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close this bookTraditional Food Plants of Kenya (National Museum of Kenya, 1999, 288 p.)
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View the documentAcacia drepanolobium Sjöstedt
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View the documentAcokanthera schimperi (A. DC.) Schweinf.
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View the documentAmaranthus blitum L.*
View the documentAmaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.*
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View the documentAmaranthus spinosus L.*
View the documentAnnona senegalensis Pers. ssp. senegalensis
View the documentAntidesma venosum Tul.
View the documentAsystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anders.
View the documentAsystasia mysorensis (Roth) T. Anders.
View the documentAzanza garckeana (F. Hoffm.) Exell & Hillcoat
View the documentBalanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.
View the documentBalanites pedicellaris Mildbr. & Schlecht.
View the documentBalanites rotundifolia (Van Tiegh.) Blatter
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View the documentBridelia taitensis Vatke & Pax
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View the documentCitrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.
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View the documentCoccinia grandis (L.) Voigt
View the documentCoffea arabica L.
View the documentCommelina africana L.
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View the documentCorchorus olitorius L.
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View the documentCrotalaria brevidens Benth.
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View the documentCucumis dipsaceus Spach
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View the documentDactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd.
View the documentDactyloctenium giganteum Fischer & Schweick.
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View the documentDialium orientale Bak. f.
View the documentDigera muricata (L.) Mart.
View the documentDioscorea bulbifera L.
View the documentDioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax
View the documentDioscorea minutiflora Engl.
View the documentDiospyros mespiliformis A. DC.
View the documentDobera glabra (Forssk.) Poir.
View the documentDovyalis abyssinica (A. Rich.) Warb.
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View the documentEleusine coracana Gaertn.
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View the documentFicus sycomorus L.
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View the documentFlacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
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View the documentIpomoea aquatica Forssk.
View the documentIpomoea lapathifolia Hall. f.
View the documentIpomoea longituba Hall. f.
View the documentIpomoea mombassana Vatke
View the documentIpomoea oenotherae (Vatke) Hall. f.
View the documentKedrostis pseudogijef (Gilg) C. Jeffrey
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View the documentLablab purpureus (L.) Sweet
View the documentLagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley
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View the documentLandolphia kirkii Dyer
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View the documentMeyna tetraphylla (Hiern) Robyns
View the documentMimusops fruticosa Bojer
View the documentMimusops kummel A. DC.
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View the documentMoringa oleifera Lam.
View the documentMyrianthus holstii Engl.
View the documentNymphaea nouchali Burm. f. var. caerulea (Savigny) Verdc.
View the documentOxygonum sinuatum (Meisn.) Dammer
View the documentPachystigma schumannianum (Robyns) Bridson & Verdc.
View the documentPappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh.
View the documentParinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth.
View the documentPennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.
View the documentPhoenix reclinata Jacq.
View the documentPiliostigma thonningii (Schum.) Milne-Redh.
View the documentPortulaca oleracea L.
View the documentRhus natalensis Krauss
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View the documentRubus apetalus Poir.
View the documentRubus pinnatus Willd.
View the documentRubus volkensii Engl.
View the documentRumex usambarensis (Damm.) Damm.
View the documentSaba comorensis (Bojer) Pichon
View the documentSalacia madagascariensis (Lam.) DC.
View the documentSalvadora persica L.
View the documentSclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst.
View the documentScutia myrtina (Burm. f.) Kurz
View the documentSesamum calycinum Welw.
View the documentSesamum orientale L.
View the documentSolanum nigrum L.
View the documentSorghum bicolor (L.) Moench
View the documentSorindeia madagascariensis DC.
View the documentStathmostelma propinquum (N. E. Br) Schltr.
View the documentStrychnos henningsii Gilg
View the documentStrychnos madagascariensis Poir.
View the documentStrychnos spinosa Lam.
View the documentSyzygium cordatum Krauss
View the documentSyzygium guineense (Willd.) DC.
View the documentTamarindus indica L.
View the documentThylachium thomasii Gilg
View the documentTylosema fassoglense (Schweinf.) Torre and Hillc.
View the documentUrtica massaica Mildbr.
View the documentUvaria acuminata Oliv.
View the documentUvaria scheffleri Diels.
View the documentVangueria apiculata K. Schum.
View the documentVangueria infausta Burch. ssp. rotundata (Robyns) Verdc.
View the documentVangueria madagascariensis Gmel.
View the documentVangueria volkensii K. Schum. var. volkensii
View the documentVatovaea pseudolablab (Harms) J. B. Gillett
View the documentVernonia cinerea Less.
View the documentVigna friesiorum Harms var. angustifolia Verdc.
View the documentVigna membranacea A. Rich.
View the documentVigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.
View the documentVigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.
View the documentVitex doniana Sweet
View the documentVitex ferruginea Schum. & Thonn.
View the documentVitex mombassae Vatke
View the documentVitex payos (Lour.) Merr.
View the documentXimenia americana L
View the documentZanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. var. chalybeum
View the documentZiziphus abyssinica A. Rich.
View the documentZiziphus mauritiana Lam.
View the documentZiziphus mucronata Willd.
View the documentTermitomyces-mushrooms (edible fungi)

