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close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 5: Income-Generating Programmes (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 127 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFOREWORD
View the documentINTRODUCTION
View the documentChapter 1: Rationale and Principles
View the documentChapter 2: Programme Framework
View the documentChapter 3: Types of Programmes
View the documentChapter 4: Organization and Delivery System
View the documentChapter 5: Resources for Income Generating Activities
View the documentChapter 6: Personnel and Their Development
View the documentChapter 7: Monitoring and Evaluation
View the documentChapter 8: Issues and Prospects
Open this folder and view contentsANNEXES
View the documentBACK COVER

Chapter 2: Programme Framework

A. Introduction

At present many Member States in Asia and the Pacific offer several kinds of income generating programmes with many a target group in mind. Though the main aim is to raise the level of income of the participants, most programmes generally end up with skill development. They are conducted by many types of agencies in an ad hoc and poorly coordinated manner. Frequently there is overlap, and sometimes important needs are ignored.

It must be recognized that an IGP, as one of the distinct types of continuing education, is not an isolated programme or activity offered in a particular vocation or occupation. It covers a whole range of courses offered and services extended to enable all sections of society to continuously update and upgrade their competencies for the purpose of enlarging and enriching their sources of income and quality of life. IGPs go beyond offering courses for skills development. They extend to equipping participants with managerial and enterprise skills such that they could use the facilities and services made available by the community and government to engage in a variety of gainful income generating activities.

B. A Framework for IGPs

In view of the circumstances stated above, it is necessary to develop a systematic approach for bringing greater effectiveness in the planning, programming, implementation and evaluation of IGPs. A possible programme framework which is action-oriented is presented here for the use of planners, managers and other implementors of IGPs. The framework provides a general model for nation-wide action at one level, and the development of specific activities such as projects and courses at the other. The framework as illustrated in Figure 2.1, has the following components:

- Progression from low level development through intermediate stages to higher levels of development;

- Progression measured against a series of socio-economic and educational indicators;

- Specific programmes sufficiently flexible to cater to the needs of a variety of people at defined levels of income;

- Interventions by means of income-generating projects and activities;

- An anticipated outcome which raises overall levels of income and improves qualify of life.

Each of these components is presented in details in the following sections


Figure 2.1: A Framework for Income-Generating Programmes

C. Levels of Development

It is a fact that the Member States are in different stages of development from low to high. This does not imply that their level of development is uniformly low or high with respect to all communities and geographical locations. There exist high levels of development in some parts of a country and among some sections of the society in the under developed and developing nations. Similarly, there are pockets of low level development even in the most developed nations. The following gives a general description of three levels of development as generalised scenarios.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - THREE LEVELS

a) LOW LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT

It is generally characterised by:

- A high percentage of people living in rural areas as small scale farmers or landless labourers;

- A great majority of people having only seasonal employment with little or no work for more than half of the time;

- Urban population comprising a considerable percentage of slum dwellers with underemployment or unemployment;

- Low percentage of literacy, especially lower percentage among the rural people and still lower percentage among women;

- A low enrolment in primary and secondary schools and a high drop out rate.

- A huge number of illiterates with a growing number of semi. neo and functional literate youth and adults;

- A predominant agriculture sector, low industrial base, chronic unemployment and low per capita income; and

- An on-going battle to overcome the problems of poverty and illiteracy.

b) MID-LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT

It is generally composed of:

- A high percentage of literacy, a higher percentage of enrolment and a low dropout rate;

- Increasing number of school leavers at primary, middle and secondary stages waiting to be absorbed in economic activities;

- Gradually decreasing engagement in agricultural related occupations with corresponding increase in manufacturing, service, small-scale and house-hold businesses;

- Growing number of job opportunities at semi-skilled and skilled levels; and

- Overall position of high rate of employment, low per capita income and poor quality of life.

c) HIGHER LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT

It is generally made up of:

- A very high percentage of literacy with a majority of people having reached the stage of autonomous learning;

- The percentage of learners, leaving before the completion of secondary and higher secondary stages on the decrease;

- Growing concentration of people in urban areas accompanied by thinning population in rural communities;

- Rapid shift from an agrarian to an industrial society;

- Rapidly decreasing engagement in agriculture related activities with corresponding increases in the service, manufacturing and high technology sectors;


- Scope for semi-skilled and skilled jobs reducing but with unemployment remaining in manageable limits.

