/46/48
Fax: +255 51 15 19 44

· TANZANIA DEVELOPMENT FINANCE COMPANY LTD
T: +255 51 11 64 87
Fax: +255 51 11 64 18

SOUTH AFRICA REGION

ANGOLA

· MINISTIO DA INDTRIA
DIREAO NACIONAL DA INDTRIA
T: +244 2 33 70 55
Fax: +244 2 39 24 00/33 47 00

BOTSWANA

· ECONOMIC CONSULTANCIES (PTY) LTD
T: +267 31 31 31
Fax: +267 31 20 90

LESOTHO

· LESOTHO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION - LNDC
T: +266 31 59 06/20 12
Fax: +266 31 00 38

MALAWI

· INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT BANK OF MALAWI LTD - INDEBANK
T: +265 62 00 55/06 18
Fax: +265 62 33 53

MOZAMBIQUE

· INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DA INDUSTRIA LOCAL - IDIL
T: +258 1 42 21 79
Fax: +258 1 43 02 26

NAMIBIA

· NAMIBIA INVESTMENT CENTRE
T: +264 61 283 73 24
Fax: +264 61 22 02 78/25 46 00

· CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY
T: +264 61 22 20 00
Fax: +26461 336 90

SWAZILAND

· SWAZILAND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT COMPANY
T :+268 433 91/440 10
Fax: +268 456 19

ZAMBIA

· SMALL ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT BOARD - SEDB
T: +260 1 22 42 84/6188
Fax: +260 1 25 40 80/22 22 75

ZIMBABWE

· ZIMBABWE INVESTMENT CENTRE
T: +263475 7931/6
Fax: +293475 79 37/99 17

CARIBBEAN REGION (WEST INDIES)

BAHAMAS

· BAHAMAS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
T: +1 242 322 21 45/33 20
Fax: +1 242 322 4649

BARBADOS

· BARBADOS INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION - BIDC
T: +1 246 427 53 50
Fax: +1 246 426 78 02/436 14 97

· CASSE CONSULTANTS LTD.
T: +1 246 432 58 80/1
Fax: +1 246 432 58 82

BELIZE

· BELIZE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY
T: +501 2 731 48/706 68
Fax: +501 2 749 84

DOMINIQUA

· NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
T: +1 767 448 20 45
Fax: +1 767 448 58 40

GRENADA

· INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION - IDC
T: +1 473 444 10 35
Fax: +1 473 444 48 28

GUYANA

· THE PRIVATE SECTOR COMMISSION OF GUYANA LTD
T: +592 2 509 77
Fax: +592 2 509 78

HAITI

· SOCIDE GESTION ECONOMIQUE ET FINANCIE SA - SOGEFIN
T: +509 23 91 00/68
Fax: +509 23 91 68/45 83 73

JAMAICA

· JAMAICA PROMOTION CORPORATION - JAMPRO
T: +1 876 929 71 90-5T
T: +1 876 929 94 50/61
Fax: +1 876 924 96 50
Fax: +1 876 926 73 26

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

· OFICINA DEL ORDENADOR NACIONAL PARA LA CONVENCION DE LOME IV
T: +1 809 221 86 18
Fax: +1 809 221 86 17

ST CHRISTOPHER AND NEVIS

· CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY
T: +1 869 465 29 80/39 67
Fax: +1 869 465 44 go

STE LUCIA

· ST. LUCIA NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
T: +1 758 452 36 14/5
Fax: +1 758 452 18 41

ST VINCENT AND GRENADINES

· THE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION - DEVCO
T: +1 809 457 13 58/17 15
Fax: +1 809 457 28 38
T: (1)809 457 1358/457 1715
Fax: (1)809 457 2838

SURINAME

· CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY
T: +597 47 35 27/26
Fax: +597 47 47 79

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

· CARIBBEAN BUSINESS SERVICES LTD
T: +1 868 633 21 03
Fax: +1 868 633 29 89

PACIFIC REGION

FIJI

· FIJI TRADE & INVESTMENT BOARD
T +679 31 5988/30 02 95
Fax: +679 30 17 83/06 17

SALOMON ISLANDS

· MINISTRY OF COMMERCE, EMPLOYMENT & TOURISM
T: +677 262 30/218 49
Fax: +677 250 84/216 51

KIRIBATI

· MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
T: +686 210 99
Fax: +686 211 20

· DEVELOPMENT BANK OF KIRIBATI
T +686 21080/213 45
Fax: +686 212 97

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

· INVESTMENT PROMOTION AUTHORITY
T: +675 321 73 11
Fax: +675 320 22 37

SAMOA

· PACIFIC OCEANIA CONSULTANTS LIMITED
T/Fax: +685 247 81
Mob.: +685 710 94

TONGA

· TONGA DEVELOPMENT BANK
T: +676 233 33
Fax: +676 227 55

TUVALU

DEVELOPMENT BANK OF TUVALU
T./Fax: +688 208 50

VANUATU

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY, TRADE AND COMMERCE
T: +678 227 70
Fax: +678 256 40