Hyphaene compressa H. Wendl.

Palmae (Arecaceae)

Borana: qoone, kone, meeti Chonyi: mkoma Daasanach: kulidhe Digo: mkoma, mkoma lume English: doum palm Gabra: meetti Giriama: mkoma Ilchamus: lparruai, lparrua Kamba: mukoma, ilala (Mbitini, Kitui) Kambe: mkoma Malakote: mokoma, mezi (young) Mbeere: irara (Mavuria) Orma: kone, meti (young) Pokot: takuyua, takaiw'a, takayua Rendille: gey-i-khooona, baar Samburu: lparwai, nkujit-ae-nkeok Sanya: auwaki Somali: baar, qoona (fruit), dabell (young. Tana River) Swahili: mkoma, mkoche, mlala, mnyaa, muaa Taveta: irara Tharaka: muruguyu Turkana: eeng'ol, eng'ol

Description: A branched or unbranched usually multi-stemmed palm tree up to 15 m high. Trunk grey. Leaves and petiole up to 2 m long. Petiole semicircular in cross-section, edges armed with sharp black spines. Leaf lamina up to 0.8 m long, spreading, with numerous longitudinal folds and segmented in the upper (third) part into up to 60 segments. FLOWERS: Borne on long inflorescences to 1.5 m. FRUITS: Young fruit dark red or maroon. Mature fruit to 8 cm long, yellow to red, glossy, smooth with markings, laterally compressed on 2 sides.

Ecology: Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, and south to Mozambique. In Kenya along the Kerio and Turkwel Rivers and at Lokori, Lodwar, Kwale, Kilifi and Malindi. In northern Kenya along rivers and all along the coast, 0-1,400 m. Sandy coastal lowlands, places with a high water-table, along seasonal watercourses, open sandy flood plains. Often forming pure stands. Much affected by bushes and taller trees. Alluvial, deep sand. Rainfall: 200-900 mm. Zones: I-III (coastal)-VII (riverine).

Uses: FOOD: The brown fibrous pulp of mature fruit eaten raw (+++). As with the coconut, the juice in immature fruits is drunk (Turkana, Pokot), also used in beer making. The fruit's outer coat (epicarp) is peeled, pulp is sliced off the stony "seed" (endocarp), sun-dried, ground, mixed with blood to a brown, sticky, fibrous mixture (lokot) and eaten or sold in markets (Turkana). Young germinating seedling is dug up and embryo eaten (Turkana).

MEDICINAL: Fruit pulp eaten for worms (Giriama).

OTHER: Leaves used for making baskets, brooms, mats, hats, ropes, handbags, and in thatching (Turkana, Somali (Mandera), Boran, Gabra), sewing milk containers (Daasanach). Leaf rachis used as a stirrer for melted fat (Daasanach). Trunks strong, durable and used as poles in fencing (Turkana, Somali), in house construction, as fuelwood (Turkana, Somali, Boran, Gabra) and when bound together they make good fishing rafts (Turkana, El Molo). Hard fruit endocarp used as fuelwood. Roots are a source of dye used in the basketry industry (Turkana). Leaves may also be dyed black by soaking for a week in lorimoch, a herb, usually found in association with Salvadora persica roots.


Figure


Figure

COMMERCIAL: The fruit and its products are sold in Lodwar market. Items made from the leaves (baskets, brooms, mats, etc.) are sold throughout the country. Fibre sold in Mbeere (Ishiara). The endocarps are sold to the Kamba as snuff containers. A very important tree palm in Turkana district.

Management: Propagated by seed (endocarp) with pulp removed. Preferably it should be scarified to hasten germination, which, under normal conditions, may take several months to a year. Preferably plant deep in moist sand.

Season: Fruits in all seasons but mainly July-November in Turkana.

Status: May be locally very common but over-exploited in some areas.

Remarks: Fruit pulp is also used as food in the Sudan and Egypt.


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Figure