As stated earlier, these levels of development exist in most countries, though to a varying degree. The low level development may comprise many people living below the poverty line struggling for survival and existence. The middle level development may comprise a majority of the people around the poverty line and in need of improving their income and quality of life. The higher level development may consist of a large number of people above the poverty line looking for opportunities for a better and more comfortable living.

The whole purpose of IGP must therefore be to enable people and nations to move up from one level to the other by bringing about constant improvements in their income level.

D. Interventions through IGPs

(a) Planning Aspects

Any intervention for the promotion of income, needs to be carefully planned. Three aspects need particular emphases. These are:

i) policy support;
ii) information systems; and
iii) mobilisation of resources.

i) Policy Support

A well defined national policy provides legitimacy to any programme. As of now, most countries have not made definite policy on continuing education in general and income generating programmes in particular. Until such a policy is made the support is to be derived from the other approved policies and programmes in related sectors and areas:

Most countries are giving a high priority to modernisation and industrialisation as part of their overall plans to upgrade quality of life. Towards this end, many short and long term socio-economic programmes have been launched. Important among them include:

Integrated rural development; development of youth and women; poverty alleviation schemes; non-formal education and lifelong education. In all these initiatives, human resource development is recognized as a vital component. The central objective of IGP which is also to develop human resources for income generation fits very well into such programmes.

It is essential that IGP planners and implementers should:

- study the related policies, plans and programmes and look for policy, administrative and financial support emanating from them for promotion of IGPs;

- have extensive consultations and agreements with concerned government agencies, non-government organisations, confederations of industry, business and commerce, trade unions and the like to ensure their support for and involvement in IGPs;

- create awareness of the importance of IGPs and build pressure for recognition as a national priority;

- prevail upon concerned agencies to make regulations requiring the people to posses professional competence in the form of a license for practising a trade or business. This single step alone would raise the need, demand and credibility of IGPs.

ii) Information System

For effective organization of IGPs, accurate, reliable and complete information is required on.

- dynamically changing market trends, job patterns and workforce requirements sector-wise, category-wise, competency-wise and local-specific;

- varying characteristics of target groups in terms of socio-economic conditions, educational background, employment and income-generation needs;

- the existing resources (physical, fiscal and human) that may be optimally mobilised and profitably used for IGPs.

Creation of a self-contained Management Information System (MIS) exclusively for this purpose is expensive and time consuming. In many cases it may not be accepted. The best way of doing it is to collaborate with those agencies who have already established an MIS for their own and other national purposes. Where an MIS does not exist and cannot be developed, data can be collected from the following sources, processed and classified to meet the needs of IGPs:

- Socio-economic surveys conducted by sectoral government departments at unit levels (village/block).

- Registrations made at employment exchanges.

- Census reports and classified publications;

- Research studies and reports published by government, industry and business organisations.

iii) Resource Mobilisation

It is essential to ensure that IGPs should not suffer from resource constraints resulting in poor quality of processes and outputs. Some simple directives will go a long way in the effective mobilisation of resources. These could be:

- to permit educational institutes and other government departments make available their premises, equipment and personnel for IGPs during spare time;

- to allow utilisation of resources and facilities created for IGPs for undertaking job, repair and maintenance work with a provision for recycling the sale proceeds for creation of additional facilities;

- to permit acceptance of donations, loans, and voluntary services from interested parties within or outside the country with regulations where necessary;

- to encourage NGOs to organize IGPs on a wider scale;

- to set norms and standards on optimal requirements of physical and human resources so that wastage could be avoided;

- to create networks and linkages among the various agencies involved in IGPs for minimizing avoidable duplication and overlapping.