THE CDI'S EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONAL NETWORK

GERMANY

· DEUTSCHE INVESTITIONS UND ENTWICKLUNGSGESELLSCHAFT - DEG
T: +49 221 498 63 81
FAX; +49 221 498 61 11

AUSTRIA

· FEDERAL ECONOMIC CHAMBER OF AUSTRIA
T: +43 1 50105
FAX: +43 1 5020 6255

· MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT CO-OPERATION
T: +43 153 115/4526
FAX: +43 153 85 270

BELGIUM

· ACFCI (BRUXELLES)
T: +32 2 221 04 11
FAX: +32 2 217 69 87

· ADMINISTRATION GALE DE LA COOPATION AU DELOPPEMENT - A.G.C.D.
T: +32 2 519 06 44
FAX: +32 2 519 05 44

· MINISTE DE LA RION WALLONNE - DARE
T.: +32 2 211 55 11 (43)
FAX: +32 2 211 55 37

· MINISTE DE LA RION BRUXELLES - CAPITALE. SERVICE INVESTISSEMENTS ETRANGERS
T: +32 2 513 97 00
FAX: +32 2 511 52 55

· COMITBELGE DU FORUM FRANCOPHONE DES AFFAIRES
T: +32 81 22 15 40
FAX: +32 81 22 56 13

DENMARK

· THE INDUSTRIALISATION FUND FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - IFU
T.: +45 33 14 25 75
FAX: +45 33 32 25 24

SPAIN

· CONSORCI DE PROMOCI COMERCIAL DE CATALUNYA - COPCA
T: +34 93 484 96 05
FAX: +34 93 484 96 09

· INSTITUTO ESPAL DE COMERCIO EXTERIOR - ICEX
T.: +3491 34961 00
FAX: +34 91 43161 28/8363

· SOCIEDAD PARA LA PROMOCI Y RECONVERSION INDUSTRIAL - SPRI
T.: +34 94 47 97 000 (GEN)
FAX: +34 94 47 97 023 (DIR.)

· INSTITUTO DE FOMENTO DE ANDALUCIA - IFA
T: +34 95 490 00 16
FAX: +34 95 490 63 00

· PROMOCIONES EXTERIORES DE CANARIAS - PROEXCA
T: +34 928 41 14 34/37
FAX: +34 928 41 43 04

· COMPANIA ESPALA DE FINANCIACI DEL DESARROLLO - COFIDES
T.; +34 91 562 60 08
FAX; +3491 56100 15

· INSTITUTO VALENCIANO DE LA EXPORTACI - IVEX
T: +34 96 395 20 01
FAX: +34 96 395 28 79

FINLAND

· FINNFUND
T: +358 9 348 434
FAX: +358 9 3484 3346

· MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT CO-OPERATION
T.: +358 9 1341 6208/34151
FAX: +3589 1341 6209

· MINISTRY OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY
T: +358 9 1341 6208
FAX; +358 9 1341 6209

FRANCE

· ASSEMBL DES CHAMBRES FRANISES DE COMMERCE ET D’INDUSTRIE - ACFCI
T.: +33 1 40 69 37 00
FAX: +33 1 47 20 61 28

· ASSOCIATION RIONALE POUR LE DELOPPEMENT ET LA COOPATION INDUSTRIELLE INTERNATIONALE - ADECI
T: +33 4 91 14 42 28
FAX: +33 4 91 14 42 57

· INTERCO AQUITAINE - AGENCE DE COOPATION INTERNATIONALE
T: +33 5 56 01 78 34
FAX; +33 5 56 01 78 98

· INSTITUT RIONAL DE DELOPPEMENT DE CHAMPAGNE - ARDENNE - IRCOD
T.: +33 3 26 69 24 75
FAX: +33 3 26 64 10 95

· AGENCE FRANISE DE DELOPPEMENT - AFD
T: +33 1 53 44 31 31
FAX: +33 1 44 87 99 39

· CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE ET D’INDUSTRIE DE ROUEN - CCIR
T: +33 2 35 14 37 37
FAX: +33 2 35 70 80 92

· IPAD
T: +33 2 35 98 10 00
FAX: +33 2 35 15 15 88

· MINISTE DE LA COOPATION ET DU DELOPPEMENT DARTEMENT DU DELOPPEMENT DES ENTREPRISES
T.: +33 153 69 30 00
FAX: +33 153 69 30 48

· ENTREPRISE RHE-ALPES INTERNATIONAL - ERAI
T: +33 4 72 38 33 61/70/60
FAX: +33 4 72 38 33 77

GREECE

· ORGANISATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED INDUSTRIES AND HANDICRAFTS - EOMMEX
T: +30 1 74 91 172/77 15 047
FAX: +30 1 77 15 025/74 91 146