(b) Programming Aspects

The programming aspects mainly consist of

i) selecting target groups and IGPs, and
ii) specifying the curriculum.

i) Selecting target groups and IGPs

IGPs are at an early stage of development in many countries of the Region. It is not possible to cater to the needs of all the target groups. Priority should be given to the target groups in low and middle level of development. Such target groups include the following:

- Rural farmers and labourers living below subsistence level seeking opportunities for additional income.

- Rural women in need of supplementary income for supporting their families.

- Unemployed and underemployed youth in slum and semi-urban areas suffering from frustration and unrest.

- Unemployed youth in urban areas looking for opportunities to join the main stream of the economy.

IGPs should be decided on the basis of:

- Manpower requirements in the world of work and suitability of the target groups in the context of national priority plans and programmes.

- Implementability of the programmes with respect to available physical, material and human resources.

- Scope for utilization of acquired skills and competencies with immediate effect.

There is scope for IGPs in every conceivable technical, vocational and occupational area. The list is endless. They could be in areas as diverse as mechanical, electrical, construction, office management, garments, printing, service, paramedical, agriculture, livestock, craft and small business areas.

ii) Specifying the Curriculum

As in all curriculum development, three areas need to be addressed:

i) goals;
ii) content, and
iii) resources and methods.

· Goals: IGPs have several objectives within the overall context of income generation. It is necessary to state the objectives in clear terms to ensure focus and direction during implementation. Some important objectives are:

- To enhance the productivity of people already employed in some vocation or other.

- To develop salable skills and competencies for immediate job employment.

- To develop trade and enterprise skills for self-employment either singly or in partnership with others.

- To upgrade skills for reemployment in upcoming areas as a result of changes in technology, industry and the world of work.

· Content: To provide relevant training, content should be selected on the basis of:

- Analysis of a particular job and its duties, tasks, functions, and responsibilities;

- Identification of the relevant components of knowledge, skills, competencies and attitudes arising out of the job analysis:

- Sequencing the above components into viable and implementable units of learning.

The major components of IGPs may include:

- A bridge course to upgrade literacy and to promote social and technological awareness.

- Skill development comprising:

· Basic skills commonly required
· Trade skills at proficiency level
· On-site training for real-life situations
· Related trade theory to provide scientific understandings

- Entrepreneurial development comprising:

· Enterprise skills
· Book keeping skills
· Marketing skills
· Money saving skills
· Resources: The IGP curriculum must also involve the following:

- Course duration arrived at on the basis of time allocation required for each unit of learning.

- Personnel requirements (instructors, training managers) specifying the levels of professional competence.

- Quality and quantity of equipment needed for providing practical Paining.

- Methods, media and materials to be used with emphasis on learning by doing.

- Locations for on-site training.

- Assessment procedures to be followed during and at the end of courses.

- Certification to be awarded.

(c) Implementation Aspects

Implementation is the most important and difficult area. The success of IGPs very much depends on how well they are implemented. It is mainly associated with delivery systems, development and application of learning methods, media and materials, utilisation of resources and facilities, and training and development of implementers. These aspects are briefly outlined here and they are further dealt with in later chapters.

i) Delivery Systems

The delivery systems should be of a broad outreach type to cater for people living in remote, distant, hinterland, coastal and mountain areas. They should relate to learning styles, pace and time. It is therefore necessary to adopt a multiple approach such as:

- mobile training units reinforced by mass media through radio and T.V. as well as self-contained learning modules;

- multi-media approach comprising learning modules supplemented by exhibits, models, folk media, drama, audio and video cassettes, slides and films;

- Direct contact sessions, demonstrations, study visits, shop floor training, on-site training, apprenticeship training as well as modules for self-learning.

More details on the organization and delivery of IGPs are given in Chapter Four.

ii) Facilities Utilization

Most often, the entire community is the biggest facility, but there is a need to identify those aspects which are directly relevant to the kind of training to be undertaken. It is therefore necessary to have an inventory of these facilities so that they can be improved and upgraded for maximum use. These facilities are particularly useful for people in community based learning centres which are managed by the people themselves under the leadership of local government units.

Similarly locally available facilities in technical and vocational schools, secondary schools, manpower development centres, in-plant training centres in industries and private educational institutions should be tapped for IGPs. There is therefore a need to execute a «Memorandum of Agreement» with the concerned agencies and groups, such that these facilities and services can profitably be shared for common and public interest. Chapters Four and Five deal with these aspects in greater detail.

iii) Learning Materials Development

Learning materials, both print and non-print, such as manuals, guides, models, charts, and audio and video media constitute the software required in programme implementation. They are very important because they help participants learn easier and faster as independent learners. Mechanisms for their production, validation and distribution must be developed by establishing linkages with agencies involved in such activities. For further details see Chapter Five.

iv) Training of Implementators

It is always necessary that personnel involved in any educational programme should be properly oriented and professionally developed, so that they can carry out their functions more effectively. The implementators of IGPs comprising planners, supervisors, programmers, content specialists, curriculum writers, material developers, guidance counsellors, shop owners and the like must be trained in the respective areas of their operation. Networks and linkages must therefore be developed with the existing training institutions such as craftsmen training institutes, teacher training institutes, advanced training institutes, and management training institutions. Chapter Six gives more details on the training of IGP personnel.

(d) Evaluation Aspects

Evaluation of IGPs continuously as well as at the end of each stage is necessary for remedial correction, enrichment and expansion. Relevancy of the programmes, objectives, training content, learning strategies, assessment procedures vis-is the needs of the target groups in each area and applicability of the skills acquired to the field situations and the benefits accrued must be tested from time to time. Utilization of the infrastructure, both human and physical, has to be continuously evaluated. The performance of the teachers and the participants, the improvements made in income generation and satisfaction of the community must be ascertained to assess the success of implementation of IGPs. Further details are covered in Chapter Seven.

(e) Summary of Interventions

In short, development of an income generation programme consists of the following steps:

STEP 1:

Derive policy support from the on-going socio-economic and educational programmes and projects.

STEP 2:

Study the dynamically changing market and employment trends in the given locality.

STEP 3:

Analyse the socio-economic and educational background of the people in that locality.

STEP 4:

Select an IGP activity or project which meets manpower demands and the needs of the people in the best possible manner.

STEP 5:

Develop the curriculum methodically defining the objectives and content in action terms.

STEP 6:

Develop appropriate learning strategies and ensure availability of physical, material and human resources.

STEP 7:

Establish linkages with local community organizations to share facilities and resources.

STEP 8:

Monitor and evaluate activities at every stage of implementation.

STEP 9:

Assess quality and relevance on the basis of applicability of skills to local situations for income generation.

STEP 10:

Provide follow-up services and support towards inducting the participants into gainful wage or self-employment.

E. IGPs Specific to Levels of Development

The Programme Framework described above (Section 2) is general in nature. It provides direction to develop an appropriate framework specific to a given situation. Based on this, setting up IGPs and their conduct relevant to the three levels of development is described below in action terms followed by an illustrative case study for each level of development.

(a) IGPs in Low Level Development

- Give preference to subsistence farmers, women, unemployed youth as they are deprived, disadvantaged and poor.

- Select IGPs related to agriculture, livestock, rural craft, food processing and agrobusiness for rural people.

- Select IGPs related to construction, services, repair and maintenance, and smallscale industry for people in urban and semi-urban areas.

- Focus on self-employment particularly in rural areas and wage employment in urban areas as the main objectives in consideration of the low level of education of participants.

- Organize the people with identical needs into viable groups for each kind of IGP under the guidance of local leadership.

- Decide the training content in consultation with the participants, instructors, employers, and community leaders.

- Give emphasis to practical training and skill development, including management and marketing skills.

- Conduct the IGP in community based learning centres or in the local schools technical and vocational institutions.

- Use local people as instructors as far as possible.

- Encourage methods such as demonstration and learning-by-doing approaches.