· HELLENIC FOREIGN TRADE BOARD - HEPO
T: +30 199 50 980/82 220
FAX; +30 19961 927/50 591

IRLAND

· IRISH TRADE BOARD - ITB
T: +353 1269 50 11
FAX: +353 1269 58 20

ITALY

· ENTE REGIONALE PER LA VALORIZZAZIONE ECONOMICA DEL TERRITORIO - ERVET
T: +39 51 23 05 67
FAX: +39 51 22 23 52

· ISTITUTO NAZIONALE PER IL COMMERCIO ESTERO - ICE, UFFICIO COOPERAZIONE INDUSTRIALE
T.: +39659921
FAX: +39 6 59 926 899/900
FAX: +39 6 59 647 438

GRAND DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG

· MINISTE DES AFFAIRES RANGES, SERVICE DE LA COOPATION
T.: +352 478 23 62
FAX: +352222048

· LUX-DEVELOPMENT S.A.R.L
T: +352 29 58 58 - 1
FAX: +352 29 58 58 - 200

NETHERLANDS

· FMO NETHERLANDS DEVELOPMENT FINANCE CO., INVESTMENT PROMOTION & TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DEPT.
T.: +00 31 70 314 96 97
FAX: +00 31 70 324 61 87

PORTUGAL

· BANCO DE FOMENTO EXTERIOR - BFE
T: +351 1 322 65 79
FAX: +351 1 322 69 50

· BANCO CISF DIREAO BANCA DE INVESTIMENTOS ATLANTICO
T: +351 1 721 84 00
FAX: +351 1727 31 65

· FUNDO PARA A COOPERAO ECONOMICA - FCE
T.: +351 1 317 73 00
FAX: +351 1 315 85 43

· INVESTIMENTOS, COMERCIO E TURISMO DE PORTUGAL - ICEP GABINETE DAS ORGANIZAES MULTILATERAIS E PARCERIAS - GOMP
T: +351 1 793 01 03/44 20
FAX: +351 1 794 08 26/795 09 65

UNITED KINGDOM

· COMMONWEALTH DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION - CDC BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT DEPT
T.: +44 171 828 44 88
FAX: +44 171 828 65 05

· DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY - DTI
T: +44 171 215 44 48
FAX: +44 171 215 44 06

SWEDEN

· ALMI
T: +46 920 37 907
FAX: +46 920 60 922

· SWEDISH INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CO-OPERATION AGENCY - SIDA
T.: +46 8 698 50 00
FAX; +468249290

· SWEDFUND INTERNATIONAL AB
T.: +46 8 725 94 00
FAX: +468203093

These lists of the CDI’s ACP and European Union networks, published in 1997, are regularly updated. If you would like to receive the most recent lists, together with the names and references of the people to contact, please send your request to:

CDI
Avenue Herrmann Debroux 52, B-1160 Brussels, Belgium
Tel.: +32 2 679 1811
FAX.: +32 2 675 26 03
E-mail: director@cdi.be
Website: www.cdi.be

BACK COVER

OTHER TITLES

“Technologies series”

· 1 - Briquetting of vegetal residues

· 2 - Valorisation of phosphate in Africa

Volume 1: phosphate fertiliser production
Volume 2: phosphoric acid production

· 3 - Soap production

· 4 - Paint production

· 5 - Compressed earth blocks: production equipment

· 6 - Flexible polyurethane foam: discontinuous process

· 7 - The intensive poultry farming industry in the Sahelian zone

· 8 - Sand and Aggregates: production equipment

· 9 - Small Bakeries and the valorisation of local cereals in ACP countries

· 10 - Packaging of fruit juices and non carbonated fruit drinks

· 11 - Compressed Earth Blocks - Standards

· 12 - Tilapia Farming

· 13 - Technical guide for SMEs in the dairy industry

“Contracts and partnerships series”

· 1 - Purchasing industrial equipment

· 2 - Setting up in ACP countries

· 3 - ACP-EU: Guide to partnership in Industry

“Tax and business series”

· 1 - Zimbabwe: out of print

“CDI Dossiers series”

· 1 - Lake fishing in Uganda: Nile perch

· 2 - Production of cut roses in Eastern and Southern Africa

· 3 - Processing of Tropical Fruits in the Caribbean countries

· 4 - The development of semi-industrial fisheries in Mozambique

· 5 - Concrete components - sector study in Ecowas countries

“Project evaluation and financing series”

· 1 - Financial resources for industrial projects in ACP countries

· 2 - FINAN Manual

· 3 - Facilities and instruments for industrial cooperation

“Export development series”

· 1 - Exporting sea products

“Forum series”

· 1 - The Agro-food Sector in Western Africa -1995

· 2 - Construction Materials in Central Africa - 1995

· 3 - European Union - West and Central Africa - Mining Forum - 1998 (CD-ROM)a