- Use local farms, road-side workshops and the like for on-site training.

- Provide follow-up services for gainful employment.

- Encourage the rural participants to form cooperatives for sharing common and costly facilities.

AN ILLUSTRATIVE CASE STUDY - TRAINING OF RURAL YOUTH FOR SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Training of Rural Youth for Self-employment (TRYSEM) was launched as a centrally sponsored scheme by the Government of a country in southern Asia under the Department of Rural Development.

The main objective of TRYSEM is to provide technical and entrepreneurial skills to rural and semi-urban youth to enable them to take up self or wage employment in the broad fields of agriculture, industry, services and business activities.
The target group mostly comprises rural and semi-urban youth and women in the age group of 18-25 who have received education mostly under literacy development programmes.

The selection of vocations is done by the District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) in consultation with district level officers of different departments keeping in mind the demand for skills, goods and services in the nearby areas.

The training programmes are conducted at the local technical, vocational and training centres of various public and private organisations making use of their buildings, equipment and facilities. In addition, part-time instructors and reputed master craftsmen are also utilized.

The training includes job skills as well as managerial and entrepreneurial skills required for employment at semi-skilled levels. The course duration is around six months. Stipend is paid to the trainees. A Certificate is awarded by the training institute on the basis of proficiency demonstrated in a performance test at the close of training.

A tool kit is given to the trainees free of charge. Fifty percent of the sale proceeds of the articles produced during the training period is given to the trainees. A loan is also arranged for engaging in self or co-employment activities. The central and provincial governments share the expenditure on 50:50 basis.

The scheme is very popular and has benefited several thousands of trainees to secure either self-employment or wage employment.

Analysis of the Case Study

- Policy support was derived from an on-going integrated rural development scheme.

- Preference was given to rural and semi-urban youth and women because they constituted a very high percentage of population and were below the poverty line.

- The main aim was to develop the participants for self-employment in the vocational areas practised locally.

- Training focus was on development of practical skills.

- Locally available physical, material and human resources were utilized.

- Follow-up facilities and service were provided to install participants in gainful employment.

(b) IGPs in Mid-Level Development

- Concentrate on school leavers, drop-outs and unemployed youth.

- Select IGPs in mechanical, electrical, construction, automotive, service areas and trades.

- Orient IGPs towards wage employment at semi-skilled and skilled level and also self-employment in the case of motivated groups

- Publicize the IGPs through brochures, leaflets, newspapers.

- Decide the training content in consultation with prospective employers, market leaders, business groups, and instructors.

- Conduct IGPs in local technical and vocational institutes, secondary schools and other existing training centres.

- Draw the instructors from local industry, business, practising master craftsmen, technical and vocational institutes.

- Mobilize the support of the local community for on-site training.

- Adopt print and non-print media supported by field visits and in-plant training.

- Provide follow-up services for placement in the local employment market.

AN ILLUSTRATIVE CASE STUDY - SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME FOR SCHOOL LEAVERS

The Non-formal Education branch of the Ministry of Education, in a South East Asian country, among its other programmes and activities, offers a variety of courses for providing employable skills to school leavers.

School leavers in the age group of 15-24 years with about eight years of schooling are admitted to these courses. The students are selected from among the many applicants by a selection team on the basis of performance in an interview and according to educational background.

The courses are generally conducted in the Technical Units attached to formal schools. Additional facilities, equipment and instructors are provided on the basis of number and nature of the courses. The principal of the school, NFE field officer and Regional Director provide overall supervision, direction, control and coordination to ensure conduct of the courses with efficiency and effectiveness.

Courses are conducted in more than 600 Training Units admitting over 20,000 youth per year to 55 different skills. The duration of the courses ranges from 6 to 8 months with about 14 three hour sessions per month. The mad areas which these courses are offered include agriculture, animal husbandry, traditional crafts, small-scale industries, construction and services.

The curriculum and instructional guidelines are prepared by the NFE Instructional Materials Development Unit of the Ministry with the assistance of selected instructors and resource persons. The Unit also develops course guides and media materials for use by the students and instructors. The performance of the students is regularly evaluated and those successfully completing the course are awarded a certificate under the seal of the Regional Director of Education.

The instructors are recruited on the basis of their proficiency the skill. They are paid remuneration on an hourly basis. The principal of the school is also paid some remuneration for assuming the responsibility for running the Technical Unit located in his or her school.

Regional Educational officers and the NFE branch of the Ministry of Education arrange for training of principals, instructors and others concerned by providing short courses, workshops and seminars.

These courses are very practical in nature providing marketable skills for gainful employment.

Analysis of the Case Study

- Policy support was derived from an on-going NFE scheme

- Preference was given to school leavers because of high percentage of literacy in the country and high unemployment among school leavers.

- Training areas were selected keeping in view the scope for employment. and the education level of the participants.

- Adequacy of the resources required for skill development at desired levels was ensured.

- Locally available physical, material all human resources were mobilised.

- Resource materials were developed by all concerned on professional lines.

- Implementers of the course were trained.

- Progress of the course and achievement of participants were assessed.

- An attempt was made to make the programmes cost-effective and relevant to the local situation.

(c) IGPs in Higher Level of Development

· Most people in this stage are educationally developed and capable of self or autonomous learning.

· Most people are aware of their development needs for continuous improvement of their income.

· The people employed in organized sectors have enough opportunities for periodical upgrading of their skills and competencies.

· There exist many private organisations offering several kinds of job oriented programmes on commercial lines.

· IGPs are required for job seekers, job upgraders, job transferees and the self-employed.

· IGPs in areas like electronics, office automation, fashion design, manufacturing and services are most relevant and appropriate.

· Part-time, week-end IGPs are more convenient;

· Self-learning modules supported by audio and video packages are preferred.

· Technical and vocational institutes, universities, and other training centres of the relevant sectoral government departments and industries serve as the best places of learning.

· Experienced professionals from industry, business and educational institutions would be helpful as resource persons for training and for development of curriculum and learning materials.

AN ILLUSTRATIVE CASE STUDY - WOMEN’S JOB TRAINING CENTRE

A non-government organisation, in a particular country of Northern Asia, is mainly devoted to lifelong education and social development of women comprising youth, house-wives and senior citizens. The Centre was built mostly from donations from members and voluntary workers with a little support from the government.

The centre offers training programmes in areas like precision and measuring instruments, electronics, office automation, jewelry crafts, mechanical design, and fashion design. Some of the courses offered in these areas include Architectural Crafts, Esthetics, Precious Metal Working, Jewelry Design, Cooking, Dry Cleaning, Curtain Making, Wall Papering, Salesmanship, Make-up Artistry, Boiler Maintenance, Photo Studio Technology, Business Management.

Women of the age group 18-22 with about 11 years of schooling are admitted to these courses. The duration of the courses is 6 months, 5 days a week from 9:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

The curriculum is prepared in consultation with instructors drawn from concerned businesses and enterprises on a part-time basis. The training goes beyond the skill development by promoting opportunities for immediate employment without any feeling of gender discrimination.

The centre has a section for providing guidance and counselling and placement of graduates for wage or self-employment. The sale proceeds of the goods and services produced by the Centre and the fees collected from the participants at subsidised rate support it to some extent.

There is no problem of employment as the graduates are in great demand due to the high reputation of the Centre and selection of the programmes on the basis of market needs and the educational background of the participants.

Analysis of the Case Study

- The programme was for post-secondary school leavers because of the high literacy rate in the country with negligible drop-outs below that stage.

- The participants joined the programme not because of want of other opportunities for a job, but because they wanted better paid employment.

- The course selection in modern areas was due to fast developing services and an industry oriented economy.

- A reasonable fee was charged because the participants could afford to pay, and the purpose of their enrolment was for earning higher levels of income.

- The course was set up and conducted on professional lines as expected in this given stage of development.

There are many other successful case studies in the Asia and Pacific Region.

Some of them are given in the Annex 1 at the end of this Volume.